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BRIGHAM YOUNG 
UNIVERSITY 



LAW LIBRARY 



PROVO, UTAH 84602 



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Collection 
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U.S. Ethnology Bureau reports 



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57th Congress, / HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ) Document 

2<1 Session. \ \ No. 483. 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1899-19 00 



BY 



J. W. POWELL 

DIRECTOR 




\VA SIM NGTON 

G O V E R N M V. N T P R INTlNG P F I E 

1 903 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, July 1, 1900. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit my Twenty -first 
Annual Report as Director of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. 

The preliminary portion comprises an account of the 
operations of the Bureau during the fiscal year; the 
remainder consists of two memoirs on anthropologic sub - 
jects, prepared by assistants, which illustrate the methods 
and results of the work of the Bureau. 

Allow me to express my appreciation of your constant 
aid and your support in the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, your obedient servant, 




Director, 

Honorable S. P. Langley, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



1 1 j 



CONTENTS 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

Page. 

Field research and exploration (plate i) x 

Office research xin 

Work in esthetology xin 

W< >rk in technology xvi 

Work in sociology xx 

Work in philology xxiii 

Work in sophiology xxvn 

Work in descriptive ethnology xxxn 

Publication xxxn 

Library xxxn 

Collections xxxni 

Property xxxiv 

Necrology xxxv 

Frank Hamilton Cushing xxxv 

Elliott Coues xxxvni 

Walter J. Hoffman xxxvni 

Financial statement xxxix 

Accompanying papers xl 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (plates 

ii-lxiii) 3 

Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt (plates lxiv-lxix) 127 

v 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



VII 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



By J. W. Powell, Director 



Ethnological researches have been conducted during 
the year ending June 30, 1900, in accordance with the 
act of Congress making provision "for continuing 
researches relating to the American Indians, under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution,'' approved 
March 3, 1899. 

The work of the year was carried forward in accord- 
ance with a formal plan of operations submitted on May 
13, 1899, and approved by the Secretary under date of 
June 16, 1899. 

The field operations of the regular corps extended into 
Arizona, California, Cuba, Indian Territory, Jamaica, 
Maine, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Nova Scotia, 
Oklahoma, Ontario, and Wisconsin, and operations were 
conducted by special agents in Alaska, Argentina, and 
Porto Rico. The office work comprised the collection 
and preparation of material from most of the States and 
Territories, as well as from various other parts of the 
western hemisphere. 

As during previous years, the researches have been 
carried forward in accordance with a scientific system 
developed largely in this Bureau. This system is out- 
lined in the classification adopted in previous reports and 
continued in the present one. 

IX 



X BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

FIELD RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION 

The Director, aided by Mr Frank Hamilton Gushing, 
spent the earlier months of the fiscal year in an inves- 
tigation of the middens and tumuli representing the 
work of the aborigines in northeastern United States, 
especially in Maine. A considerable number of both 
classes of accumulations were excavated, with instructive 
results. Among the relics brought to light w^ere many of 
customary types, together with a smaller number of much 
significance, in that they represent early stages of accul- 
turation through contact with Caucasian pioneers; and 
in addition to the aboriginal and accultural artifacts, the 
explorers were rewarded by finding the remains of a 
metallic armor of European make in such associations as 
to throw light on the beginning of warfare between red 
men and white. 

Later in the year the Director, accompanied by Pro- 
fessor W. H. Holmes, of the United States National 
Museum, repaired to Cuba and Jamaica for the purpose 
of tracing lines of cultural migration between the great 
continents of the Western Hemisphere. The researches 
of the last two decades have shown clearly that the cus- 
toms of the aborigines in what is now southeastern United 
States were affected by extraneous motives and devices ; 
the phenomena have suggested importation of objects and 
ideas belonging to what is commonly styled " Caribbean 
art ' from South America by way of the Antilles, and it 
was thought desirable to seize the opportunity offered by 
recent political changes for special studies in the Antillean 
islands. Although the trip was a reconnaissance merely, 
it yielded useful data on which to base further researches, 
including a small collection for the Museum. 

A noteworthy trip was made early in the fiscal year by 
Mr F. W. Hodge, with a party of volunteer assistants 
comprising Dr Elliott Coues, of Washington, Dr George 
Parker Winship, of Providence, and Mr A. C. Vroman, 
of Pasadena. The journey was so planned as to touch 



iTVriDCT AkiMiiAi DrnnoT m i 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XI 

the less known pueblos of the plateau country and val- 
leys of New Mexico and Arizona and to obtain data 
relating to social organization, migrations, and customs, 
as well as typical photographs of individuals, habitations, 
etc. All of the existing pueblos of New Mexico were 
visited and many of the ruins. The trip yielded a large 
body of data for incorporation in the reports, and espe- 
cially in the Cyclopedia of Native Tribes. 

About the middle of September Dr J. Walker Fewkes 
proceeded to New Mexico for the purpose of completing 
his investigation of the mythology and ceremonies of the 
Hopi Indians, his trip being so timed as to permit obser- 
vation of the autumn and winter ceremonies not pre- 
viously observed by ethnologic students. He remained 
in the pueblo throughout the winter, and his studies 
proved eminently fruitful. Toward the end of March he 
repaired to Arizona for the purpose of locating aboriginal 
ruins near Little Colorado river, concerning which vague 
rumors were afloat; and this work, also, was quite suc- 
cessful, as is noted in another paragraph. 

During the early autumn Dr Albert S. Gratschet visited 
several groups of survivors of Algonquian tribes on Cape 
Breton island for the purpose of extending the studies of 
the previous year in New Brunswick; he succeeded in 
obtaining considerable linguistic material, in addition to 
other data pertaining to the northeasternmost represent- 
atives of that great Algonquian -speaking people neigh- 
boring the Eskimo on their north and extending thence 
southward more than half way across the present territory 
of the United States. 

Early in the winter Mr J. N. B. Hewitt revisited the 
remnants of several Iroquoian tribes in New York and 
Ontario and continued the collection and comparison of 
the tribal traditions. Finding the conditions favorable 
for recording some of the more noteworthy traditions, he 
spent several weeks in an Indian village near Hamilton, 
Ontario, returning to the office in April, 



XII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Toward the end of the calendar year Mr J. B. Hatcher, 
who had been operating in Patagonia and Terra del Fuego 
as a special agent of the Bureau, returned to the country 
with a considerable collection for the Museum, as well as 
a large number of photographs illustrating the physical 
characteristics, costumery, habitations, and occupations 
of the Tehuelche and Yahgan tribes. He also brought in 
an extended vocabulary collected among the natives of 
the former tribe and useful notes relating to the socfal 
organization and other characteristics of the two tribes. 

Toward the end of the fiscal year Miss Alice C. Fletcher 
was commissioned as a special agent to visit Indian Ter- 
ritory and Oklahoma for the purpose of obtaining certain 
esoteric rituals of the Pawnee tribe. Her w r ork w^as 
notably successful, as is indicated in other paragraphs. 

Dr Willis E. Everette remained in Alaska throughout 
the fiscal year, pursuing his vocation as a mining engi- 
neer, but incidentally collecting, for the use of the Bureau, 
linguistic and other data pertaining to the native tribes. 

About the beginning of the fiscal year Dr Robert Stein, 
formerly of the United States Geological Survey, accom- 
panied a Peary expedition northward as far as Elsmere- 
land, where he planned to spend the winter in geographic 
and related researches. He carried instructions from the 
Bureau for such archeologic and ethnologic observations 
as he might be able to make, together with photographic 
apparatus and materials needed in the work. Elsmereland 
is not known to be now inhabited nor to have been 
inhabited in the past by the aborigines, but the situation 
of the island is such as to indicate that it was probably 
occupied at least temporarily by Eskimauan tribes in 
some of the migrations attested by their wide distribu- 
tion ; hence it is thought probable that archeologic work 
on the island may throw light on the early history of this 
widely dispersed orarian people. A brief report of prog- 
ress was received after the close of the fiscal year. 

During the autumn Mr Robert T. Hill, of the United 
States Geological Survey, visited Porto Rico in the inter- 
ests of that Bureau and of the Department of Agriculture ; 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XIII 

and the opportunity was seized to arrange for obtaining 
through his cooperation such photographs and other data 
of ethnologic character as he might be able to discover in 
connection with his other duties. The arrangement 
yielded material of value. 

OFFICE RESEARCH 

Work in Esthetology 

In the course of a reconnaissance of the Greater Antilles, 
the Director and Professor Holmes enjoyed moderate 
opportunities for observing (chiefly in local collections) 
artifacts of the class commonly regarded as displaying 
traces of Caribbean influence; and while neither time 
nor opportunity permitted exhaustive study, a few inter- 
esting generalizations were made. . One of these relates to 
the relative abundance of esthetic and industrial motives 
among those artifacts displaying traces of a southern 
influence. When the objects and special features were 
compared with those from Florida and other portions of 
southern United States, it was noted that the presum- 
ably imported or accultural features are predominantly 
esthetic, and only subordinately of technical or industrial 
character — that is, it would appear from the collections 
that esthetic motives travel more freely, or are inter- 
changed more readily, than purely utilitarian motives 
among primitive peoples. The relation is of course com- 
plicated by the relative abundance of fiducial or other 
sophic motives, which often blend with both esthetic and 
industrial motives in puzzling fashion ; but even after 
these motives are weighed or eliminated, the general 
relation remains unchanged. The generalization promises 
to be of service as a guide in the study of that affiliation 
of tribes, or integration of peoples, which complicates 
every ethnologic problem. The Director's inquiries were 
greatly facilitated by Professor Holmes' artistic training 
and his extended familiarity with both the esthetic and 
the industrial motives of aboriginal artifacts; nor could 



XIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the generalization have been made without the aid of Mr 
dishing and the opportunity of examining his remarkable 
collection of artifacts of wood and shell from the muck 
beds of western Florida, of which a considerable part is 
now in the National Museum. The details of the work 
are reserved for later reports. 

Throughout the fiscal year Mr W J McGee was occu- 
pied primarily with administrative duties as ethnologist 
in charge in the office, but partly in the preparation of 
reports on field researches of previous years. Qne of his 
subjects of study was the esthetic status of the Seri 
Indians of Tiburon island and the adjacent territory. 
The tribe is notably primitive in several respects, as has 
been indicated in previous reports, and this primitive 
character is well displayed in their meager esthetic. One 
of the conspicuous customs of the tribe is that of face- 
painting, the paint being' applied uniformly in definite 
patterns, of which nearly a dozen were observed. The 
custom is practically limited to the women, though male 
children are sometimes painted with their mothers' 
devices. On inquiry into the uses and purposes of the 
designs it was found that each pertains to and denotes a 
matronymic group, or clan, and that the more prominent 
designs, at least, are symbols of zoic tutelaries — for exam- 
ple,. Turtle, Pelican. It thus appears that the painted 
devices are primarily symbolic rather than decorative, 
though comparison of the devices used by different mem- 
bers of the same clan or by the same female at different 
times indicates that the sematic function does not stand 
in the way of minor modification or embellishment of the 
device through the exercise of a personal feeling for deco- 
ration. The investigation is of interest in that it estab- 
lishes the symbolic basis of esthetic concepts along a new 
line, and it is of even deeper interest in that it seems to 
reveal nascent notions of decoration, and thus aids to 
define the beginning of purely artistic activities. The 
symbolic devices themselves are of much significance as 
indices to the social organization on the one hand and to 
the prevailing belief of the tribe on the other hand. The 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XV 

restriction of the painted symbols to the females and the 
especially conspicuous use of them by matrons betoken 
the strength and exclusiveness of that sense of maternal 
descent which is normal to the lowest stage of culture ; 
the devices are at once blood -signs definite as the face- 
marks of gregarious animals, and clan -standards signifi- 
cant as tartan or pibroch ; and the confinement of their 
display to the recognized blood -carriers of the clan 
attests perhaps more clearly than any other phenomena 
thus far noted the strength of that semi -instinctive feel- 
ing expressed in maternal organization. In like manner, 
the representation of local tutelaries in the painted devices 
attests the intensity and dominance of that zootheistic 
faith which seems to be normal to the lowest stage of 
intellectual development. The details of the investiga- 
tion are incorporated in a memoir appended to an earlier 
report. 

In the course of his work among the Hopi Indians, Dr 
Fewkes succeeded in defining certain steps in the devel- 
opment of the drama. The ceremonies of the folk, like 
those of other primitive peoples, are primarily fiducial, 
and involve representation, or even personation, of the 
deified potencies forming the tribal pantheon. The 
motive of one of the dramatic — or rather dramaturgic — 
pieces is the growth of corn ; and the setting comprises 
realistic representations of both the maleficent and the 
beneficent agencies connected with the making of the 
crop and the development of the plant in general. The 
performance is designed primarily to invoke the favor of 
the mysteries by appropriate symbols of both being and 
action, but an ancillary, or perhaps coordinate, design of 
this ceremony is the edification (combining instruction 
and diversion) of the tribe at large. Accordingly a por- 
tion of the interior is set apart as a stage, while the greater 
portion is reserved as an auditorium. Both the mystical 
and the human powers are represented or personated by 
actors, who, with their properties, occupy the stage; and 
since that part of the mechanism connected with the 
portrayal of the mysteries is esoteric, a screen is provided 



XVI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

to conceal it and give an air of realism to the performance. 
The screen is painted with appropriate symbols tending 
to heighten the illusion to the childlike minds of the 
audience, and it is perforated to permit the passage of 
masked effigies representing the mystical potencies, which 
are operated by shamans hidden behind the screen, some- 
thing after the fashion of marionettes. The front of the 
stage is occupied by a symbolized field of corn ; it is the 
role of the symbolized potencies representing storm and 
drought to emerge from their respective apertures in the 
screen and destroy the symbolic cornfield ; but they are 
opposed in part by musical and other incantations of a 
group of shamans occupying one side of the stage, and in 
part by human actors who wrestle with and finally over- 
come the evil marionettes. The entire dramatization 
stands on a higher plane than that prevalent among most 
of the tribes of the territory of the United States, though 
lower than that reached among the Nahuatlan and Mayan 
peoples, and reveals various connecting links between 
primitive dramaturgy and theatrical representation 
proper. A specially significant feature of the perform- 
ance is the role assigned to human actors in boldly defying, 
and eventually overcoming, the powers of darkness and 
evil ; for this esthetic feature reflects a noteworthy aspect 
of industrial development. Dr Fewke's detailed descrip- 
tions, with the attendant photographs and drawings, are 
published in another part of this report. 

Work in Technology 

As has been indicated in earlier reports, the researches 
of the last decade have shown that the esthetic motives 
of primitive peoples arise in symbolism ; and, as was noted 
in one or two recent reports on the work, various indica- 
tions have been found that industrial motives similarly 
arise in symbolism connected with zootheistic faith. , The 
suggestive phase of industrial development is that in which 
teeth, horns, claws, mandibles, and other animal organs 
are used as implements or weapons in a manner imitating 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XVII 

more or less closely the natural functions of the organ- 
isms. In completing his studies of Seri technic during 
the year, Mr W J McGee has discovered definite survivals 
of this stage of industrial development. The favorite 
Seri awl is the mandible of a bird, and even when the 
material is hard wood the implement is shaped in imita- 
tion of the natural organ ; the war shield is a turtle shell 
or pelican pelt ; similarly the arrows and turtle harpoons 
of the tribe are fitted with a foreshaft usually of hard 
wood, though there are linguistic and other indications 
that the use of wood is a vestige of a former use of teeth, 
probably of the local sea lion ; while many of the manual 
operations are evidently imitative of normal movements 
of local animals, most of which hold place in the Seri 
pantheon. These features of the Seri technic throw light 
on the use of zoic motives in the decoration of primitive 
weapons, and hence permit the solution of some of the 
most puzzling problems of American archeology ; at the 
same time they serve to define a stage in industrial devel- 
opment in a manner which appears to be applicable to all 
primitive peoples. In general, the stage would seem to 
be antecedent to that defined by the chance -dominated 
use of stone, which has already been characterized as 
protolithic; it corresponds with the stage provisionally 
outlined by Cushing as prelithic ; but taking due account 
of the materials, processes, and motives characteristic of 
the stage, it may be distinguished as hylozoic, or perhaps 
better as zoomimic. Accordingly the earlier stages of 
industrial development may be defined as (1) zoomimic, 
in which the predominant implements are beast organs, 
used largely in mimicry of animal movements; (2) pro- 
tolithic, in which the prevailing implements are stones 
selected at random and used in ways determined by 
mechanical chance, and (3) technolithic, in which the 
prevailing implements are of stone shaped by precon- 
ceived designs and used in accordance with the teachings 
of mechanical experience. This classification of the 

21 eth— 03 II 



XVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

industries is elaborated in an earlier report, the material 
for which was revised during the year. 

In continuing the preparation of his memoir on the 
contents of the Florida shell mounds and muck beds, Mr 
Gushing brought out many new examples of that ideative 
association which forms the basis of zoomimic indus- 
try. Several of these examples were found in the muck- 
preserved implements and weapons of wood from Florida ; 
others were found in various museums in the form of 
artifacts of stone, and even of metal, shaped in imitation 
of animals, or furnished with symbols of animals and 
animal organs; still others were found in the hiero- 
glyphics and hieratic codices of Mexico and Yucatan. 
The assemblage of objects seems clearly to indicate 
that while the zoomimic motive was the primary one 
and stood nearly alone at and long after its inception, 
it was not completely displaced by the protolithic or even 
by the technolithic motives of higher stages, but per- 
sisted in connection with these quite up to the time of 
Caucasian invasion — indeed, it would appear that the 
zoomimic motive in handicraft was the correlative and 
concomitant of that zootheism out of which none of 
the tribes had completely risen up to the time of the 
Discovery. 

In the course of his reconnaissance of the inhabited 
and ruined pueblos in New Mexico and Arizona, Mr 
F. W. Hodge, with his companions, brought to light a 
number of notable examples of stone work. Two types 
are especially instructive. The first of these is repre- 
sented by the ruins in Cebollita valley. The stones used 
in the walls were cleft with great regularity and laid, 
after careful facing by battering, in such manner as 
to produce a practically smooth surface, with corners 
squared almost as neatly as those of a well -laid brick 
structure. The second type, also represented by ruins in 
the Cebollita valley, is similar, save that the corners 
were rounded apparently on a uniform radius, while the 
stones were dressed in such a manner as to conform to 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XIX 

the curve about as closely as does metal -wrought masonry. 
The perfection of the stone work of both types suggests 
Caucasian skill; but the indications of great antiquity, 
coupled with the absence of binding mortar, and espe- 
cially the laying of the stones in such manner as to reveal 
ignorance of the principle of breaking joints, prove that 
the work was primitive. 

In his reconnaissance of the ruins of Little Colorado 
river, Dr Fewkes reexamined critically the ancient struc- 
ture discovered by Sitgreaves in 1851, which is of much 
interest as one of the earliest known ruins of the pueblo 
country. His observations on the subject are of interest, 
partly in that they afford a basis for estimating the dura- 
tion of such ruins when protected from vandalism either 
by inaccessibility, as in this case, or by such legislative or 
executive action, as is frequently contemplated by gov- 
ernmental authorities. The detailed measurements and 
comparisons will be incorporated in a later report. Dur- 
ing the same trip Dr Fewkes discovered a number of 
additional ruins, including those of cavate dwellings 
located in the softer layers of heterogeneous volcanic 
deposit. Some of his observations throw useful light on 
the methods of excavating such deposits employed by the 
aborigines, as well as on their general modes of life. 

During the autumn it was ascertained that Dr A. E. 
Jenks, of the University of Wisconsin, was engaged in a 
study of the wild rice industry of the aborigines, and it 
was thought well to take advantage of the opportunity to 
systemize and place on permanent record the considerable 
body of material brought together through his researches. 
Accordingly provision was made to have Dr Jenks visit 
various localities in Wisconsin and Minnesota in which 
the wild rice industry is still carried forward by the In- 
dians, and provision was also made for photographing 
the various operations connected with the harvesting, 
preserving, and cooking of the produce. The inquiry 
derives importance primarily from the large use of wild 
rice among the aboriginal tribes and incidentally from the 



XX BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

possible utility of the product in enlightened agriculture. 
The world is indebted to the natives of the Western Hem- 
isphere for several important commodities. Among these 
corn (that is, maize) occupies the first place; others are 
the turkey, two or three varieties of beans, certain 
squashes, besides the remarkable paratriptic tobacco, 
whose use has spread throughout the world since the 
time of Raleigh, and there are indications that the wild 
rice (Zizania) of the region of glacial lakes may consti- 
tute a notable addition to the list. Led to the subject by 
the work of the Bureau, the Department of Agriculture 
has instituted inquiries concerning the extent of the wild 
rice area and concerning the possibilities of utilization of 
the resource. Dr Jenks' memoir is incorporated in the 
Nineteenth Annual Report. 

Work in 'Sociology 

Except when occupied in field work, the Director con- 
tinued the synthetic study of demotic activities, and 
during the year he completed the preliminary outline of 
the activities expressed in institutions. The science 
of institutions is commonly designated sociology, after 
Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, and other European 
writers, and though the term is sometimes loosely used it 
fairly meets the requirements of scientific exposition. 
The branch of knowledge which it is used to designate is 
one of the five coordinate sciences (esthetology, tech- 
nology, sociology, philology, and sophiology) constituting 
demonomy, or the system of knowledge pertaining to the 
human activities. Viewed in its activital aspect, soci- 
ology combines several subordinate branches. The first 
of these is statistics (sometimes called demography) , 
which deals with the units of social organization; the 
second is economics, which deals especially with the 
forces and values involved in or controlled by human 
organization. The third branch of sociology is civics, 
which may be defined as the science of methods in gov- 
ernmental action, or in the regulation of the conduct of 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOET XXI 

associates — methods which have for their normal objects 
peace, equity, equality, liberty, and charity among the 
associates. The means of attaining these ends in primi- 
tive society have been ascertained almost wholly through 
the researches in American ethnology; they have been 
indicated in a brief outline of regimentation appended to 
an earlier report. The fourth branch of sociology may 
be noted as histories ; it deals with the methods adopted 
for the maintenance and perpetuation of social organiza- 
tion. Coordinate with these branches is the science of 
ethics, which deals with the ideal bases and the practical 
objects of associate organization. The ethics of primi- 
tive life have been ascertained almost wholly through 
observation among the aborigines of America. The 
ethical relations existing among the tribesmen have been 
a revelation to students, and no line of ethnologic inquiry 
has yielded richer results than that pertaining to this 
subject. An outline of the definition of sociology was 
printed for the use of students and for the benefit of 
such suggestions as might be offered by other inquirers, 
and the discussion was expanded and incorporated in the 
last report. 

The primary purpose of the trip by Mr Hodge and his 
companions was to ascertain and record the details of 
social organization as now maintained among the pueblo 
tribes. As indicated in various publications of the Bureau, 
the aborigines of America belong in approximately equal 
proportions to two of the culture -stages defined by social 
organizations — (1) savagery, in which the institutions are 
based on consanguinity reckoned in the female line, and 
(2) barbarism, in which the institutions are founded on 
consanguinity reckoned in the male line. In some cases 
a transitional condition has been found, as, for example, 
among the Muskwaki Indians, who give a patronymic to 
the first-born child, but in case of its death in infancy 
revert to the matronymic system; sometimes, again, the 
basis of the organization is so well concealed as to be 
obscured, as among the Kiowa Indians (noted in the last 



XXII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

report) ; or, again, the consanguinity may be practically 
concealed by the overplacement of some other factor, as 
among the California tribes, who regard language as the 
dominant factor of their institutions (also noted in the 
last report) ; but the fortuitous relations may commonly 
be reduced without serious difficulty, and shown not 
to affect the general fact that the American aborigines 
belong to the culture -stages of v savagery and barbarism 
in about equal proportions, reckoned on the basis of pop- 
ulation — though it is to be remembered that the tribes 
belonging to the higher stage are much the larger and 
fewer. Now, a recent line of inquiry relates to the causes 
and conditions of the transition from the first great stage 
to the second. In the Old World the transition has been 
fairly correlated with the gradual passage from hunting 
to herding — there the initial phase of agriculture ; but in 
the western hemisphere the, characteristics of the native 
fauna were not such as to place herding in the van 
of agricultural development. Accordingly, it has been 
thought desirable to trace the influence of harvesting and 
planting, when pursued for generations, on social organi- 
zation; and the most favorable opportunity for such 
research was that afforded by the Pueblos. Morever, it 
seemed desirable to inquire into the rate of the transition, 
as indicated by records covering a considerable period ; 
and for this purpose also the Pueblos seemed to be admir- 
ably adapted, partly since the customs of the people have 
been subjects of record for three and a half centuries, and 
partly because their arid habitat is so uninviting as to 
have practically repelled the invasion of revolutionary 
methods. It was by reason of his intimate acquaintance 
with the early records, and also in the hope that he might 
be able to discover unpublished manuscripts among the 
ancient archives of the missions, that Dr Elliott Coues, 
compiler of the American Explorers Series, was attached 
to the party. Although no noteworthy discoveries of 
manuscripts were made, a considerable body of data 
essential to the discussion of social organization in the 
pueblo region was obtained. Portions of the material are 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIII 

in preparation for prospective reports, while Mr Hodge 
is incorporating the data relating to the clans and gentes 
of the Pneblo peoples in a Cyclopedia of Native Tribes. 

During his stay among the Hopi, Dr Fewkes' attention 
was directed to the interrelation between the tribesmen 
and certain feral creatures, notably eagles. The eagles 
are of much consequence to the folk, chiefly as a source 
of feathers, which are extensively used in ceremonies for 
symbolic representation ; and it appears from the recent 
observations that particular clans claim and exercise a 
sort of collective ownership in certain families of eagles, 
perhaps homing in distant mountains ; and that this right 
is commonly recognized by other clans, and even by 
neighboring tribes. Thus the relation affords a striking 
example of that condition of toleration between animals 
and men which normally precedes domestication, and 
forms the first step in zooculture, as has been set forth in 
preceding reports. These relations, together with the 
methods of capture, have been described in a preliminary 
paper. 

Work in Philology 

During the later months of the fiscal year the Director 
resumed the synthesis of the native American languages, 
and the comparison of these with other tongues, with the 
view of defining the principles of philology on a compre- 
hensive basis. The task was one of magnitude; the 
records in the Bureau archives comprise more or less 
complete vocabularies and grammars of several hundred 
dialects, representing the sixty or more linguistic stocks 
of North America; and the study necessarily extended 
not only over this material but over a considerable part of 
the published records of other languages, both primitive 
and advanced; it was, however, completed in time for 
publication in the last report. 

In connection with the general linguistic researches it 
was deemed necessary to extend the classification of 
stocks southward over Mexico and Central America ; and 
this extension was undertaken with the aid of Dr Cyrus 



XXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Thomas, whose researches concerning the native codices 
of Mexico and Yucatan have familiarized him with the 
literature of these and neighboring regions, and to some 
extent with the aboriginal languages. Dr Thomas de- 
voted several months to the work; and about the close 
of the fiscal year he had completed a provisional classifi- 
cation and map of native linguistic^ stocks in Mexico and 
Central America, designed to supplement the classifica- 
tion and map of the American Indians north of Mexico 
published in the Seventh Annual Report. The material 
remains in the hands of the Director for use in general 
study and for revision for publication. 

As noted above, Dr Albert 8. Gatschet visited Nova 
Scotia early in the fiscal year for the purpose of complet- 
ing his collections of the northeasternmost Algonquian 
tongues, and his collections will enable him to round out 
the comparative vocabulary of Algonquian dialects so far 
as the tribes of northeastern United States and the 
contiguous territory are concerned. His work on Cape 
Breton Island was especially fruitful. On returning to 
the office he resumed the extraction of lexic and gram- 
matic material, and pushed forward the preparation of 
the comparative vocabulary ; and in connection with this 
work he prepared synthetic characterizations of the prin - 
cipal elements of several typical dialects, including the 
Kataba of the Siouan stock. 

Mr J. N. B. Hewitt continued the preparation of his 
memoir on the comparative mythology of the Iroquoian 
tribes. On juxtaposing the principal cosmogonic myths 
of the several tribes, found various indications of incom- 
pleteness, and it was chiefly for the purpose of verifying 
certain of the versions that he revisited Ontario, as has 
already been noted. He succeeded in obtaining a con- 
siderable body of new data, and after his return from the 
field he made good progress in the preparation of his 
memoir, a part of which has been incorporated in another 
part of this report. Early in the fiscal year Mr Hewitt 
made a notable comparison between the Seri language, as 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXV 

recorded recently by Mr McGee (and as previously ob- 
tained from an expatriated Seri man at Hermosillo by 
M Pinart, Commissioner Bartlett, and Sefior Tenochio) , 
with the Yuman, Piman, and other southwestern dialects 
recorded by various explorers. For a time the language 
of the Seri was supposed to be related to the tongues of 
the Yuman stock; but Mr Hewitt's exhaustive study of 
the extensive body of material now preserved in the 
Bureau archives seems to demonstrate the absence of such 
relation, and to indicate that the language of the tribe 
represents a distinct stock. Accordingly the classifica- 
tion of Orozco y Berra and other Mexican scholars of the 
middle of the century is revived ; and in conformity with 
the principles of nomenclature and classification an- 
nounced in the Seventh Annual Report, the definition of 
the language, dialects, and tribes is as follows: 

Stock Dialects and tribes 

Seri (extant). 



Serian. 



Tepoka (recently extinct). 
Gruayma (long- extinct). 
Upanguayma (long extinct), 



In the course of his stay in the Hopi village, Dr Fewkes 
was so fortunate as to obtain copies of a series of paintings 
representing the tribal pantheon. The series comprises 
some four hundred representations, mostly on separate 
sheets ; the pictures partake of the characteristics of the 
petroglyphs and calendric inscriptions such as those 
described by the late Colonel Mallery ; they also present 
suggestive similarities to the codices of more southerly 
regions. The entire series, reproduced in facsimile, is 
incorporated in another part of this report. 

One of the best known contributions to American abo- 
riginal linguistics is the Eliot Bible, published in the Natick 
language in 16G3 and 1685. This contribution was supple- 
mented in a highly notable way during the present century 
through the labors of the late James Hammond Trumbull, 
who compiled from the Bible, with the aid of other sources 
of information at his command, a vocabulary of the Natick 



XXVI BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tongue. Unfortunately for students, this compilation 
was not published; but on the death of Dr Trumbull, in 
1897, it passed into the custody of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, at Worcester, Massachusetts. Here it 
attracted the attention of scholars and publicists, includ- 
ing Dr Edward Everett Hale; and it was proposed by 
Dr Hale, with others, to offer - the manuscript to the 
Bureau for publication. Among the scholars interested 
in this and cognate publications relating to the aborigines 
was the Honorable Ernest W. Roberts, Representative of 
the Seventh Massachusetts district in the Congress ; and 
at his instance authority was granted for resuming the 
publication of bulletins by the Bureau. Accordingly, 
when Dr Hale, early in 1900, brought the valuable manu- 
script of the Trumbull Dictionary to Washington it was 
assigned for publication as the first of the new series of 
bulletins (number 25) . Before the close of the fiscal 
year the composition was well under way, while Dr Hale 
was engaged in the preparation of a historical introduction. 
Another contribution of the first importance to knowl - 
edge of the aboriginal American languages is the vocab - 
ulary of the Maya tongue, compiled during the earlier 
decades of Spanish occupation and well known to scholars 
(though never printed) as the Diccionario de Motul. 
Two or three copies of the work are extant in manu- 
script ; one of these passed into the possession of the late 
Dr Carlos H. Berendt about the middle of the present 
century, and in the course of a lengthy stay in Yucatan 
he undertook to revise and complete the vocabulary and 
to bring it up to date by the introduction of all Maya 
terms in modern use. Dr Berendt's additions nearly 
doubled the volume of the original manuscript, and 
greatly enhanced its value ; unfortunately he died before 
his plan for publication was carried out. Before his 
death, however, he turned the manuscript over to the 
late Dr Daniel G. Brinton, of Philadelphia, in order that 
it might be published in that ethnologist's Library of 
Aboriginal American Literature. Finding the work too 
extensive for his facilities, Dr Brinton made a provisional 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXVII 

arrangement, before his death, in July, 1899, to transfer 
the manuscript to the Bureau ; and after his decease the 
arrangement was carried out by his legatees and execu- 
tors, including the University of Pennsylvania, to which 
institution his valuable library was bequeathed. Both 
the original vocabulary and Dr Berendt's supplement are 
in Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya; and, as a necessary 
preliminary to publication by the Bureau, a transcription 
was begun by Miss Jessie E. Thomas, assistant librarian, 
and a student of the Maya language. Toward the close of 
the fiscal year Senor Audomaro Molina, of Merida, Yuca- 
tan, an eminent student of the Maya language, visited this 
country, and, learning of the proposal to publish the 
Diccionario de Motul, came to Washington to proffer his 
services in any further revision of the material that might 
seem desirable. His offer was gladly accepted, and pro- 
vision was made for supplying him with copies of the 
transcript of the vocabulary. 

During the year Dr Franz Boas made additional con- 
tributions of importance to the linguistic collections of 
the Bureau. He also completed a second volume of Chi- 
nook texts, which would have been sent to press before 
the close of the fiscal year except for his prospective 
absence in field work and the consequent delay in proof 
revision. The matter will be incorporated in an early 
report or bulletin. 

Work in Sophiology 

In pursuing his investigation of the time -concept of 
Papago Indians, as noted in the last report, Mr McGee 
was led to a study of the relations existing between this 
notably altruistic tribe and their hard physical environ- 
ment; and clear indications were found that with the 
degree of cultural development possessed by the Papago, 
the tendency of a severe environment is to develop altru- 
ism. At the same time it was noted that the neighboring 
Seri tribe, surrounded by an environment of similar 
characteristics in many respects, are notably egoistic and 



XXVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

inimical toward contemporaries; and the striking differ- 
ences led to further research concerning the interrela- 
tions between human groups and their physical sur- 
roundings — interrelations which may conveniently be 
styled adaptions. Now, when the study was extended to 
other tribes, it became manifest that such adaptions may 
be arranged in serial order, and that when they are so 
arranged the Seri stand at the end of the series marking 
the most intimate interaction between mind and exter- 
nals, while the Papago stand in the front rank of aborig- 
inal tribes as graded by power of nature -conquest; and 
from this point it is easy to extend the scale into civiliza- 
tion and enlightenment, in which men control rather 
than submit to control by their physical surroundings. 
The serial arrangement of peoples in terms of relative 
capacity in nature -conquest can hardly be deemed new, 
though the special examples (particularly the notably 
primitive Seri) are peculiarly instructive ; but the su'cces - 
sive adaptions thus defined were found unexpectedly sig- 
nificant in measuring various degrees of interdependence 
between environment and thought, for it became evident 
in the light of specific examples that the habitual thought, 
like the habitual action, of an isolated and primitive folk 
is a continuous and continuously integrated reflection of 
environment. On pursuing the relations it was found 
that the Seri, habitually submitting to a harsh environ- 
ment as they do, merely reflect its harshness in their 
conduct, and that the Papago, seeking habitually to con- 
trol environment in the interests of their kind as they do, 
are raised by their efforts to higher planes of humanity. 
The general relation between thought and surroundings 
was found to be of exceedingly broad application, extend- 
ing far beyond the local tribes. Indeed, it finds most 
definite expression in the current scientific teaching that 
knowledge arises in experience ; and it seemed desirable to 
formulate the relation as a principle of knowledge which 
may appropriately be styled the Responsivity of Mind. 
The principle promises to be especially useful to ethnolo- 
gists confronted with those suggestive similarities in arti- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIX 



facts, habits, and even languages, which were interpreted 
as evidences of former contact until their incongruity 
with geographic and other facts proved them to be coin- 
cidental merely, for the interdependence of thought and 
environment offers an adequate explanation of the coin- 
cidences, while the diminishing dependence of thought 
on environment with cultural advancement equally ex- 
plains the preponderence of such coincidences among 
lowly peoples. A preliminary announcement of the 
results of the study has been made, but full publication 
is withheld pending further field work. 

Mr James Mooney spent the greater part of the fiscal 
year in elaborating for publication the extensive collection 
of material made by him among the Cherokee Indians 
several years ago. The collection comprises a nearly 
complete series of the myths and traditions of the tribe, 
cosmogonic, historical, interpretative, and trivial; for 
among the Cherokee, as among other primitive peoples y 
the traditions vary widely in character and purpose. Mr 
Mooney' s collections are peculiarly valuable in that they 
are so complete as to indicate the genesis and develop- 
ment of the tribal traditions. It would appear that the 
parent myth usually begins as a trivial story or fable, 
perhaps carrying a moral and thus introducing and fixing 
some precept for the guidance of conduct; the great 
majority of these fables drop out of the current lore within 
the generation in which they are born, but those chancing 
to touch the local life strongly or happening to glow with 
local genius survive and are handed down to later genera- 
tions. The transmitted fables form a part of the lore 
repeated by the eldermen and elderwomen night after 
night to while away the long evenings by the camp fire, 
and in this way they become impressed on the memory 
and imagination of the younger associates ; for under the 
conditions of prescriptorial life they come to take the 
place of learning and literature in the growing mind of 
the youth. In the successive repetitions the weaker 
fables are eliminated, while the more vigorous are grad- 
ually combined and eventually strung together in an 



XXX BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

order made definite by custom; at the same time they 
acquire sacredness with age, and some of them become 
so far esoteric that they may not be repeated by youths, 
or perhaps even by laymen, when they are the exclusive 
property of sages or shamans. Now, the fable in itself 
is seldom vigorous enough to pass unaided into the esoteric 
lore of the tribe ; but when it 'serves to interpret some 
interesting natural phenomenon, either in its original 
form or in its subsequent association, it is thereby fer- 
tilized, and, with the combined vitality of fable and 
interpretation, enjoys greatly increased chance of survival. 
Sometimes the historical element is also added, when the 
composite intellectual structure is still further strength- 
ened, and may persist until history blends with fancy - 
painted prehistory, and the story becomes a full-fledged 
cosmogonic myth. Accordingly, the character and the 
age of myths are correlated in significant fashion. Mr 
Mooney's memoir is incorporated in the Nineteenth 
Annual Report, which was sent to the printer on March 
28, and proofs were in hand before the close of the fiscal 
year. Since it is the first of a series of memoirs on the 
Cherokee by the same author, it was thought well to pref- 
ace the publication with an extended review of the his- 
tory of the Cherokee Indians from the time of their first 
contact with the whites, and in collecting material for 
this historical sketch Mr Mooney was able to throw new 
light not only on the movements of the tribesmen them- 
selves, but on the routes of travel taken by various 
explorers, from De Soto down. 

Although handicapped by illness, Mrs M. C. Steven- 
son continued the preparation of the final chapters in 
her monograph on Zuni mythology and ceremonies. The 
work was nearly completed at the end of the fiscal year. 

Dr Fewkes's observations on the winter ceremonies of 
the Hopi Indians yielded important data of the nature 
suggested in previous paragraphs, and on his return from 
the field lie at once took up the prejmration of a memoir 
designed for incorporation in an early report. 

A notable acquisition of the year was the Pawnee 



ADM1NISTEATIVE EEPORT XXXI 

ritual known as the Hako, obtained by Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher. Its basis is one of those house ceremonies 
which hold so large a place in aboriginal thought ; and it 
is so exceptionally full at once as to reveal some of the 
most strictly characteristic phases of primitive thought 
and to illumine the simpler house rituals already recorded. 
It is cosmogonic in import, and thus reflects the faith of 
the tribe. At the same time its details indicate the tribal 
migrations for many generations. It reveals primitive 
notions concerning the origin of fire and the relations of 
this agency to deified animals. It comprises a partially 
archaic vocabulary, which promises to throw light on 
tribal affinities, and it includes rhythmic and funda- 
mental melodic features which contribute in important 
degree to knowledge of aboriginal music. The entire 
ritual, including the musical accompaniment, is well 
advanced in preparation for the Twenty-second Report. 

Dr Cyrus Thomas continued the examination of Mayan 
and Mexican aboriginal number systems, with special ref- 
erence to the Mayan and Mexican calendar systems. 
Early in 1900 he completed a memoir on the subject, 
entitled u Mayan Calendar Systems, ' : which was incor- 
porated in the Nineteenth Annual Report. Later in the 
fiscal year he continued in cognate work, making gratify- 
ing progress. One of the most interesting features of 
aboriginal culture to the scholars of the world is the series 
of highly developed calendric systems extending from 
Mexico on the north to Peru on the south ; these systems 
reflect a knowledge of astronomy considerably less 
advanced than that prevailing in Chaldea and Egypt at 
the beginning of written history, yet sufficiently advanced 
to indicate the beginnings of astronomic observation and 
generalization, and thus to define a stage of scientific 
development of which the Old World record is practically 
lost. Accordingly Dr Thomas's researches are deemed 
especially valuable to scholars. 

As has been noted, Mr J. N. B. Hewitt has applied the 
comparative method to the study of aboriginal traditions 
with excellent results. During the closing months of the 



XXXII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

fiscal year he was occupied in revising his memoir on 
Iroquoian mythology, and incorporating certain impor- 
tant data obtained during his winter trip. The material 
is nearly ready for the press. 

Work in Descriptive Ethnology 

Except during the time spen^t in field work, Mr F. W. 
Hodge was occupied in arranging material for the Cyclo- 
pedia of Native Tribes and in editorial work. In the 
former task he was aided during a part of the year by Dr 
Cyrus Thomas, and in the latter by Col. F. F. Hilder, 
ethnologic translator, and Mr H. S. Wood, assistant 
editor. Dr Thomas finished the revision of the Cyclo- 
pedia cards pertaining to the Siouan stock early in the 
fiscal year ; accordingly this portion of the work is ready 
for publication save for the requisite editorial scrutiny. 
The plan for the Cyclopedia has been set forth in some 
detail in earlier reports and need not be repeated. 

Publication 

Mr F. W. Hodge remained in charge of the editorial 
work, with the assistance of Colonel F. F. Hilder during 
the earlier part of the year and of Mr H. S. Wood during 
Colonel Hilder' s absence in the Philippines. The second 
part of the Seventeenth Annual Report was received 
from the Government Printing Office during the year, 
though the first part was unfortunately delayed. The 
printing of the Eighteenth Report was practically com- 
pleted. The Nineteenth Report was transmitted for pub - 
lication on March 28, and the composition of this report 
and also of the first bulletin of the new series was under 
way before the close of the fiscal year. 

Mr DeLancey Gill, the illustrator of the Bureau, 
remained in charge of the photographic work and of the 
preparation of copy for the frequently elaborate illustra- 
tions required in presenting adequately the results of the 

researches. 

Library 

The work in the library of the Bureau was maintained 
under the supervision of Mr Hodge. During the greater 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXIII 

part of the fiscal year he had the assistance of Mrs Lucre - 
tia M. Waring, who made good progress in the cata- 
loguing of the books and pamphets in accordance with 
the classification of anthropic science developed in the 
Bureau. The number of books and pamphlets on hand 
at the close of the fiscal year is about 12,000 and 6,000, 
respectively. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collaborators engaged in field work made more or less 
extensive collections for use in their researches, and for 
subsequent transfer to the National Museum; and, in 
addition, a number of special collections were acquired. 
Conspicuous among these was the Hudson basketry col- 
lection, from California, for which negotiations were 
opened during the last fiscal year, though the material 
was received and installed during the current year ; it is 
regarded as one of the most instructive collections of 
American aboriginal basketry extant, and its possession, 
in connection with the very considerable collections of 
corresponding ware already in the Institution, places the 
National Museum in a foremost position among the 
museums of the world so far as opportunities for study 
of primitive basketry are concerned. Another notewor- 
thy collection was that of Mr J. B. Hatcher in Patagonia, 
of which the final portions were received during the fiscal 
year, together with a good series of photographs illustrat- 
ing the use of artifacts, the construction of habitations, 
etc. ; while various collections of objects required to com- 
plete series were acquired by purchase. Among the minor 
collections was an exceptionally fine one of copper imple- 
ments from the Lake Superior region ; these implements 
were noteworthy in that they were, while of aboriginal 
design, wrought with metal tools in such wise as to show 
the influence of Caucasian contact ; so that the collection 
forms an instructive example of acculturation, and serves 
as a useful guide in the classification of other copper 
objects in the Museum. A particularly useful series of 

21 ETH— 03 III 



XXXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

stone implements, known as the Steinei* collection, was 
also among the acquisitions of the year. 

Although collateral to the work of the Bureau, it is 
proper to report that Colonel F. F. Hilder, ethnologic 
translator and acting chief clerk of the Bureau, was, on 
January 16, 1900, detailed to the Government Board of 
the Pan -American Exposition," and that under a commis- 
sion from that Board he visited the Philippine islands and 
made extensive collections of ethnologic and archeologic 
material, with the understanding that, after use during 
the exposition, a considerable portion of it should be trans- 
ferred to the National Museum. Toward the close of the 
year Colonel Hilder reported the shipment of extensive 
collections, together with a good series of photographs and 
drawings designed for use in the installation. Incident- 
ally he availed himself of opportunities to obtain certain 
useful ethnologic literature required for the library of the 
Bureau. 

PROPERTY 

As has been explained in previous reports, the property 
of the Bureau is practically limited to (1) office furniture 
and other appurtenances to office work, (2) ethnologic 
manuscripts and other records of original work, (3) pho- 
tographs and drawings of Indian subjects, (4) a small 
working library, (5) collections held temporarily by col- 
laborators for use in research, and (6) undistributed re- 
sidua of the editions of the Bureau publications. During 
the fiscal year there has been no noteworthy change in 
the amount or value of the office property ; a considerable 
number of manuscripts (including two of special value 
noted in earlier paragraphs) have been added to the arch- 
ives, either temporarily or permanently; over a thousand 
photographic negatives and several hundred prints and 
drawings have been added to the collection of illustrative 
material, while the library has maintained normal growth, 
chiefly through exchanges. There was no considerable 
accumulation or transfer of objective material required 
for study during the year, while there was a consider- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXV 

able reduction in the number of back reports through 
the constantly increasing public demand for ethnologic 
literature. 

NECROLOGY 

Frank Hamilton Cushing 

It is with much sorrow that I have to report the death 
of Frank Hamilton Cushing, ethnologist in the Bureau, 
on April 10, 1900. 

Frank Hamilton Cushing was born in Northeast, Penn- 
sylvania, July 22, 1857. At first a physical weakling, he 
drew away from the customary associations of childhood 
and youth and fell into a remarkable companionship with 
nature; and as the growth of the frail body lagged, his 
mental powers grew in such wise as to separate him still 
further from more conventional associates. In childhood 
he found ' ' sermons in stones and books in running 
brooks ' ? ; and in youth his school was the forest about his 
father's homestead in central New York. There his taste 
for nature was intensified, and the habit of interpreting 
things in accordance with natural principles, rather than 
conventional axioms, grew so strong as to control his later 
life. Meantime, relieved of the constant waste of men- 
tality through the friction of social relation, his mind 
gained in vigor and force; he became a genius. 

At 9 years of age Cushing' s attention was attracted by 
Indian arrowpoints found in his neighborhood, and he 
began a collection which grew into a museum and labora- 
tory housed in a wigwam erected by him in a retired part 
of the family homestead ; and his interest and knowledge 
grew until at 18 he went to Cornell already an expert 
capable of instructing the teachers. Perhaps by reason 
of his close communion Avith nature, he early fell into a 
habit of thought not unlike that of the primitive arrow 
maker, and even before he knew the living Indian, grew 
into sympathy with Indian art, Indian methods, Indian 
motives. So, in his wigwam laboratory and later at Cor- 
nell and elsewhere, he began to reproduce chipped stone 
arrow points and other aboriginal artifacts by processes 



XXXVI BUREAU <>I AMETICAN KTHXOLOGY 

similar to those of the native artisans; in this art he 
attained skill to a unique degree, and through it he gained 
unique understanding of the processes of primitive men. 
In 1874, at the age of 17, he sent to Secretary Baird an 
account of the Antiquities of Orleans County, N. Y., 
which was published in the Smithsonian Report for that 
year; this was based on his wigwam collection, which 
later passed into the National Museum. In 1876 he had 
charge of a portion of the National Museum collection at 
the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where he edi- 
fied visiting archeologists by his interpretation and imita- 
tion of native handicraft; for his skill extended from 
stone chipping to pottery making, basket building, weav- 
ing, skin dressing, and all other native arts. In 1879 
Major Powell employed him in the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, at first in collecting artifacts from the pueblos ; 
but the innate sympathy with simple life acquired in his 
isolated boyhood soon brought him into intimate relations 
with the living tribesmen, and the bond became so strong 
that he decided to remain at Zuiii, where for five years 
he was as one of the tribe. After mastering the language 
he acquainted himself with the Zuni arts and industries ; 
he was adopted into the ancient Macaw clan and the 
sacred name "Medicine -flower," borne by only one per- 
son in a lifetime, was given him; then he was initiated 
into tribal fraternities and gradually inducted into the 
religious ceremonies and mysteries ; and long before he 
left the pueblo he was second chief of the tribe, the Head 
Priest of the Bow, and lived in the family of the gov- 
ernor, wearing native costume, eating native food, and 
participating in all native occupations and pastimes. 
Such was dishing' s college course in ethnology. 

When he left Zuni Mr Cushing brought with him to 
Boston and other Eastern cities a party of Zuni headmen 
and priests, who attracted much attention and awakened 
deep interest in aboriginal life. One of the results was 
the organization of the Hemenway Archeological Expedi- 
tion, endowed by the late Mrs Mary Hemenway, of Bos- 
ton; in 1886-88 Mr Cushing had charge of the work. 



ADMINISTEATIVE REPORT XXXVII 

Subsequently he returned to the service of the Bureau, 
and began preparing for publication the records of his 
researches in Zufii ; a part of this material was published 
in the Thirteenth Report under the title "Outlines of 
Zufii Creation Myths.'' His health failing to an extent 
requiring a change, he was assigned to duty in Florida, 
where he made an archeologic survey no less remarkable 
for the breadth of view with which it was conducted than 
for the wealth of material produced from shell mounds 
and peat -lined lagoons. He was actively engaged in pre- 
paring the results of this work for publication when a 
slight accident (the swallowing of a fish bone) proved too 
much for the vital thread, never strong and much enfee- 
bled by whole-hearted and absorbing devotion to duty 
under trying conditions in Zufii and in Florida. So his 
professional career ended. He died April 10, 1900. 

Cushing was a man of genius. The history of the 
human world has been shaped by a few men; the multi- 
tudes have lived and worked and ended their days under 
the leadership of these few. Most of the geniuses who 
have shaped the history of later times shone as intellectual 
luminaries alone. Cushing stood out not only as a man of 
intellect, but preeminently as a master of those manual 
concepts to which he gave name as well as meaning — 
indeed, he might fittingly be styled a manual genius. 
There are two sides to man, two correlative and reciprocal 
aspects — the hand side and the brain side. Human 
development begins in the child, and began in our earliest 
ancestry so far as we are able to think, chiefly in the per- 
fecting of the hand; for throughout the human world 
men do before they know — indeed, the greater part of 
knowing is always preceded by generations of doing. So 
humanity's dawn was doubtless brightened through 
manual genius; then came those later millenniums in 
which the brain side of man rose into dominance and 
illumined progress — and this was the time of intellectual 
geniuses. Of late science has arisen, and men have 
turned to the contemplation of nature and have been led 
thence to the conquest of natural forces. In the strife 



XXXVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

against dull nature the manual side of man has again come 
into prominence, and the pages of later history are em- 
blazoned with the names of inventors and experimentalists 
in whom the hand side and the brain side have attained 
perfect union. To this class of men Cushing belonged ; 
yet the application of his genius was peculiar, even unique, 
in that his efforts were expended in interpreting inven- 
tions by others rather than in making inventions of his 
own. This application of his powers rendered him suc- 
cessful beyond parallel in retracing the paths pursued by 
primal men in their slow advance toward manual and 
mechanical skill; and it was through this peculiar appli- 
cation that Cushing' s richest contributions to the science 
of man were made. 

By reason of his peculiar insight into primitive devices 
and motives Cushing was a teacher of his colaborers, 
even of those whose years were more than his own. His 
mind responded readily to the impact of new sights, new 
thoughts, new knowledge; hence he was fertile in hypo- 
thesis, fruitful in suggestion, an avant- courier in 
research, a leader in interpretation. All his associates 
profited by his originality and learned much of him. The 
debt of American ethnology to Cushing is large. 

Elliott Coues 

On December 25, 1899, Dr Elliott Coues died suddenly. 
While he was not an officer of the Bureau, he had fre- 
quently cooperated with the Director and the collabora- 
tors, especially during the earlier portion of the fiscal 
year, when he was attached to a party engaged in work 
in the pueblo region. An enthusiastic student of early 
American history, he was brought in frequent touch with 
ethnologists and ethnologic problems, thereby acquiring 
extended and accurate knowledge of the aborigines; 
hence his death was a serious loss to the science. 

Walter J. Hoffman 

Dr Walter J. Hoffman, for many years an attache of 
the Bureau, died November 8, 1899. He entered the 
Bureau in its earlier years as an assistant to the late 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXXIX 

Colonel Grarrick Mallery, and spent some years in the 
collection of petroglyphs and other aboriginal records. 
Subsequently he made independent studies in different 
tribes, notably the Menomini of Wisconsin. His prin- 
cipal publications in the Bureau reports are u The Mide- 
wiwin, or Grand Medicine Society of the Ojibwa, ,< ' in the 
Seventh Report, and "The Menomini Indians,' ' in the 
Fourteenth Report. His connection with the Bureau was 
temporarily severed in 1895, when he undertook certain 
special work for the United States National Museum. In 
1897 he was appointed United States consul at Mannheim, 
Germany, where he availed himself of opportunities for 
study of aboriginal American collections and records. 
His health failing, he returned in the autumn of 1899 to 
his home near Reading, Pa., where his death occurred. 
Although he was but 53 years of age at the time of his 
death, he was one of the pioneers in American ethnology. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Appropriation by Congress for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, "for 
continuing ethnologic researches among the American Indians, under 
the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including salaries or com- 
pensation of all necessary employees and the purchase of necessary 
books and periodicals, fifty thousand dollars, of which sum not exceed- 
ing one thousand dollars may be used for rent of building" (Sundry 
civil act, March 3, 1899) $50, 000. 00 

Salaries or compensation of employees $34, 737. 65 

Special services $162. 20 

Traveling expenses 2, 644. 91 

Ethnologic specimens 3, 820. 00 

Publications 20. 00 

Illustrations 498. 30 

Manuscripts 1, 391. 44 

Books and periodicals for library 1, 600. 42 

Office rental 916. 63 

Furniture 419. 05 

Lighting 54. 34 

Stationery and general supplies 1, 218. 76 

Freight 241. 55 

Postage and telegraph 57. 50 

Miscellaneous 69, 90 

13, 115. 00 

Total disbursements 47, 852. 65 

Balance July 1, 1900, to meet outstanding liabilities 2, 147. 35 



XL BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Two papers of very considerable ethnological impor- 
tance are appended to this report. The first is by Dr 
J. W. Fewkes, ethnologist, and relates to certain super- 
natural beings of the Hopi Indian pantheon known as 
katcinas. The work is profusely illustrated by a series 
of colored plates reproduced from the original drawings 
made by a native artist well versed in the symbolism of 
his people. The drawings and the data relating to them 
were collected by Doctor Fewkes in 1900. 

The tribes of the old province of Tusayan form a unique 
group among the American aborigines, their history and 
culture being of extreme interest to the ethnologist. 
They have been studied in part by a number of able eth- 
nologists, but our knowledge of their history and culture 
is yet far from satisfactory. Doctor Fewkes 's study of 
the Hopi katcinas covers new ground and throws fresh 
light on the religious customs and art of these people. 

The second paper is by Mr J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo- 
gist, and embodies three versions of the cosmologic myth 
of the Iroquoian tribes of New York and Canada. In 
order to convey a definite and full understanding of the 
native concepts embodied in these myths, Mr Hewitt has 
recorded them, in the most painstaking manner in the 
Iroquoian vernacular, adding interlinear and very literal 
translations, in which he recasts the barbaric thought as 
far as possible in English words ; these are accompanied 
by free translations into English, which are, however, 
permitted to retain still something of the idiomatic 
quaintness of the original tongue. It may be safely 
assumed that philologists as well as students of primitive 
philosophy and myth will find in these contributions to 
the history of the Iroquois much of interest and value, 
since Mr Hewitt is not only an accomplished linguist but 
is master of the Tuscarora language and readily translates 
the other northern Iroquoian dialects. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



21 ETH— 03 1 



HOPI KATCI.JSTAS 

DRAWN BY NATIVE ARTISTS 



BY 



JESSE WALTER FEWKES 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 13 

Hopi ferial calendar 18 

Peculiar features 18 

Classification of festivals 19 

Elaborate festivals 20 

Abbreviated festivals 20 

Tabular view of festivals in a Hopi year 21 

Priest fraternities in Hopi ceremonial festivals 23 

Description of Hopi festivals 24 

Wuwiitcimti, New-fire ceremony 24 

Soyaluna 24 

Momtcita 25 

Pamiirti 26 

Winter Flute paholawu 29 

Wahik winema, Children' s dance 30 

Mucaiasti, Buffalo dance 30 

Winter Tawa paholawii 31 

Powamii 31 

Planting of beans 31 

Dances in the kivas 32 

Advent of sun god, Ahiil 33 

Preliminary visit of the monsters 35 

Flogging the children 36 

Return of other katcinas 36 

Advent of Masaim 36 

Appearance of Powamu katcinas 38 

Distribution of bean sprouts, dolls, and other objects 39 

Collection of food by monsters 39 

Winter Lakone paholawii 39 

Palulukonti, or Ankwanti 40 

Acts performed in 1900 40 

Additional acts sometimes performed 48 

Paraphernalia used, their construction and symbolism 50 

Resume of events in Palulukonti in 1900 52 

Personations appearing in Pali'il ukofiti 54 

Winter Marau paholawu 55 

Spring Sumaikoli 55 

Abbreviated Katcina dances 56 

Summer Tawa paholawu 56 

Summer Sumaikoli 57 

Niman 57 

5 



() CONTENTS rETH. ANN. 21 

Page 
Description of Hopi festivals — continued. 

Tciiatikibi, Snake dance 57 

Lelenti, or Lenpaki, Flute dance 57 

Bulitikibi, Butterfly dance 58 

Lalakoiiti . . , 58 

Owakiilti 58 

Mamzrauti 58 

Description of the pictures 59 

Pamiirti ceremony 59 

Pautiwa 59 

Cipikne 60 

Hakto 60 

Caiastacana 60 

Hututu 61 

Huik 61 

Tcolawitze 61 

Loiica 61 

Tcakwaina 62 

Tcakwaina (male) . 62 

Tcakwaina mana 63 

Tcakwaina yuadta 63 

Tcakwaina taamu ^ 63 

Sio Humis 64 

Sio Humis taamu _ ; 64 

Sio Avatc hoya 64 

Wiiw T uyomo 65 

SioCalako 66 

Helilulii 66 

Woe 66 

Woe and Tcutckutu 67 

Powamu festival 67 

Ahiil 67 

Hahai wiiqti . . „ 68 

1 Tumas 68 

Tuiiwup 69 

Tehabi and Tunwup taamu. 70 

Kerwan and Katcina mana 70 

Soyokos (monsters) 70 

Natacka naamu 71 

Kumbi Natacka 72 

Kutca Natacka 72 



Natacka wiiqti, or Soyok wiiqti 



tz 



Natacka mana 73 

Hehea 73 

Hehea mana 74 

Heh$e , 74 

Awatobi Soyok taka 74 

Awatobi Soyok wiiqti 75 

Tcabaiyo 75 

Atocle 75 

So wiiqti 76 

Masauu 76 

Eototo 76 



fewkes] CONTENTS ( 

Page 
Description of the pictures — continued. 

Powamu festival — continued. 

Kwahu 77 

Palakwayo 77 

Keca 78 

Pawik 78 

Totca 78 

Monwu and Koyimsi - 78 

Monwu wiiqti 79 

Salab Monwu 79 

Hotsko 79 

Turpock wa 79 

Yaupa 79 

Hospoa 80 

Patszro , 80 

Koyona 80 

Kowako 80 

Momo - 81 

Tetafiaya 81 

Telavai 81 

Owa - S2 

Malo 82 

Humis 82 

Hopi Avatc hoya 83 

Huhuan 83 

Niivak 83 

Yohozro wiiqti 84 

Powamu 84 

Wukokoti 85 

Kohonino 85 

Tcosbuci and Soyan ep 85 

Nakiatcop 86 

Kokopelli 86 

Kokopelli mana 86 

Lapiikti .' 86 

Paliilukoiiti ( Ankwanti) festival 87 

Macibol - 87 

Paliilukon and Tatciikti 87 

Figurines of Corn maidens 87 

Tacab Aiiya and mana 88 

Owanozrozro 88 

Coto 89 

Hopak and mana 89 

Kokyan wiiqti 90 

Puiikofi katcina 90 

Piiukon hoya 90 

Paluna hoya 90 

Tcukul )« »t '. 91 

Tcanau 91 

Wupaniau 91 

Mucaias taka 92 

Mucaias mana 92 

Afiya katcina manas grinding corn 93 



CONTENTS [eth. ann. 21 

Description oi tne pictures — continued. page 

Pali'ilukonti (Ankwafiti) festival — continued. 

I Inky ana 94 

HokyafLa mana 95 

Cakwahonau 95 

Kokle 95 

Citoto 95 

Sumaikoli ceremony 96 

Sumaikoli and Yaya 96 

Kawikoli 96 

Ciwikoli 96 

Navaho katcinas 97 

Tacab (Naactadji) 97 

Tacab (Tenebidji) 97 

Tacab ( Yebitcai) 98 

Tacab 98 

Soyohim katcinas 98 

Kae 98 

Aho'te -. 99 

A'hote 99 

Tiirtumsi '. 99 

Patcosk 99 

Hototo ' 99 

Kerne 100 

Si wap J 100 

Hotcani 100 

Tawa 100 

Kau 101 

Muzribi 101 

Lefiya 101 

Pafiwii 102 

Tiwenu 102 

Koroctu 102 

, Kwewu 103 

Tciib 103 

Sowinwu 103 

Cipomelli 104 

Tumae 104 

Matia 104 

Piokot 105 

Tiirkwinu 105 

Tiirkwinu mana 105 

Toho 105 

Kutca 106 

Kutca mana 106 

Urcicimu 106 

Yehoho . . '. 106 

Zuni katcinas 107 

Sio 107 

Sio mana and three Koyimsi , 107 

Citulilu 107 

Teiik 108 

Pakwabi 108 

Kwacus Alek taka and Alo mana 108 



pkwkesI CONTENTS 9 

Description of the pictures — continued. Page 

Ancient clan masks 109 

Old mask ( Katcina clan ) 110 

Old mask (Tci'ia clan) 110 

Old mask (Honau clan) Ill 

Pohaha (Te clan) Ill 

Hopinyu (Isauu clan ) Ill 

Ke Towa Bisena 112 

Masks introduced by individuals 1 112 

Sio (Soyowa) - 112 

Yuna 113 

Ynna mana 113 

Wakac 113 

Makto 113 

Pakiokwik 113 

Personages appearing in races called Wawac 114 

Aya 114 

Letotol >i 114 

Hemico 115 

Tcukapelli 115 

Palabikuna 115 

Kona 115 

Macmahola 116 

Tcilikomato 116 

Wiktcina 116 

Piptuka 116 

Patun 116 

Tatacmu 116 

Paski 117 

Nakopan personages , 117 

Beings not called katcinas 118 

Lakone mana 118 

Mamzrau mana 118 

Palahiko mana 118 

Hopi Calako mana 119 

Buli mana 119 

Cotokinunwu 120 

Kaisale 120 

Kaisale mana 120 

Alosaka 121 

Ahiilani 121 

Tanoan names for Hopi katcinas 122 

Origin of foreign katcinas 124 

Alphabet used in spelling names 126 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate II. 
III. 
IV. 



VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

X XXI. 
XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XX X VII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 



Page 

Pautiwa, Cipikne, Hakto, Caiastacana 60 

Hututu, Huik, Tcolawitze, Loiica 60 

Tcakwaina, Tcakwaina taanm, Tcakwaina mana, Tcakwaina 

yuadta 62 

Sio Humis, Sio Humis taamu (misprinted taamu), Sio Avatc 

hoya, Wiiwiiyomo 64 

Sio Calako, Woe, Heliliilii, Woe and Tcutckutu 66 

Ahiil, Hahai wiiqti, Tumas, Tufiwup 68 

Tehabi, Tunwup taamu, Kerwan and Katcina mana 70 

Xatacka naamu, Kumbi Natacka, Kutca Natacka 72 

Natacka wiiqti, or Soyok wiiqti 72 

Hehea, Hehea mana, Heh66 *. 74 

Awatobi Soyok taka, Awatobi Soyok wiiqti 74 

Tcabaiyo, Atocle 74 

Powamu, So wiiqti, Masauu, Eototo 76 

KwahUj Palakwayo, Keca, Pawik 76 

Totca, Monwu and Koyimsi, Monwu. wiiqti 78 

Salab Monwu, Hotsko, Tiirpockwa, Yaupa 78 

Hospoa, Patszro, Koyona, Kowako 80 

Momo, Tetaiiaya 80 

Telavai, Owa and mana 82 

Malo, Humis, Huhuan, Hopi Avatc hoya 82 

Xi'ivak, Yohozro wiiqti, Powamu 84 

Wukokoti, Kohonino 84 

Tcosbuci and Soyan ep, Nakiatcop 86 

Kokopelli, Kokopelli mana, Lapiikti 86 

Macibol, Paliiliikon and Tatciikti 86 

Figurines of Corn maidens, Tacab Anya (misprinted Ana) and 

mana 88 

( hvanozrozro, Coto ( Walpi), Coto (Oraibi) 88 

Hopak and mana, Kokyan wiiqti, Puukoii katcina 90 

Piiiikon hoya, Paluna hoya, Tcanau, Tcukubot (misprinted 

Tuckubot) 90 

Wupamau, Mucaias taka, IVIucaias mana 92 

Anya katcina manas grinding corn 92 

I Iokyana, Hokyana and mana 94 

Kokle, Citoto, Sumaikoli and Yaya 94 

Kawikoli, Ciwikoli, Tacab (Naactadji) 96 

Tacab (Tenebidji), Tacab ( Yebitcai) , Tacab, Kae 98 

A/hote, Aho / te, Patcosk, Ilototo (misprinted Hotote) 98 

Keme, Hotcani, Siwap, Tawa 100 

Kan, Muzribi, Lenya 100 

11 



12 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Page 

Plate XL. PafiwiL, Tiwenu, Kwewu 1 02 

XLI. Tciib, Cipomelli, Sowifiwu 102 

X LII. Tumae, Matia 104 

XLIII. Piokot, Ti'irkwinu, Ti'irkwinu mana 104 

XLIV. Kutca, Kutca mana, Yehoho, Urcicimu 106 

X L\'. Sio, Sio mana and three Koyimsi 106 

XLV1. Citulili'i, Tei'ik, Pakwabi 108 

XLVIL Kwacus Alek taka, Alo mana, Old mask (Katcina clan), Old 

mask (Tciia clan ) 108 

XL VIII. Old mask (Honau clan), Pohaha (Te clan), Hopinyu (Isauu 

clan ) , Samo wi'iqtaka 110 

XLIX. Yuiia, Yuiia mana, Wakac, Makto 112 

L. Aya, Letotobi, Racer, Hemico 114 

LI. Tcukapelli, Kona, Palabikuna, Tcilikomato, Macmahola 114 

LII. Wiktcina, Piptuka, Patuil 116 

LIII. Tatacmu, Paski 116 

LIV. Nakopan personages 116 

LY. Lakone mana, Mamzrau mana 118 

L VI. Hopi Calako mana, Palahiko mana 118 

LVII. Buli mana.. 120 

LVIII. Cotokinufiwu, Kaisale, Paiakyamu, Kaisale mana 120 

LIX. Alosaka , 120 

LX. Ahulani .' 122 

LXI. Koroctu 122 

LXII. Pakiokwik, Ke Towa Bisena, Turtumsi (misprinted Turtnmsi). . 122 

LXIII. Owa, Cakwahonau, Toho 122 



HOPI EATOINAS 

DRAWN BY NATIVE ARTISTS 



By Jesse Walter Fewkes 



INTRODUCTION 

The Hopi Indians represent their gods in several ways, one of 
which is by personation — by wearing* masks or garments bearing 
symbols that are regarded as characteristic of those beings. The hjui- 
bols depicted on these masks and garments vary considerably, but 
are readily recognized and identified by the Indians. 

At each festival in which these supernatural beings are personated 
the symbols are repainted, and continued practice has led to a high 
development of this kind of artistic work, many of the Indians having 
become expert in painting the symbols characteristic of the gods. 

Believing that a series of pictures made by the cleverest artists 
among the Hopis would be a valuable means of studying the S} r m- 
bolism of the tribe, the author hired one of them to make him a 
series of drawings of all the personations of supernatural beings 
which appear in Hopi festivals. This method was suggested by an 
examination of Mexican codices, especially the celebrated manuscript 
of Padre Sahagun, now in Madrid, the illustrations in which are said 
to have been made by Indians, and Chavero's Lienzo de Tlascala, 
lately (1892) published by the Mexican government. 

The author found several Hopi men competent to paint a collec- 
tion of pictures of the kind desired, and finally chose for that work 
Kuteahonauii." or White-bear, a man about 3<> years old, who was 
believed to be the ablest of all who were considered. This Hopi had 
picked up a -light knowledge of English at the Keams Canyon school, 
and while his method of drawing may have been somewhat influenced 
by instruction there, this modifying influence is believed to be very 
slight, as the figures themselves show. 



a For th^ pronunciation of proper names, see the alphabel al the end of tins paper. 

13 



14 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

His uncle, llomovi. who has never been to school, and is unac- 
quainted with the English language, drew some of the best pictures, 
the technique of which is so like his nephew's that it is safe to con- 
clude that the drawings of the latter are aboriginal in character. A 
few of the pictures were drawn b} r Winuta, whose work, like that of 
Homovi, is unmodified by white influence. A boy who had attended 
a Government school in Lawrence, Kansas, also made a few paint- 
ings, but as they show the influence of instruction in this school they 
are not valuable for the purpose had in mind in publishing this collec- 
tion, and they have not been reproduced here. 

While, then, their character has possibly been somewhat influenced 
by foreign art, the pictures here reproduced and described may be 
regarded as pure Hopi, and as works little affected b}^ the white 
teachers with whom of late these people have come into more intimate 
contact than ever before. 

To facilitate the painting the author provided the artists with paper, 
pencils, brushes, and pigments; he left the execution of the work 
wholly to the Indians, no suggestion being made save the name of 
the god whose representation was desired. They carried the materials 
to the mesa, and in a few days' returned with a half-dozen paintings, 
which were found to be so good that they were encouraged to continue 
the work. In some instances, the artists painted pictures of gods 
which the author had never seen personated. 

When the paintings were delivered, the author wrote under them 
the names of the beings represented, with such information as could 
be gathered concerning the special symbolism upon them. Later 
other Hopis were asked to identif}^ the pictures, which they readily 
did, the names they gave being nearly always the same as those given 
by t^he artists. This independent identification was repeated many 
times with different persons, and the replies verified one another almost 
without exception. The talks about the paintings elicited new facts 
regarding the symbolism and the nature of the beings represented 
which could not have been acquired in other ways. Several men made 
critical suggestions which were of great value regarding the fidelity 
of the work and embodied information which is incorporated in the 
exposition of the collection. At one time the reputation of these 
pictures was so noised about in the pueblos that visitors came from 
neighboring villages to see them. At first the collection was freely 
offered to all comers for inspection, on account of the possibility that 
new information might be thus gathered, until some person circulated 
a report that it was sorcery to make these pictures, and this gossip 
sorely troubled the painters and seriously hampered them in their 
work, but the author was able to persuade the artists and the more 
intelligent visitors that no harm would come to them on account of 
the collection. 



fewkes] THE NATUEE OF KATCINAS 15 

The pictures were made primarily to illustrate symbols and sym- 
bolic paraphernalia used in the personation of the gods, but inciden- 
tally they show the ability of the Hopis in painting, a form of artistic 
expression which is very ancient among them. The painting of fig- 
ures on ancient pottery from Tusayan, illustrated in a collection from 
Sikyatki, leaves no question of the ability of the ancient Hopi women 
in this form of expression/' As specimens of pictorial art the pictures 
here presented compare very well with some of the Mexican and 
Mayan codices. They represent men personating the gods, as they 
appear in religious festivals, and duplicate the symbols on certain 
images, called dolls, which represent the same beings. A considera- 
tion of some of the more characteristic dolls in semblance of gods is 
given elesewhere. 6 

'When a Hopi draws a picture or cuts an image of a god, either a 
doll or an idol, he gives the greatest care to the representation of the 
head. The symbols on the head are characteristic, and its size is 
generally out of proportion to that of the other parts. When these 
same gods are personated by men the symbols are ordinarily painted 
on masks or helmets; consequently the heads of the figures may be 
said to represent masks or helmets of personators. 

The personations which are here figured generally appear in winter 
festivals or ceremonies, a more detailed account of which will be given 
elsewhere, but it has seemed well to preface this description of the 
pictures with brief summaries of great festivals in which the figures 
represented are specially prominent, and to make such reference to 
others as may be necessary. The great festivals, called Pamiirti, c 
Powamu, and Palulukonti or Ankwanti, are celebrated in January, 
February, and March. 

The personations are called katcinas; the nature of these merits a 
brief consideration. 

Primitive man regards everything as possessed of magic power 
allied to what we call life, capable of action for good or evil. This vital 
power, he believes, is directed by will; it was probably first identified 
with motion. To the savage whatever moves has a beneficent or 
malevolent power, sometimes called medicine, the action of which is 
always mysterious. Various symbols have been adopted by primitive 
man to represent this power, and many terms are used to define it. 
Among these symbols words for breath in various languages are per- 
haps the most widely spread among different races. The power of 
motion directed by will to do harm or good thus comes in English to 
be known as spirit or soul. The doctrine of medicine power or of 
spirits is commonly called animism. 

aSee Archeological Expedition to Arizona in 1895, in the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, part '-!, 1899. 
b Internationales Arehiv fiir Ethnographie, Band vn, L894. 
<■ For the pronunciation of proper names see the alphabel ;ii the end of (his paper. 



16 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Early num rarely generalized. Every object, organic and inorganic, 
had ;i spirit, but these spirits, like the objects themselves, were 
thought of as concrete. The spirit of the tree had little in common 
with the spirit of the sun. To distinguish these differences symbolic 
personifications were called in, and the medicine power of objects was 
embodied in objective comprehensible form; thus the medicine power 
of the sun presented itself as an eagle, that of the earth as a spider. 

It would appear, also, that in case of the magic or medicine power of 
man, there was a universal belief that it existed and was potent after 
death. The breath-body or spirit of man was believed to have a con- 
tinued existence after the death of the bod}^, retaining powers of good 
and bad action, a belief which led to worship. The katcinas are spirits 
of the ancients of the Hopis, and personations of them by men bear 
the symbols which are supposed to have characterized these ancients. 

While the term katcina was originally limited to the spirits, or per- 
sonified medicine power, of ancients, personifications of a similar 
power in other objects have likewise come to be called katcinas. Thus 
the magic power or medicine of the sun ma} r be called katcina, or that 
of the earth may be known by the same general name, this use of the 
term being common among the 'Hopis. The term may also be applied 
to personations of these spirits or medicine potencies by men or their 
representation by pictures or graven objects, or by other means. 
As applied to a dance in which the personations appear, the term is 
secondary and derivative. 

The word "medicine" is here used in its ancient meaning, not as in 
modern English. It is misleading to apply such terms as u spirit," 
"soul," and "medicine," with the modified meanings which they now 
have, to beliefs of primitive man. When these words originated they 
were applicable to such beliefs, but in the evolution of culture their 
meanings have changed, and they are now symbols of beliefs that are 
very different from those which they originally represented. 

In the Hopi ritual there are dramatic celebrations of the arrival 
and departure of the katcinas. Certain clans have special festivals 
in which they dramatize the advent of their clan-ancients; thus the 
Katcina clan represents it in a festival called Powamu, the Asa clan 
in Pamurti, the Patki clan in Soyaluna. Kindred clans unite with 
the more prominent in the dramatization of the advent of their clan- 
ancients. There is only one dramatization of the departure of clan- 
ancients, a festival which is called the Niman (departure), and which 
occurs in July. Personations of the same clan-ancients do not appear 
every year at a stated time; in some years they are more numerous 
than in others, as quadrennially, when certain initiation ceremonies are 
performed. Particular personations are prescribed for great festivals 
like Pamurti, Powamu, and Paluliikonti, and these appear yearly, but 



fewkes] NUMBER OF KATCINAS 17 

there are others whose appearance depends on the inclination of the 
owner of the masks or on other causes, on which account the personnel 
of the actors in the festivals changes year by year without, however, 
there being any fundamental modifications. 

The author has repeatedly been informed by the Hopis that the 
number of katcinas is very great, much greater than the number 
figured, especially if all those mentioned in traditions are included. 
When we reflect upon the probable way these supernaturals have been 
added to the Hopi Olympus, we may gain some idea of their possible 
number, for each clan as it joined the Hopi population brought its own 
gods, and, as the clans came from distant pueblos, where environmental 
conditions differed, each had a mythologic system in some respects 
characteristic. Many Hopi clans have in course of time become extinct, 
and with their disappearance their old masks have passed into the 
keeping of kindred clans, to whom they are now known as u ancient," 
being never used. The distinctive names of such have been lost, but in 
some cases the mask still retains its symbols. Then there is a constant 
increase in the numbers of katcinas; not only are the Hopis acquainted 
with man} r katcinas that are no longer personated, but they are also 
continually introducing new ones. Thus the katcinas called Chicken, 
Cow, and many others which might be mentioned, have made their 
appearance in the last decade. It is not difficult to see how this may 
have been brought about. A man goes on a visit to Zuni or some 
Rio Grande pueblo and witnesses a personation of a katcina which, on 
returning to his own home, he introduces into the Hopi ritual. This 
process of introduction has been going on for many years, so that we 
have katcinas called Navaho, Kawaika (Keresan), Pima, Apache, and 
others of foreign derivation. Thus not only have clans introduced 
new katcinas from time to time, but individuals have done the same, 
and in man} r instances this introduction has taken place so lately that 
the name of the man who brought them is known, as he is still living 
in the pueblo. 

Of the masked personations among the Hopis some, as Tunwup, 
Ahiil, and Natacka, always appear in certain great ceremonies at stated 
times of the year. Others are sporadic, having no direct relation to 
any particular ceremony, and may be represented in any of the winter 
or summer months. They give variety to the annual dances, but are 
not regarded as essential to them, and merely to afford such variet} r 
many are revived after long disuse. Each year many katcinas may be 
added to an} T ceremony from the great amount of reserve material 
with which the Hopis are familiar. Some have become extinct, and 
knowledge of them remains only in the memory of old men, or now 
and then one maybe recalled to mind by an ancient mask hanging in a 
darkened room. Thus, it is seen that within certain limits a change 

21 kth— 03 2 



18 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

is continually going on in the character of the personations in masked 
dances. It is more especially to the ancient or almost forgotten varie- 
ties that we should look for aid in making a classification of katcinas. 

The pictures have been arranged primarily on a basis of the sequence 
of appearance in the annual calendar. Possibly a more comprehen- 
sive classification of the pictures might be made with reference to the 
clans which introduced them, and tables are given with that thought in 
mind, but there is little possibility that a classification of this kind can 
be made complete, since the clan origin of many katcinas will always 
remain unknown. 

The classification of katcinas by names leads to important results, 
but the nomenclature, for many reasons, is often deceptive. The 
same god may have several attributal or clan names which have sur- 
vived from the different languages spoken originally by component 
clans of the tribe. Certain peculiarities of song or step of the per- 
sonator, or a marked or striking symbol on his paraphernalia, may 
have given a name having no relation to the spirit personated. Keep- 
ing this fact in mind, and remembering the permanency of symbols 
and the changeability of nomenclature, we are able to discover the 
identity of personations bearing' widely different names. 

An important aspect of the study of these pictures is the light their 
names often throw on their derivation. We find some of them called 
by Zuiiian, others by Keresan, Tanoan, Piman, and Yuman names, 
according to their derivation. Others have names which are dis- 
tinctly Hopi. This composite nomenclature of their gods is but a 
reflection of the Hopi language, which is a mosaic of many different 
linguistic stocks. No race illustrates better than the Hopi the per- 
petual changes going on in languages which Payne so ably discusses 
in the second volume of his History of America. The successive clans 
which united with the original settlers at Walpi introduced many 
words of their peculiar idioms, and it is doubtful whether the present 
Walpians speak the same tongue that the Snake (Telia) clans spoke 
when they lived at Tokonabi, their ancient home in northern Arizona. 

HOPI FERIAL CALENDAR 

Peculiar Features 

The author will first sketch the ferial calendar a of Walpi and give a 
brief account of the nature of the rites occurring each month, having 
especially in mind the personages here figured; but only so much of 
this calendar will be given as will help to explain the pictures and 
render the paraphernalia intelligible. 

" For ferial calendar of the Ilopis, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band viii, 1895, pp. 
215, 236: American Anthropologist, vol. xi, 1898; Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, 1897, p. 260etseq. 



fewkes] HOPI CEREMONIAL CALENDAR 19 

The ceremonial year of the Hopis begins in November with a New- 
iire ceremony which assumes two forms, elaborate and abbreviated. 
The elaborate form, given every fourth } T ear, is very complicated, 
owing to the initiation of novices into the fraternities. Following 
this precedent, the rites of the winter solstice (Soyaluna), Powamu, 
and Paliiliikonti are celebrated in extenso in those years. The elabo- 
ration or abbreviation of the New-fire ceremony, which opens the 
calendar, thus profoundly affects all festivals of the remainder of the 
year. 

There are also several other variations in the calendar, due to 
the celebration of either the Snake or Flute festival, which alternate 
with each other. Thus in odd years there is in January an assemblage 
of the Snake fraternity, while in even years the Flute priests have a 
meeting in the same month. There are likewise certain minor modi- 
fications in other ceremonies in those years in which the Flute and 
Snake ceremonies, respectively, are celebrated. 

It must be borne in mind that the Hopis are ignorant of the 
Roman names of months, January, February, and the like, but these 
names are introduced in the following pages for convenience in reduc- 
ing their calendar to our own. Their months often take the names of 
the ceremonies which occur in them. 

The four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, have no 
equivalents among the Hopi so far as is known. The Hopi year has 
two divisions, which may be designated that of the named and that of 
the nameless moons; the former is the cold period, the latter is the 
warm — roughly speaking, they are winter and summer. These divi- 
sions ma} T be called the greater and lesser periods, as the former begins 
in August and ends in March. In the first occur the greater, in the 
other the lesser mysteries (see below, Classification of Festivals), 
although this practice is sometimes reversed. 

Classification of Festivals 

As has been noted, the ceremonies in the Hopi calendar vary in 
complexity as a result of the initiation of novices into the priesthoods, 
which occurs about every four years. 

In addition to this quadrennial variation there is a lesser and 
greater celebration of the same festival each year, which are ordi- 
narily six months apart, the lesser being generally in winter. The 
adjective "elaborate" will be applied to those quadrennial festivals 
which are celebrated in extenso, " abbreviated " being applied to the 
smaller celebrations in intervening years; the two yearly presentations 
will be known as the greater and lesser mysteries. 



20 



HOPI KATCINAS 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Elaborate Festivals 

Some of the elaborate festivals involve nine days' active work, 
others live. In years when the New-lire ceremony is brief, other nine- 
day ceremonies are abbreviated to five, and five-day ceremonies are 
shortened to one. A list of the festivals of the latter class is given 
below, under Abbreviated Festivals. 

Among elaborate festivals with a nine-day duration may be men- 
tioned the following: 



Naacnaiya. 

Soyalufia. 

Powaniu. 

Niman. 

Tciiatikibi ( Tciiapaki a ) . 



Lelefiti (Lefipaki). 

Lalakofiti. 

Mamzrauti (Maraupaki). 

Owakiilti. 



With the exception of Powamu and Niman the above festivals have 
two additional ceremonial days called the smoke talk and the public 
announcement days. The ceremonial days of these elaborate festivals 
are called: 



First day: Tcotcoyunya. 
Second day: Tiyuna. 
Tenth day: Yuilya. 
Eleventh day: Custala. 
Twelfth day: Luetala. 
Thirteenth day: Naluctala. 



Fourteenth day: Yufiya. 
Fifteenth day: Cuskahimu. 
Sixteenth day: Komoktotokya. 
Seventeenth day: Totokya. 
Eighteenth day: Tihiini. 



The days between the announcement (second day) and Yuiiya (tenth 
day) are generally seven in number, but may be less. The nine active 
days begin on the first Yunya and end on Tihiini, the public dance day, 
which is followed by three or four days of purification. Practically 
eacli of these ceremonies takes twenty days from the smoke talk 
(Tcotcoyunya) to the final day of purification. 

Abbreviated Festivals 



Among five-day ceremonies which are believed to be contracted 
forms of the first group, may be mentioned: 



Wuwutcimti. 

Pamiirti. 



Paliiliikonti, or Ankwanti. 



The one-day ceremonies, which may be extended over five days in 
special years, are as follow: 



Winter Flute prayer-stick-making. 
Winter Snake prayer-stick-making. 
Winter Lakone prayer-stick-mak- 
ing. 



Winter Marau prayer-stick-making. 
Summer Sun prayer-stick-making. 
Winter Sun prayer-stick-making. 
Momtcita. 



"Literally, snake (teiia) going down (pakit), referring to entering the kiva. 



fewkes] HOPI FESTIVALS BY MONTHS 21 

Tabular View of Festivals in a Hopi Year 

The following ceremonies, celebrated annually at the East mesa of 
Tusayan, are mentioned with the months in which they occur, begin- 
ning with the New-fire or November festival. 

November, Kelemuryawu {Novices' Moon) 

jWuwutcimti (New-tire ceremony). 
jXaacnaiya (with initiation of novices) . 

November is generally considered the opening month of the Hopi 
year, and on the character of the New-lire ceremony, whether elab- 
orate (Naacnaiya) or abbreviated (Wuwutcimti), depends that of the 
following festivals, for if the former is celebrated the winter ceremo- 
nies which follow are always more complicated. 

December, Kyamuryawu 

1. Soyaluna (All-assembly, Winter-solstice). 

Synchronous meeting of all clans in their respective kivas with 
altars and prayers to Muyinwu, the germ god. An elaborate sun 
drama occurs in certain kivas during the festival. 

2. Momtcita (war dance of the Kalektaka or warrior priesthood of the Pakab 
clans). 

Stone images of the Hano warrior gods, corresponding to the Hopi 
Piuikon hoy a, Paluna hoy a, and their grandmother Kokyan wiiqti 
(Spider woman), are displayed at the winter solstice ceremony (called 
Tantai by the Tewas). At Hano the rites of these gods are combined 
with those of the germ gods, but at Walpi they are distinct, following 
Soyaluna. 

In this festival there is an altar and prayer-stick-making. The 
Hano warrior altars are erected in the same rooms and at the same 
time as those of the Winter-solstice ceremony. 

January, Pamuryawu 

1. Fami'irti. 

A dance celebrated at Sichumovi by the Asa and Honani clans, 
dramatizing the return of the sun, followed by their clan-ancients or 
katcinas, called by Zuni names. 

2. Lenya or Tci'ia paholawu (Flute or Snake prayer-stick-making). 

W inter or lesser Flute or Snake prayer-stick-making. The Flute 
or Snake fraternity of the under world is supposed to meet at this 
time, and there is a sympathetic gathering of Flute priests in even 
years and Snake priests in odd years. In the odd years certain rites 
occur in the kivas during the Soyaluna ceremony to harmonize with the 
preeminence of the Snake chief in those years. 

3. Mucaiasti ( Buffalo dance). 

4. Tawa paholawu (Sun prayer-stick-making. ) 

Winter or lesser assemblage of the Sun priests. 



22 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

F< bruary, Powamuryawu 

1. Powamti (Bean-planting). 

A ceremonial purification festival celebrating* the return of the clan- 
ancients of the Katcina clan, in which several other clan-ancients like- 
wise appear. 

2. Lakone paholawu (Lakone prayer-stick-making). 

Winter or lesser sympathetic meeting of the Lakone priesthood, 
who make offerings and deposit them in distant shrines. 

March , Ucumuryawu 

1. Paliilukonti, or Aiikwanti. 

Theatrical performance or mystery play, illustrating the growth of 
corn; its purpose is the production of rain. 

2. Marau paholawu (Marau prayer-stick-making). 

Spring meeting of the Marau fraternity, who make offerings and 
deposit them in distant shrines. 

3. Sumaikoli. 

Spring meeting of the Sumaikoli and Ya}^a fraternities. A festival 
of short duration in which new fire is kindled by frictional methods. 

May, Kyamuryawu 

Abbreviated Katcina dances. 

Masked personations of different clan-ancients or katcinas,, in public 

dances of a single day's duration, sometimes accompanied with secret 

rites. 

July, Pamuryauu 

Njman Katcina (Departure of the Katcinas). 
Elaborate celebration of the departure of the katcinas. 

August, Powamuryauu 
1. Snake dance (Tciiapaki). 

In odd }^ears at Walpi, alternating with the Flute festival in even 
years. 

1. Flute dance (Lenpaki). 

2. Tawa paholawu (Sun prayer-stick-making). 
Prayer-stick-making by the Sun priests. 

3. Sumaikoli. 

Meeting of the Sumaikoli fraternity. 

September 
Lalakonti. 

Basket dance of the Patki (Rain-cloud) clans. Meeting of the 
Lakone fraternity, in which an elaborate altar is erected and a public 
basket dance is celebrated. 



FEWKES] 



HOPI PRIEST FRATERNITIES 



23 



October 

1. Owakiilti. 

Basket dance of the Buli and Pakab clans. Meeting- of the Owakiiltii 
society, when an elaborate altar is erected and a basket dance is 
celebrated. 

2. Mamzrauti. 

Hand-tablet dance. Meeting of the Marau society, when an elab- 
orate altar is erected and a hand-tablet dance is celebrated. 



PRIEST FRATERNITIES IN HOPI CEREMONIAL 

FESTIVALS « 

Each of the above-mentioned ceremonial festivals is performed by a 
society of priests . and is simple or complex according to the relative 
strength and social influence of its priesthood. The following lists 
give the names of these societies and the festivals in which they are 
specially prominent: 



Fraternity 



Aaltu 

Wuwutcimtu 

Tataukyamu. 
Kwakwantu . 



Festival 



Katcina 



Tci'ia 
Tci'ib 



Wuwiitcimti 
Naacnaiya 

rPamiirti 

Powamu 

Abbreviated Katcina dances 
INiman 

rWinter Snake ceremony 
ISnake dance 
rWinter Flute ceremony 
IFlute dance 

T « lakn~t*i rWinter Lakone prayer-stick-makinj 

iLalakonti 



Lenva. 



Owakiiltii 



(?) 
Owakiilti 

j Winter Marau prayer-stick-makim 

iMamzrauti 

(Winter Sun prayer-stick-inakiny; 
llSummer Sun prayer-stick-making 

Kalektaka Momtcita 

Vaya rSummer Sumaikoli 

Sumaikoli ISpring Sumaikoli 



Tawa. 



a For Hopi religious fraternities see Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. ri, 1392. 



24 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

There are a few other priest fraternities which take part in the 
celebration of Hopi ceremonies, the most important of which are the 
Tcukuwimpkya, among which may be mentioned the Paiakyamii (mud- 
heads), Tatciikti (clowns), and Tcutckutu (gluttons). They are inti- 
mately associated with the masked katcina observances, in which they 
generally take part. 

DESCRIPTION OF HOPI FESTIVALS 
Wuwutcimti, New-fire Ceremony 

The festival of the new fire is performed by four religious fra- 
ternities or societies called the Aaltu or Alosaka, the Kwakwantu, 
Tataukyamu, and Wiiwutcimtu. 

The dominating element in this great yearly festival, which opens 
the Hopi year, is the worship of the germ god, Alosaka or Muyinwu. 
Fire is a living being, a mystery, or spirit, and the creation of fire is 
symbolic of the creation of life. The making of the new fire may be 
considered as a kind of sympathetic magic or symbolic prayer for the 
rejuvenescence of nature, and the various so-called phallic proceed- 
ings which accompany it have the same significance. This festival is 
not regarded as a fire-worship ceremonial, but an aspect of the worship 
of the mystery or medicine which fire shares with every other living 
or moving thing, embracing both organic and inorganic objects. 

SOYALUNA 

The winter solstice ceremony, called Soyaluna, All-assembly, is an 
occasion of many rites in all kivas on the East mesa, the altars in which 
are described elsewhere. Its main feature is a prayer to Muyinwu, 
the germ god, and in one of the kivas certain clans from the south 
dramatize the advent of the sun god in the form of a bird. 

The public advent of this sun or sky god takes place on the follow- 
ing morning, when the bird personation is replaced by a masked man, 
called Ahulani. This sun god is also called Soyal katcina, from the 
fact that he appears at Soyaluna. He is accompanied by two maids, 
called So} T al manas, wearing masks resembling those of Anya katcina 
manas, who distribute seed corn to the women of the pueblo. 

It will later appear that there is the same dramatization of the 
arrival of the gods in this festival as in Powamu and Pamurti. There 
is a representation of the return of a sky or sun god, who appears 
first in the kiva and then on the following morning at sunrise in pub- 
lic, distributing gifts to the people and receiving their prayers. a 

"For a description of the elaborate rites at the advent of the sun god in the kiva, see American 
Anthropologist, 1899 and 1900. The exercises in the Hano kivas, where there are two altars with 
serpent clli^ics (see American Anthropologist, new series, vol. 1, 1899), are mainly for rain and crops. 



fewkes] MOMTCITA CEREMONY 25 

On one of the days of this festival men personating- many kinds of 
birds dance together in the Nacab kiva; this dance is repeated in the 
Powamil festival, when all the bird masks are repainted and the bodies 
of the participants are decorated with feathers, the wings and tail 
being attached feathers. The following birds are personated: 

Kwahu, Eagle. Turpockwa. 

Keca, Hawk. Totca, Hummingbird. 

Kowako, Chicken. Pawik, Duck. 

Patszro, Snipe. Monwii, Owl. 

Hotsko, Owl. Kwayo, Hawk. 

MOMTCITA 

This special ceremony of the Kalektaka, or warrior societ} r , intro- 
duced by the Pakab or Reed (arrow) clans, whose chief is Pautiwa, 
is observed directly after Soyaluna. The society has a special room 
for its meeting, which is under the old Pakab house and is entered 
from the roof. Ordinarily this room, called the Piiiikonki or house 
of the god of war, is closed. The four walls are decorated with 
pictures of animals, as follows: On the north side there is a picture 
of Toko, the Mountain Lion; on the west wall is Honauu, the Bear; 
on the south is Tokotci, the Wildcat, above which is a five-pointed 
star; and on the east is Kwewii, the Wolf, above which is a picture 
of the sun. From their positions on the walls these animals may be 
judged to be the distinctive beasts of these cardinal points. In one 
corner of this room there is a recess, ordinarily closed by a fiat slab 
of rock luted in place, in which the images of the war gods are kept. 
At the time of the ceremon}^ these fetishes and a number of old celts, 
ancient weapons, bows, arrows, and tiponis of the Kalektaka society 
are arranged in the form of an altar. 

Prayer-sticks of peculiar construction are made by the Kalektaka, 
and there is a dance at daybreak on the day after their manufacture, 
in which the participants carry guns, bows, arrows, and other war 
implements. 

The rude stone images representing the Hano war gods are arranged 
in the kivas during the celebration of the Soyaluna, in the manner 
described in an account of the rites of the winter solstice at the 
pueblo. They represent the two war gods, the Spider woman, their 
grandmother, and Wicoko, a giant bird. The warrior celebration at 
llano is combined with the winter solstice rites, whereas in Walpi 
it is distinct, or rather the Reed or Pakab clans have a special warrior 
celebration. 

The three principal images or idols are Puukon hoy a, Paluna hoy a, 
and Kokyan wuqti, the symbolism of which is shown in the pictures. 

There arc other images of Puukon hoy a in Walpi which are brought 
into the kivas at Soyaluna; as one belonging to the Katcina clan, used 



26 HOPI KATCINAS [eth, ann. 21 

in the Mon kiva. and one of the Kokop clan, used in the Nacab kiva. 
These are supposed to have been the property of the warriors of these 
two clans, but there are no special rites connected with them. At Hano 
the rites of the warriors occur at the winter solstice, when elaborate 
altars are erected. 

Pamurti 

The Zuni Indians are said a to claim Sichumovi as one of their towns, 
and the Hopis sometimes refer to it as the Zuni pueblo, for the reason 
that the clans which settled it, mainly the Asa, and possibly also the 
Honani, came from Zuni; but of that the author is not quite sure. 
It is commonly said that the Asa belong to the Tanoan stock and that 
they migrated from the Rio Grande via Zuni, where they left repre- 
sentatives called the Aiwahokwi. 

The belief of the Zunis and Hopis that Sichumovi is closety con- 
nected with the Zuni clans is supported by the existence in that pueblo 
of a ceremony — Pamurti — in which the majority of the personators 
are called by Zuni names, and are dressed to represent Zuni katcinas. 
In this festival there are neither secret ceremonials nor altars, save 
those presently to be mentioned, and no tiponis nor society badges, 
although ancient masks are publicly displayed in certain houses. 

The Pamurti at Sichumovi in the year 1900 eclipsed all ceremonies 
in January at the East mesa, but simultaneously with it dances were 
performed in the other pueblos. Pamurti celebrates the katcinas' 
return (ikini) to the pueblo, the personations at Sichumovi mainly 
representing the ancients of the Honani and Asa clans.* In the same 
manner Powamu is supposed to represent the return of the ancients 
of the Katcina clan. 

The Pamurti opened with a personation of Pautiwa, who in this 
festival at Sichumovi is the sun god of the Asa and Honani clans. On 
the opening day of the celebration he went to every kiva on the East 
mesa announcing that in eight days the ancients would return and the 
Pamurti would be celebrated. He threw meal at the homes of the 
chief clans of Sichumovi — the Honani, Asa, and Patki clans — as he 
passed through the pueblo, a symbolic act analogous to that of Ahiil, 
who in Powamu makes markings of meal on the doorwa} r s of all the 
houses of chiefs. 

Eight days after the sun god, Pautiwa, had made the circuit of the 
kivas as above mentioned, personators of the following beings marched 
from the Sun spring up the trail into Sichumovi: 

Pautiwa, Sun god. 

Tcolawitze, Fire god. 

Cakwa Cipikne, Green Cipikne. 



"Mrs Stevenson informed the author thai the Zufli claim one of the towns on the East mesa, and 
later he learned that the town referred to is Siehnmovi. 
'•See Journal of Ameriean Ethnology and Arelucology, vol. n, 1892. 



fewkes] PAMURTI CEREMONY 27 

Sikya Cipikne, Yellow Cipikne. 

Hakto. 

Huik. 

Hututu. 

Caiastacana, Long horn. 

The men who personated these beings gathered about 4 p. m. at 
a house of the Badger elan on the Zuni trail, far out on the plain — 
and there dressed, putting on their masks and other paraphernalia. 
They then marched in procession to the Sun spring (Tawapa), where 
they were joined by Walpi men, who came from the Mon and Nacab 
kivas. Those from the Mon kiva represented Heliliilu, Kwahu 
(Eagle), Kwayo (Hawk), Macikwayo (Drab Hawk), Pawik (Duck), and 
many mudheads or clowns; those from the Nacab kiva contributed 
several personations of Tcakwainas. The procession, enlarged by 
these additions, re-formed and continued on up the mesa, under lead 
of the sun god personation, Pautiwa, past the liabbit-ear shrine 
(Sowinakabu) to the Sun shrine, on the east edge of the mesa, mid- 
wa} T between Walpi and Sichumovi. On their arrival there they 
re-formed in platoons and continued on to the latter pueblo. 

The procession entered the pueblo about sunset, presenting a most 
barbaric appearance in the rays of light from the western sk} r . The 
numerous masked men walked in platoons, wearing painted helmets, 
those representing birds prancing backward and forward, raising their 
arms, to which feathers were attached to imitate wings; there were 
also platoons of men with painted bodies, wearing horned knobbed 
helmets closely fitting their heads, singing songs and shaking rattles. 
Prominent among all was a naked boy, painted from head to foot 
with spots of different colors. He was called Tcolawitze and carried 
in his hand a cedar- bark torch, one end glowing with lire. The most 
startling figure was perhaps that representing the Humis katcina, 
or rather the Zuni supernatural of this name. He was accompanied 
by a relative, called their uncle (taamu), and two others known as the 
Avatc hoya or Little Spotted Ones. These danced together with a full 
chorus on the following day in the plaza of the pueblo. 

There was also on this day a dance in which more than twent} r men, 
personating the Duck or Pawik katcinas, appeared in line in the same 
plaza. The procession entered Sichumovi back of Anawita's house, 
continuing along the row of houses on the east side, toward llano. 
Turning westward at the north end of the row it passed into the plaza 
of the pueblo, where it divided into four groups, each of which sought 
one of the houses of the four chief clans, soon to be mentioned, where 
receptions had been prepared. 

At intervals along the route of their march through the pueblo six 
temporary shrines had been erected, consisting of a few upright stones 
inclosing a prayer-stick. Connecting these shrines a line of sacred meal 



28 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

was drawn on the ground, along which line the procession passed. As 
the personators arrived at each of the six shrines they performed a 
dance near it, and the leader scattered prayer-meal on the prayer-stick. 
Each of the four divisions of the procession went to one or another 
of the following houses: Asa clan house (Homovi's), Honani clan house 
(Xuvasrs), Patki clan house (Tcoshoniwu's), and Kukutc clan house 
(SikyahonauiYs). 

These houses had been specially fitted up for the reception of the 
incoming guests, and as they arrived they danced, passing in rotation 
to the other houses, and so continuing throughout the night. 

As each group entered a house, it tied a stick with attached feathered 
strings in the rafters, after which the katcinas doffed their masks, the 
men smoked and prayed, and a feast was served. At the close of the 
feast the women and children began to assemble, filling all available 
space in the rooms, each family seeking the clan with which it had 
social affiliation. 

There were no elaborate altars in these rooms, but at one end, on the 
floor, there were masks and other sacred objects belonging to the clan. 
In the floor of the room at that point there was a round hole called the 
sipapu, corresponding with a similar opening in the floors of the kivas. 
The walls of the Asa room were decorated with whole new buckskins 
nailed in a row about them. The mural decoration of the Kukutc 
clan was a ceremonial kilt painted on the four walls. All floors were 
carefully swept and the wealth of the clan was prominently displayed, 
the clan fetishes being placed on the floor near the symbolic opening 
mentioned above. 

The most important of the latter in the home of the Honani clan 
were four masks of Wiiwilyomo and four masks of the Zuni Calakos. 
These were arranged in two rows, one behind the other. Near this 
double row of masks the men representing Cipikne, Hakto, and Hututu 
set their masks. The author supposes that the four masks called Wii- 
wiiyomo (see plate v), which are apparently very old, as their name 
indicates, represent sun masks, and as such are symbolically and mor- 
phologically the same as that of Ahiil, the sun god of the Katcina 
clan. They are exceptional in having the curved snout (which is homol- 
ogous to an eagle's beak) turned upward, for in masks of other sun 
gods which have this organ it is turned downward. 

The four Zuni Calako masks, which the author believes are also 
symbolic sun masks, are of modern introduction into Tusayan, and do 
not differ in symbolism from those of the Calakos at Zuni, from which 
they were modeled. a 

No ancient masks were displayed in. the house of the Asa clan, but 

oThis is not the place to point out the resemblance between the symbolism of Uie Calako masks 
and those of the sun, but the author is firmly convinced that the Calako giants represent giant 
sun birds. Not only the symbolism but also the acts of these beings support this theory. The Calako 
festival is practically a sun drama. 



fewkes] WINTER FLUTE PRAYER-STICK-MAKING 29 

near a small opening in the floor representing the sacred region of 
the room, the men personating Cipikne, Hakto, Caiastacana, and 
Tcolawitze deposited their masks. 

In the house of the Patki clan there was what might be called a rude 
altar. At one end of the room, on a space a few feet square, the 
floor had been carefully sanded, and on the sand five rings were 
drawn side by side with meal. Within each of these rings there was 
a conventional symbol of a rain cloud. Bird worship predominates in 
the cults of this clan, and in these rings of meal the masks of the bird 
gods, Kwahu (Eagle), Kwayo (Hawk), and Macikwayo (Drab Hawk), 
were placed. It may be remembered that the personators who wore 
these masks were* Walpi men, and that the Patki is a Walpi clan, as 
distinguished from the Honani and Asa, which have Zuni affiliations. 

The house of the Kukiitc clan, also distinctly Ho pi, had, however, 
a row of twenty Tcakwaina masks hanging on the walls. These 
were not worn by personators in the procession from Tawapa to 
Sichumovi, but were prominent in the dances throughout the night. 

There were dances in Walpi and Hano kivas on the same night, at 
the same hour, participated in by unmasked personages — Mucaias taka 
(Buffalo youth), Tacab (Navaho), Woe, a Malo, and others. A dance 
representing all kinds of birds was performed on the same night in the 
Walpi Nacab kiva. 

Winter Flute Paholawu* 

This is an abbreviated meeting of the Flute priests, occurring in 
even years and lasting one day, during which a simple altar is made, 
tiponis are put in position, and prayer-sticks are manufactured. There 
is no public dance and there are usually no masked personages. The 
Hopi artist has given no drawing of the Flute priest, but in the col- 
lection there is a Lenya or Flute katcina, which sometimes appears. 

In the winter Flute ceremony there is no altar, but the tiponis or 
sacred badges of the Flute chief, Turnoa, the Bear chief, Kotka, and 
the speaker chief, Honyi, are placed in line in a ridge of sand back of 
the symbolic opening in the floor of the kiva called the sipapu. 

In 1900 the Flute chief made the following prayer-sticks: 

1. A double prayer-stick or paho, flat on one side, an offering to 
Cotokinunwu. 

'1. Eight ordinary green flute pahos. 

Honyi made the following: 

1. A double paho, flat on one side, with corn-husk packages of meal. 

2. Ordinary green flute pahos. 

The other men present made each two double green pahos as long 
as the middle finger. 



a The chevron on the face of this being recalls the eagle and hawk symbolism. 

''The Snake chiefs meet in odd, the Flute in even, years. There are some variations in all the 
ceremonies of the calendar connected with the celebration of Flute or Snake dance. 



30 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Hani, the Piba-Tabo chief, acted the part of pipe lighter, and, after 
all the priests had taken their positions around the three badges of 
the chiefs and the basket-tray containing the prayer-sticks mentioned 
above, lit two pipes, one of which he passed to Tiirnoa and the other 
to Ilofiyi. 

Eight songs were then sung, which Hani accompanied on a flute. 
During the first song Kwatcakwa arose, put some meal on a feather 
which he held horizontally, and made several passes over the sacred 
objects. 

In the second song several rattles made of corn shells were used to 
beat time, and Kwatcakwa sprinkled the objects with sacred meal. 
During the third song Kotka asperged these objects with medicine 
liquid. During the sixth and eighth songs Momi, of the Telia clan, 
arose, and stood before the three sacred badges of the chiefs, twirling 
the whizzer or bull-roarer, after which he repeated the same act on 
the roof of the kiva. 

At the close of the songs all prayed in sequence, ana the rites ended 
with a formal smoke. The prayer-sticks were given to Sikyabotima, 
of the Kiikiitc clan, who ran with them as a courier to the different 
shrines of the gods for which they had been made. 

Wahikwinema, Children's Dance 

Two days after the winter Flute ceremony just described, 15 little 
boys and as many girls, each about 10 years old, performed a simple 
dance in the Walpi plaza. They were dressed and painted by their 
elders to represent katcinas, and men sang for them as they danced 
like their parents, beating time on a drum. At the close of this 
exhibition a small boy, one of their number, threw pifion nuts to the 
spectators from a bag he carried, which gives the dance the name it 
bears (we go throwing). 

Mucaiasti, Buffalo Dance 

On the night of January 15, 1900, a Buffalo dance was performed in 
the Mon kiva by two men wearing Buffalo masks. Tacab and Woe 
katcinas were represented in the Wikwaliobi kiva, Malo katcina was 
represented in the Nacab kiva, and the bird personations, Kwahu, 
Monwu, and Anwuci, appeared in the Tcivato kiva, accompanied by 
many mudheads. This was apparently unconnected with the Sichumovi 
Pamiirti or with the rites with which the Flute priests made prayer- 
sticks, which took place in Walpi on the same da}^. 

In the Mucaiasti or Buffalo dance no altar is erected, but the men 
who take the part of the Mucaias taka deposit offerings in the Buffalo 
shrine at its close. 

The participants in the Mucaiasti of 1900 were (1) the Buffalo youths, 
(2) the Buffalo maids, (3) the chorus. 



fewkes] WINTER SUN PRAYER-STICK-MAKING 31 

The pictures give a good idea of the paraphernalia of the first two 
groups, which dance together. The chorus accompanies them with a 
drum, singing a loud and effective song. During the dance it is cus- 
tomary to discharge firearms and to imitate in a way a hunt of the 
bison, and this part of the ceremony was formerly carried out in a 
much more realistic way than at present. 

The men of the chorus are gaudily painted, bearing sticks or poles 
to which ribbons, calico, and feathers are attached. 

The Buffalo dance is a foreign addition to the Hopi calendar. It is 
said to be a Tewan ceremonial dance, and some of the Walpi women 
say the} T introduced it into Zuni. The Hano people claim that their 
Mucaiasti is the best on the East mesa; in former years it was cele- 
brated with much more eclat than at present. There is a tradition that 
a Buffalo maid was brought to Tusa} 7 an from the Eastern pueblos by 
the Sun. whose emblem she bears on her back in the dance. 

Winter Tawa Paholawu 

This meeting of the Sun priests or Tawawimpkiya is a comple- 
mental ceremony, at or near the winter solstice, of the summer meet- 
ing, which occurs in July/' No altars are employed, but a number 
of prayer-sticks are made and later are deposited in special shrines. 

The Winter Sun prayer-stick-making takes place in the same room 
as the Summer, in a house near the Mon kiva, under the entrance to 
the ancestral residence of the Patki clan. The only fetish employed 
is a rude stone frog, over which is stretched a string extended along a 
line of meal on the floor, symbolic of the pathway of blessings. The 
men who participate in this rite are all members of the Patki clan. 

POWAMU 

The Powamu festival, ordinarily called the Bean-planting, is one of 
the most elaborate of all katcina exhibitions, and at Walpi is controlled 
by Naka, chief of the Katcina clan. One object of this festival is a 
purification or renovation of the earth for future planting, but the 
main purpose is a celebration of the return of the katcinas. The 
festival differs considerably in the six Hopi pueblos and is apparently 
most complicated at Oraibi. 

PLANTING OF BEANS 

In the early- days of Powamu, beans are planted in all the kivas of 
the three villages. Walpi, Sichumovi, and Hano, and forced to grow 
in superheated rooms until the morning of the final day, when they 
arc pulled, tied in small bundles, and distributed, with dolls, bows and 
arrows, turtle shells, rattles, etc, to the children, by masked persons 
from each kiva. 

a See Journal of American Ethnology and Archeology, vol. u, 1892. 



82 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ank. 21 

DANCES IN THE KIVAS 

On every night from the opening to the close of the festival there 
were dances, unmasked or masked, in all the kivas of the East mesa. 

There are personations in nine different kivas at the same time, and 
although the author has obtained the names and pictures of the 
katcinas personated, it was quite impossible for him to witness all 
these dances. 

The unmasked dances of katcinas in the kivas are called by the same 
name as when masks are worn. Some of them are in the nature of 
rehearsals. When the dance takes place in the public plaza, all the 
paraphernalia are ordinarily worn, but the dances without masks in the 
kivas are supposed to be equally efficacious. 

On account of the large number of masked men who appear in 
Powamu, it is one of the most important festivals in which to study 
katcinas. The whole ceremony is of from sixteen to twenty days' 
duration, and will later be described in extenso, but for a proper 
understanding of the functions of the masked personators a summary 
is introduced of the events of each day in the celebration in 1900. 

On the night of February 1 there occurred in all kivas a series of 
dances of strange character. They followed one after another in rapid 
succession, and while they took place in all the kivas, the author wit- 
nessed them in only one. 

First Act 

The first dance was performed by men from the Nacab kiva. The 
men represented all the birds which the Hopis personate in their dances, 
and the personations were very good. They wore bird masks, their 
bodies were painted, and small feathers were stuck on their naked legs, 
arms, and bodies with pitch. They imitated to perfection the step, 
cry, and motions of Kwahu (Eagle), Palakwayo (Red Hawk), To tea 
(Humming-bird), Monwu (Owl), Koyona taka (Cock), Koyona mana 
(Hen), Yaupa (Mocking-bird) Patszro (Quail), Keca (Hawk), Hotsko 
(Owl?). Three bees (Momo) were also personated, and the men per- 
sonating them went about the kiva imitating bees stinging by shooting 
miniature arrows at the spectators. 

Second Act 

The Tewa kiva contributed a number of mudheads called Koyimsi 
(a Zuni name), who danced and sang, performing certain obscene acts 
which need not be described. 

Third Act 

A large delegation of Sio (Zuni) katcinas performed the third dance, 
which occurred shortly after that of the mudheads. They came from 



fewkes] POWAMU CEREMONY 33 

one of the Sichumovi kivas, and their dance was practically the same 
as that which has been elsewhere described. a 

Fourth Act 

This act consisted of a dance by men representing 1 Tcakwaina 

katcinas. 

Fifth Act 

One of the Sichumovi kivas contributed to this series a dance by a 
number of masked men representing Tacab (Navaho) katcinas, who 
were accompanied by two mudheads or clowns. 

Stxt/i Act 

This dance was the most exciting* of all the exhibitions in this con- 
tinuous performance. The dramatis personam were Tumas, Huhuan, 
and ten personations of Tuiiwup, the flogger, all of whom came from 
the Moil kiva of Walpi. 

The most exciting event in this dance was a flogging act by the last 
mentioned. During the dance a ring was drawn with meal on the 
floor, and one of their number stepped within it, dancing all the 
while, and two of his comrades struck him as hard as they could with 
yucca boughs on naked back, arms, legs, and abdomen. Shortly after 
this many spectators, men and women, stepped forward and received 
similar floggings on bared legs and arms. 

ADVENT OF THE SUN GOD, AHUL 

The Powamu sun god arrives in the kiva, where he is said to rise b 
on the night of February 1. Certain rites attend that event, but his 
advent in public occurs on the following morning (February 2) at sun- 
rise. The man who is to personate the sun god dresses and masks 
himself at the shrine, Wala, on the trail to Hano, and just as the sun 
reddens the east he starts up the trail, guided by the Katcina chief. 
His dress and the symbolism of his mask can be known by consulting 
the figure which the artist has drawn of him, but a brief reference to 
his acts may find a place in the general account of Powamu. 

The advent of the sun personator is described elsewhere as follows : c 

Just as the sun rose the two [Ahul and the chief] visited a kiva in Hano. 
Stooping down in front of it, Ahul drew a vertical mark with meal on the inside of 
the front of the hatchway, on the side of the entrance opposite the ladder. He 
turned to the sun and made six silent inclinations, after which, standing erect, 
he bent his head backward and began a low rumbling growl, and as he bent his 
head forward raised his voice to a high falsetto. The sound he emitted was one 

aJournal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n. 1892. 

&The use of the same word for his appearance and for sunrise is significant. Ahul may be 
translated The Returning One. 
c Fifteenth Annual Report of the bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 1897, i>. 277. 

- 21 ETH— 03 3 



34 



HOPI KATCINAS 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



long expiration, and continued as long as he had breath. This aet he repeated four 
times, and, turning toward the hatchway, made four silent inclinations, emitting 
the same four characteristic expiratory calls. The first two of these calls began with 
a low growl, the other two were in the same high falsetto from beginning to end. 

The kiva chief and two or three other principal members, each carrying a handful 
of meal, then advanced, bearing short nakwakwoci hotumni [stringed feathers tied 
to a twig], which they placed in his left hand while they uttered low, reverent 
prayers. They received in return a few stems of the corn and bean plants which 
Ahiil carried. 

Ahiil and Intiwa" next proceeded to the house of Tetapobi, who is the only repre- 
sentative of the Bear clan in Hano. Here at the right side of the door Ahiil pressed 
his hand full of meal against the wall at about the height of his chest and moved 
his hand upward. He then, as at the kiva, turned around and faced the sun, holding 
his staff vertically at arm's length with one end on the ground, and made six 
silent inclinations and four calls. Turning then to the doorway, he made four incli- 
nations and four calls. He then went to the house of Nampio's mother, where the 
same ceremony was performed, and so on to the houses of each man or woman of 
the pueblo who owns a tiponi or other principal wimi (fetish) . He repeated the 
same ceremony in houses in Sichumovi and Walpi. . 

During this circuit Ahiil visited the following kivas and clan houses 
of the three pueblos of the East mesa: 







Houses visited in Hano 




House 




Owner 


1. 


Tewa kiva 






2. 


Kolon clan house 




Nampio 


3. 


Ke clan house 




Pobi 


4. 


Sa clan house 




Anote 


5. 


Kisombi kiva 






6. 


Okuwan clan house 




7. 


Tail clan house 




Kalacai 



Houses visited in Sichumovi 



House 

1. Anwuci kiva 

2. Tcoshoniwii's kiva 

3. Honani clan house 

4. Honani clan house 

5. Ala clan house 



Owner 



Kokaamii 
Kele wiiqti 
Tuba 



Houses visited in Walpi 





House 


Owner 


Tiponi 


1. 


Kokop clan house 


Kutcnaiya 




2. 


Patki clan house 






3. 


Kokop clan house 


Saha 


Marau tiponi 


4. 


Lefiya clan house 


Sakbensi 


Len tiponi 


5. 


Mon kiva 






6. 


•Patki clan house 


Vensi 


Lakone tiponi 


7. 


Wikwaliobi kiva 






8. 


Asa clan house 


Wuko mana 


fWuwiitcim tiponi 
iTataukyamu tiponi 


9. 


Kokop clan house 


Nakwawainima. 


Owaki'il tiponi 



a Naka became Katcina chief at Intiwa's dfeath. 



FEWKES] 



POWAMU CEREMONY 



35 



10. Tciia clan house 

11. Xacab kiva 

12. Patki clan house 

13. Honau clan house 

14. Ala clan house 

15. Pakab clan house 

16. Katcina clan house 

17. Al kiva 

18. Tcivato kiva 

19. Asa clan house 

20. Patki clan house 

21. Pakab clan house 

22. Patki clan house 



Saliko 



Kotsyumsi 

Kotka 

Pontima 

Nunsi 

Komaletsi 



Tuwasmi 

Naciainima 

Poyaniumka 

Nempka 



Tci'ib tiponi 
Tciia tiponi 
Marau tiponi 
Teak tiponi 

Lakone tiponi 
Aal tiponi 

Kalektaka tiponi 
Katcina tiponi 



Aal tiponi 
Lakone tiponi 
Sumaikoli tiponi 

i Lakone tiponi 

iSoyal tiponi 



After the personator of the sun had visited all these houses and 
kivas he sought a shrine dedicated to the sun, where he made his 
offerings and, retiring to a sequestered place, disrobed and returned to 
the kiva in the pueblo, carrying his mask hidden in a blanket. This 
personation did not again appear in Powamu. 

PRELIMINARY VISIT OF THE MONSTERS 

On February 10, in Powamu, a group of monsters (Soyokos) from 
each pueblo visited every house on the mesa. The object of these 
visits was to tell the people that in several days they would return 
for meat and bread. These monsters are called Natackas, and the 
group from each pueblo consists of Hahai wiiqti (their mother), 
Natacka raana (maid) and Natacka naamu (their father). The members 
of each group from the different towns are clothed in essentially the 
same costume, and have the same symbols on their masks. 

The acts of Natacka naamu, Hahai wiiqti, and Natacka mana on 
February 10 were essentially the same, each group first visiting all 
the houses of its own pueblo and then those of families of the other 
pueblos on the P]ast mesa the heads of which were men of its town 
who had married and had children. 

When it arrived at a house, the group, preceded by Hahai wiiqti, 
halted before the door, and its leader called out in falsetto voice, asking 
for the inmates. The mother of the monsters carried a collection of 
snares (small animal traps made of a stick and yucca fiber) and when a 
man or boy appeared she gave him one, telling him to hunt game, 
and in eight days she and her company would return for meat. She 
gave to the women and girls an ear of corn, telling them to grind it, 
and saying that in eight days the visitors would return for meal and 
bread. The Natacka father (naamu) said nothing, but hooted and 
hopped back and forth, assuming threatening postures. 

This visit was an announcement to the households that in course of 



3() HOPI KATCINAS Leth. ann. 21 

time the monsters would return for gifts, so the males wore directed to 
hunt for meat and the women to prepare paper-bread and meal to give 

them. 

FLOGGING THE CHILDREN 

The most important act on February 14 was the child flogging at 
Walpi and Hano. This is done by two Tufiwup katcinas, assisted 
by their mother, Tumas, in the presence of people of the town, and 
is briefly described under the heading Tunwup. 

RETURN OF OTHER KATCINAS 

On the same day appear also Hahai wuqti and a number of other 
katcinas. Many masked men, singly or in pairs, wander about the 
pueblos, especially by night, during the preceding days. The theory 
of Powamu is that all the katcinas return, and one comes upon 
them unexpectedly in all the pueblos. Of many noticed besides those 
already mentioned, there were several called Wukokoti (big masks; 
plate xxiii), Ahote (plate xxxvn), and Owanozrozro (plate xxviii). 
They wander from place to place, accosting pedestrians or calling out 
at the kiva entrances to the inmates below. 

ADVENT OF MASAUU 

One of the most interesting ceremonials witnessed at Walpi in 
Powamu was performed on the evening of February 15. It was 
called the advent of Masauu, and is preliminary to one not seen by the 
writer, but described by some of the Hopis, which was later performed 
at or near planting time at Mastcomo, a mound on the trail from 
Walpi to the Middle mesa. As this rite is not of annual occurrence, 
and as it may not be witnessed again, it may be described in detail. 

On entering the Tcivato kiva about 8 p. m., the author found several 
chiefs seated in a ring by the fireplace, engaged in a ceremonial smoke. 
Among these men were Anawita, Sakwistiwa, Winuta, Kanu, Momi, 
Pautiwa, Haya, Honyi, and Tiirnoa. All smoked for a long time, 
frequently exchanging terms of relationship. 

There were in the room at the same time about twenty other men who 
were decorating their bodies with white pigment, drawing lines with 
this material along their legs and arms. They placed daubs of white 
on their cheeks and tied small yucca fibers in their hair. No masks 
were seen, but it was gathered from the conversation that some of 
these men were to personate katcinas, and some were to represent maids. 
They were called the Maswik katcinas (the Masauil-bringing katcinas) 
and later accompanied the Masauils as they went from kiva to kiva. 

When these men had finished their bodily decorations, they formed 
a line near the walls of the room and sang a spirited song in cadence 
with their dance. As they sang Momi left the room, but soon 



fewkes] POWAMU CEREMONY • 37 

returned with a mask of Masauii, which he laid by the fireplace within 
the ring- of priests. It looked like a giant skull, but closer examina- 
tion showed it to be a great hollow gourd, with a large broken orifice 
and small holes for eyes and mouth. It was not decorated, and was 
destitute of feather adornment. In places around the broken part the 
edge appeared serrated. Through the broken opening the head of the 
man who wore the mask was thrust. At the same time that Momi 
brought the mask he brought also two old, almost black blankets, two 
ancient planting sticks, and two basket plaques in which were frag- 
ments of piki (paper-bread) and other objects. 

Immediately after these objects had been laid on the floor, each of 
the chiefs puffed great whiffs of tobacco smoke on the mask, after 
which they prayed very fervently in sequence, beginning with 
Pautiwa. Songs then began, and as they sang Sakwistiwa took the 
mask in his hand and squirted over it from his mouth an unknown 
liquid which imparted a black color to the object. He then sprinkled 
on the face of the mask a quantity of micaceous iron (yayala) and laid 
it back on the floor. 

Each of the painted men then in turn approached the mask and 
laid a stringed feather, called a nakwakwoci, in one of the basket 
trays. They then formed in line and danced to songs, shaking cow 
bells and rattles, making a great noise. Meanwhile one of the chiefs, 
in a voice almost inaudible, talked to the mask. So low was his tone 
that it would have been impossible for one to have understood this 
address, even if he were well versed in the Hopi language. 

When the Maswiks had finished their songs, they filed out of the 
room and the two men who were to personate Masauii began their 
preparations. They tied agave (mobi) fiber about their legs and 
arms, slung the black blanket under one arm and tied it over the 
other shoulder; each took a planting stick and a basket tray. One of 
these men then slipped the gourd over his head, and thus costumed 
they left the room. 

Meanwhile the Maswiks, seating themselves on the top of the kiva, 
were awaiting the preparation of the two Masauus, and when the latter 
were ready they filed into the Mon kiva, where many male spectators 
had gathered to see the performance presently to be described. 

These Masauu rites are performed in each kiva in rotation, begin- 
ning with the Mon kiva. In each of these rooms a considerable num- 
ber of male spectators had gathered to witness the rites, and the events 
which occurred in the different kivas were substantially identical. 
Having seated himself among the spectators in one of the kivas, the 
author witnessed the ceremony from beginning to end. 

As the line of Maswiks came in, a pinch of sacred meal was thrown 
upon each by the kiva chief. A song then began, accompanied by 
the bells which the katcinas carried, and soon the personator of 



38 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

Masauu came down a ladder as it" a stairway, and, making his way back 
of the line of dancers, came forward between two of them and squatted 
before the fireplace; The second personator followed, unmasked, 
but with two black streaks painted on his cheeks. He took his seat 
by the side of Masauu, assuming the posture of a man planting, 
holding one end of the planting stick to the floor as if it were soil. 
Thus these two personators remained until the songs ceased, not 
speaking. When the Maswiks filed out, each said u Good night " but 
the last one, who carried a bundle slung over his shoulders, halted, 
w r ith one foot on the lowest rung of the ladder, and announced to the 
occupants of the room that a few moons hence there would be a 
Masauu ceremony at Mastcomo. 

At the departure of the dancers all occupants of the room crowded 
forward, each in turn placing his prayer symbol or feathered string in 
the basket tray, whispering a brief prayer to Masauu. This was an 
impressive ceremony, and was accompanied with much reverence. 
There was no loud talking, and each man seemed to speak confiden- 
tially to the personation of the supernatural being he addressed. Hay- 
ing received all the prayers of the kiva inmates, the two personations 
passed out of the room, leaving their trays full of stringed feathers. 
The situation of the shrines where these offerings were later placed 
was not observed, but some of them were placed at the shrine of 
Masauu in the foothills west of the mesa. 

The foregoing rites and the nature of the prayers addressed to 
Masauu lead the author to regard him as a god of germination or a 
personation of fire as a symbol of life. Life, to a primitive mind, is 
power of will expressed in motion, and is the mystery which animates 
everything, organic and inorganic. Masauu has the mysterious power 
so developed that he can make crops grow if he wills, and he w T as 
appealed to for crops, as a germ god. There are other germ gods, as 
Muyinwu or Alosaka, the germ god of Awatobi, but Masauu, one of 
the most archaic in Tusayan, was derived from Sik} T atki. In early 
history, as legend declares, he owned all Hopi territory, but the chief 
of the Snake clan, by the use of his own mysterious power, overcame 
the mystery or medicine of Masauu, even though he had power of life 
and death, and compelled him to do good deeds. 

Thus it is that Masauu is regarded as the god of fire, which is life; 
as the god of death; but above all as the god of germs, Eototo, whom 
the ancient Sikyatkians regarded as their special tutelary deity; once 
overcome by the Hopi, he now does their bidding. 

APPEARANCE OF POWAMU KATCINAS 

Certain beings called Powamu katcinas appear on the following 
morning in the kiva, where they dance and perform other rites. The 
artist has represented these, and also So wiiqti (Grandmother woman), 
who grasps the Powamu katcina by the hand (see plate xiv). 



fewkes] POWAMU CEREMONY 39 

DISTRIBUTION OF BEAN SPROUTS, DOLLS, AND OTHER OBJECTS 

At sunrise of the last day of Powarnu, two personations from each 
kiva distribute the sprouted beans, dolls, bows and arrows, moccasins, 
and other objects which have been made for that purpose. From their 
appearance at dawn they are called the Dawn (Telavai) katcinas, and 
in 1900 the following were observed performing- this duty: Owa 
katcina, Malo katcina, Hehea katcina, Huhuan katcina, Sio Humis 
katcina, Tatciikti. 

Shortly after this distribution a man personating Soyok wiiqti went 
about Walpi holding conversations at the kivas and private houses, 
frio'htenino- children until they cried. 

COLLECTION OF FOOD BY MONSTERS 

Later in the day three groups of Soyoko or monsters, each group 
consisting of four Natackas, one Natacka inana, one Hahai wiiqti, 
one Hehea katcina, and two Hehea katcina manas, went to every 
house of their pueblo demanding food from the inmates, as they had 
notified the people they would eight days previously. Hahai wiiqti 
acted as speaker, assuming a falsetto voice, the Natackas emphasized 
the demands, and Hehea, armed with lassos, tried to rope those who 
refused. It is customary for the boys to first offer Hahai wiiqti a 
mole or rat on a stick. This is refused, and then a small piece of 
meat, generally mutton, is held out. The Natacka examines it and if 
not large enough hands it back as he did the rat, shaking his hideous 
head. When the desired quantity of meat is presented, it is given to 
the Natacka mana, who transfers it to a basket she carries on her 
back. The girl or woman is then asked for meal, and she offers meal 
that she has ground from the ear of corn presented by the monsters 
on their previous visit. This is refused and more meal is demanded 
until enough is given to satisfy the monsters, who transfer it to the 
basket of Natacka mana, after which they retire. a 

Winter Lakone Paholawu 

The Lalakontu have an assemblage in winter — a meeting of the 
chiefs, at which prayer sticks are made. This is held in Vensi's house 
near the Mon kiva — the old house of the Patki clans. Vensi, the 
owner, is the oldest woman of the clan who is now active. No altar 
is put in place during this rite, which simply consists of prayers and 
songs. 

« The monsters that visit the houses as described above are represented in a photograph taken at 
Walpi by Mr James Mooney and published with his permission in a paper in the Fifteenth Annual 
Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, as plate cv. The names of these, beginning at the right 
of the line, are: 1, Hahai wiiqti; 2, Natacka naamii; 3, Soyok mana; 4, Soyok mana; 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
Natackas of different-colored masks; 10, 11, 12, Heheas. 



40 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

PaluU konti, or Ankwanti 

This festival, like the two preceding, is an excellent one in which 
to study Hopi symbolism, for many masked personages appear in the 
dramatizations in the kivas and on the plazas outside. As has been 
shown elsewhere, the proceedings in the kivas are theatrical exhibi- 
tions which vary from year to year accordingly as one chief or another 
controls the different acts. Throughout the performance at which the 
author was present two old men, who may be called the kiva chiefs, 
sat by the fireplace in the middle of the room and continually fed the 
flames with small twigs of greasewood, the sole method of lighting the 
room on that night. The heat was very great and the ventilation was so 
poor that the atmosphere was stifling. The audience consisted mainly 
of women and children, who occupied one end of the room, the remain- 
der being empty except while performances were being enacted. 
Everyone was gladly welcomed to see the performance, and there were 
probably not a dozen persons on the mesa who did not attend. No one 
paid admission to this theater and no actor received a recompense. It 
was a festival for all to enjoy, as all contributed to its success. Except 
in one act, no woman took part as an actor, and there were few men 
in the audience. The spectators assembled about 9 p. m., each clan 
seeking that kiva with which it had social affiliation. These acts are 
thus described in another paper:" 

ACTS PERFORMED IN 1900 

First Act 

A voice was heard at the hatchway, as if someone were hooting 
outsjde, and a moment later a ball of meal, thrown into the room from 
without, landed on the floor b} r the fireplace. This was a signal that the 
first group of actors had arrived, and to this announcement the fire 
tenders responded," Yunya ai " ( %i Come in " ), an invitation which was 
repeated by several of the spectators. After considerable hesitation 
on the part of the visitors and renewed cries to enter from those in 
the room, there was a movement above and the hatchway was dark- 
ened by the form of a man descending. The fire tenders rose and 
held their blankets about the fire to darken the room. Immediately 
there came down the ladder a procession of masked men bearing long 
poles, upon which was rolled a cloth screen, while under their blankets 
certain objects were concealed. Filing to the unoccupied end of the 
kiva, they rapidly set up the objects they bore. When they were 
ready a signal was given, and the fire tenders, dropping their blankets, 
resumed their seats by the fireplace. On the floor before our aston- 
ished eyes we saw a miniature field of corn, made of small cla} r ped- 
estals out of which projected corn sprouts a few inches high. Behind 

"A theatrical performance at Walpi, in Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 
ii, Washington, 1900, pp. 007-626. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 41 

this field of corn hung a decorated cloth screen reaching* from one 
wall of the room to the other and from the floor almost to the rafters. 
On this screen were painted many strange devices, among which Avere 
pictures of human beings, male and female, and of birds, symbols of 
rain clouds, lightning, and falling rain. Prominent among the sym- 
bols was a row of six circular disks, the borders of which were made 
of plaited corn husks, while the inclosed held of each was decorated 
with a symbolic picture of the sun. Men wearing grotesque masks a 
and ceremonial kilts stood on each side of this screen, one dressed as 
a woman and bearing in one hand a basket tray of meal and in the 
other an ear of corn. He wore a helmet with a coil of hair suspended 
on each side of the face, a bunch of feathers on the top, and a bang- 
made of red horsehair hanging before the face. The helmet was 
painted black, and small crescents indicated the eyes and the mouth. 

The act began with a song, to which the masked men, except the 
last-mentioned, danced. A hoarse roar made by a concealed actor 
blowing through an empty gourd b resounded from behind the screen, 
and immediately the circular disks swung open upward, and were seen 
to be flaps hinged above, covering orifices through which simulta- 
neous^ protruded six artificial heads of serpents, realistically painted. 
Each head had protuberant goggle-eyes and bore a curved horn and a 
fan-like crest of hawk feathers. A mouth with teeth was cut in one 
end, and from this orifice there hung a strip of leather painted red, 
representing the tongue. 

Slowly at first, but afterward more rapidly, these effigies were thrust 
farther into view, each revealing a body 4 or 5 feet long, painted, 
like the head, black on the back and white on the belly. AY hen they 
were fully extended, the song grew louder, and the effigies moved back 
and forth, raising and depressing their heads in time, wagging them 
to one side or the other in unison. They seemed to bite ferociously 
at each other, and viciously darted at men standing near the screen. 
This remarkable play continued for some time, when suddenly the 
heads of the serpents bent down to the floor and swept across the 
imitation cornfield, knocking over the clay pedestals and the corn 
leaves which they supported. Then the effigies raised their heads 
and wagged them back and forth as before. It was observed that 
the largest effigy, that in the middle, had several udders on each 
side of the belly, and that she apparently suckled the others. Mean- 
while the roar emitted from behind the screen by a concealed man 
continued, and wild excitement seemed to prevail. Some of the 
spectators threw meal at the effigies, offering prayers, amid shouts 
from others. The masked man representing a woman stepped for- 
ward and presented the contents of the basket tray to the serpent 

a Representing the Bear katcinas. 

&This gourd was decorated with the symbolic masks of the Great Plumed Snake. 



42 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

effigies for food, after which he held his breasts to them as if to 
suckle them." 

Shortly after this the song diminished in volume, the effigies were 
slowly drawn back through the openings, the flaps on which the sun 
symbols were painted fell back into place, and after one final roar, 
made by the man behind the screen, the room was again silent. The 
overturned pedestals, with their corn leaves, were distributed among 
the spectators, and the two men by the fireplace again held up their 
blankets before the lire, while the screen was silently rolled up, and 
the actors with their paraphernalia departed. 

The accompanying plate b represents the cloth screen tied in position 
to the roof of the kiva and the miniature cornfield on the floor before 
it. The six openings in the screen, four of which are larger than 
the other two, are arranged in a row, and out of five of these open- 
ings protrude serpent effigies. The flaps which ordinarily cover 
these orifices are raised, with the exception of that at the extreme 
right, which hangs in place to show the sun symbol on its face and 
the tip of a serpent's head near one margin. The central effigy 
(yuamii, their mother) is knocking over the rows of clay pedestals 
which form the miniature cornfield. The masked human figure 
standing at the left before the screen represents »the mother of the 
clan gods, or Hahai wi'iqti, who is holding forward a basket tray of 
meal, which she offers as food to the serpents. One of the performers 
may be obscurely seen behind the screen, blowing the gourd trumpet 
by which the " roars " of the great serpents are imitated. 

Prominent among the designs painted on this screen are three 
human figures. That of a man has two horns on the head like an 
Alosaka c and, as so often occurs in pictures or images on altars, the 
maidens have their hair arranged in disks, one above each ear, as in 
the Hopi maid's coiffure of the present day. These maidens were 
called Tubeboli manas. The other design represents birds, lightning, 
rain clouds, and falling rain. The first act was performed by men of 
the kiva which is situated in the middle of the Hano plaza, d and the 
screen and snake effigies are owned by men of that pueblo. The 
screen was repainted on the day of the dramatization by the men who 
took part in the act. No actor tasted food on that day before the 
decoration of the screen was finished, and at the close of their work 
all vomited over the cliffs. This Hano screen and the drama acted 
before it resemble those which are occasionally used in the chief kiva 
of Walpi. 

a This actor represented Hahai wuqti, mother of katcinas or clan-ancients. 
& Plate xxxiij Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. n, 1900. 
'One of the prominent gods in Hopi worship, 
d Called the Kisombi kiva, plaza kiva. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTT 43 

Second Act 

The second act, a buffalo dance, was one of the best on this eventful 
night. Several men wearing* helmets representing buffalo heads, with 
lateral horns and shaggy sheepskins, and wool painted black hanging 
down their backs, entered the room. They carried zigzag slats of 
wood, symbolic of lightning, and performed a characteristic dance to 
the beat of a drum. These buffalo personations were accompanied 
by a masked man and boy representing eagles, who danced before 
them, uttering calls in imitation of birds. 

The same buffalo dance, but more complicated, was celebrated 
earlier in the winter in the public plaza of Walpi, at which time the 
men were accompanied by girls dressed as Buffalo maids who did not 
appear in the second act in the kivas. No representation of the eagles 
was seen in this public dance. 

The Buffalo maids bore disks decorated with sun emblems on their 
backs, and carried notched sticks representing "sun ladders' v ' in 
their hands. It is appropriate that this dance should be given by 
men from the Tanoan pueblo, Hano, as it was probably introduced 
by men of the same stock from the Rio Grande region, by whom this 
village was settled. 

Third Act 

A new set of actors made their presence known at the entrance to 
the kiva soon after the departure of the Buffaloes, but these were 
found, on their entrance, to be very unlike those who had preceded them. 
They brought no sun screens nor serpent effigies with them, but were 
clothed in ceremonial kilts, and wore masks shaped like helmets. 
They were called Puukon katcinas, and were accompanied by two men 
dressed like women, one representing their grandmother and the 
other their mother. The former personated Kokyan wiiqti, 6 or Spider 
woman, and wore a closely fitting mask with white crescentic eyes 
painted on a blackened face, and white hair made of raw cotton. She 
danced before the fire in the middle of the room, gracefully posturing 
her body and arms, while the others sang and danced to the beat of a 
drum. As the actors filed out of the room Spider woman distributed 
to the spectators seeds of corn, melon, and the like/' 

a Ancient Hopi ladders were notched logs, some of which are still extant on the East mesa. In 
the winter solstice ceremony at Hano there stand, back of the altars, notched slats of wood called 
'>uii ladders,'' which are supposed to be efficacious in rites recalling the sun or aiding an enfeebled 
sun to rise out of his " home." The prayer-sticks carried by the Buffalo maids are imitations of these 
sun bidders. 

''This part was taken by Nanahe, a Hopi who has for many years made his home at Zuni and 
returned to Walpi to be present at the dance. 

cThe mother and grandmother of Puukon katcinas naturally appear as representatives of the 
ancients of some clan with which this special form of the katcina cult originated. Hahai wiiqti, 
who does not appear in this act, but In the first and fifth, is represented by Kokyan wiiqti, probably 
the same supernatural under a different name. 



44 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Fourth Act 

Aftor the audience had sat silent for about a quarter of an hour 
men were heard walking on the roof and strange cries came down the 
hatchway. Again the tire tenders called to the visitors to enter, and 
muffled responses, as of masked persons outside, were heard in reply. 
First came down the ladder a man wearing a shabby mask covered 
with vertical zigzag lines, a bearing a heavy bundle on his back. As 
he climbed down the ladder he pretended to slip on each rung, but 
ultimately landed on the floor without accident, and opened his bundle, 
which was found to contain a metate and meal-grinding stone. He 
arranged these on the floor before the fireplace and took his place at 
one side. A second man with a like bundle followed, and deposited 
his burden by the side of tne other. Two masked girls, 6 elaborately 
dressed in white ceremonial blankets, followed, and knelt by the stones 
facing the fire, assuming the posture of girls when grinding corn. 

After them entered the chorus, a procession of masked men who 
filed around the room and halted in line behind the kneeling girls. 
At a signal these last arrivals began to sing, and as they sang moved 
in a solemn dance. The girls rubbed the mealing stones back and 
forth over the metates, grinding the meal in time with the song, and 
the men clapped their hands, swaying their bodies in rhythm. 

The last-mentioned men held an animated conversation with the fire 
tenders, asserting that the girls were expert meal grinders, and from 
time to time crossed the room, putting pinches of the meal into the 
mouths of the fire tenders and spectators. This continued for some 
time, after which the girls rose and danced in the middle of the room, 
posturing their bodies and extending alternately their hands, in which 
they carried corn ears. The chorus personated the Navaho Anya kat- 
cinas, the girls were called the Navaho Anya maids and were supposed 
to be sisters of men in the chorus. 

In order better to understand this act, let us consider the nature of 
the cult from which the personages appearing in it were derived. 
These personages are called katcinas, of which there are many kinds 
among the Hopis, differing from each other in the symbolism of their 
masks and other paraphernalia. Their distinctive names are totem- 
istic, the same as those of clans now living either at Walpi or at some 
other place from which the katcinas were derived. Katcinas are 
tutelary clan gods of the ancestral type, and when personated appear 
as both males and females. 

In many cases the katcina is represented by no clan of the same 
totemistic name now living in the pueblo. This has been brought 
about in several ways, of which there may be mentioned: (1) The 

a These men were called Hehea katcinas. 

bThese girls were called the Tacah Anya katcina manas. On the day following, two girls repre- 
senting the Anya katcina manas performed the same act in the public plaza of Walpi. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 45 

clan has become extinct, while its katcina has survived; (2) a katcina 
has been purchased or borrowed from a neighboring- people; (3) a kat- 
cina mask has been invented b} T some imaginative person who has seen 
an object which he thinks fitting for a katcina totem. 

A study of a clan and the katcina which bears the same name will 
be instructive in the determination of their relation. 

There are several clans where this clan relation of the katcina still 
retains its primitive totemistic character, and at least one where the 
names of both clan and katcina are the same. For instance, the 
members of the Tcakwaina or Asa clans claim that the Tcakwaina 
katcinas are their clan-ancients, and when they personate these clan- 
ancients they represent the following masked personages: 

1. Tcatcakwaina taamU, Tcakwainas, their uncle. 

2. Tcatcakwaina tatakti, Tcakwainas, males (brothers). 

3. Tcatcakwaina kokoiamu, Tcakwainas, their elder sister. 

4. Tcatcakwaina mamantu (=manas), Tcakwainas, maids (sisters). 

5. Tcatcakwaina yuamu, Tcakwainas, their mother. 

It will be noticed that all these ancestral personages belong to one 
and the same clan — the mother, brothers (tatakti), sisters (mamanantu), 
and uncle — but that the father is unrepresented. 

The most important fact, however, is that the name of the katcinas 
is the same as that of the clan, viz. , Tcakwaina, and that men of this 
clan personate in dramatic and ceremonial performances the super- 
naturals bearing their clan name. They do not introduce a persona- 
tion of the Tcakwaina father because he is not of their clan, and hence 
can not be a supernatural of their clan. 

An analysis of other katcinas shows that man} 7 of them are ancients 
of clans, or that each clan originally had distinctive divinized ancients 
in the katcina cult. These gods are personated as brothers, sisters, 
uncle, mother, or grandmother, the paraphernalia being determined 
by the particular clan totem. 

The relation of a katcina to its clan can be traced in many other 
instances, but in others, and perhaps the majority, it is obscured by 
changes in nomenclature and sociologic development. Katcinas often 
no longer bear their ancient names, but are called from some peculiarity 
of dress, prominent symbol of the mask, or peculiar cry emitted by 
them, which has no connection w T ith the totems of their respective 
clans. The Anya katcinas (brothers, men) and the Anya katcina manas 
(sisters) belong to this group. They were originally introduced by 
Patki (Rain -cloud clans) from settlements on the Little Colorado river, 
and their name has no relation to the clans which brought them. In 
fact at Zuni the dance of these katcinas is called the Kokshi, Good 
dance, while the name of the same at Walpi is the Anya, or Long-hair. 
We have also at the latter pueblos other names for the Anya manas, 
as Soyal manas, equally inapplicable so far as their clan relation is 
concerned. 



46 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

The popular names of Hopi gods, among which are included 
katcinas or clan tutelary supernaturals, are commonly of exoteric 
origin and are oftentimes very numerous. Unfortunately the archaic 
name is often lost, although in a few cases it is the same as the 
popular. 

"Fifth Act 

As after former acts, we waited a few minutes only for the next, a 
fifth, which was somewhat similar in character to the first. A call at 
the hatchway and an invitation from within to enter led to the 
appearance of a procession of masked men who came down the ladder 
bearing paraphernalia for their exhibition hidden under their arms or 
concealed in blankets. The fire tenders shielded the fire once more 
with blankets, so that the room was darkened, and in the obscure 
light the actors arranged their stage properties. When the blankets 
were dropped, the light revealed on the floor before us an imitation 
field of corn, each hill of which was a clay pedestal with projecting 
corn leaves, and behind it, as a background, a wooden framework 
decorated with peripheral turkey feathers a and hung with two disks 
painted with sun emblems. Pine boughs were so arranged in the 
framework that they filled all vacant spaces and shielded performers 
in the rear of the room. Several naked men, called "mudheads," 
wearing on their heads close-fitting cloth bags with attached knobs, 
stood before the framework, which was supported by two of their 
number. The exercises opened with "roars" from behind the disks 
and vigorous dancing by the mudheads before the screen. 

Soon the flaps of the sun disks swung open and from under them 
emerged the hideous heads of two snake effigies, larger than those of 
the first performance, but similarly constructed. These serpent heads 
were thrust forward until their serpentine bodies, extended several 
feet, came into view. Their heads darted back and forth, swaying 
first to one side and then to the other, biting viciously now at the 
audience and then at each other, while deep roars imitating the voice 
of the serpent emerged from the rear of the room. With one stroke 
of the head the field of corn was swept over and the serpents twisted 
their bodies about each other. 

One of the naked men, a mudhead, wearing the knobbed cloth 
bag, stepped forward and grasped one of the serpent effigies by the 
neck. He pretended to wrestle with the snake, and for a time was 
successful, but at last the man was overcome and sent sprawling 
on the floor. Then another advanced to the conflict, and he too 
was thrown down. A youthful mudhead made a like attempt and 
mounted the effigy, riding on its neck as if on horseback. The whole 
act was a realistic representation of the struggle of man with the 
serpent. Ultimately the serpents contracted their bodies, drew back 

" Sun shields commonly have eagle feathers inserted about their borders. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 47 

their heads behind the flaps, and the performance ended with a 
prolonged roar from behind the screen. In the darkness which 
followed, made by hanging blankets before the fire, the actors packed 
their paraphernalia, gathered their effigies, and quietly left the room. 
The accompanying plate a represents this fifth act, or the struggle 
of the mudhead with the serpent effigies. The framework, which 
is supported by two men, is decorated with zigzag symbols repre- 
senting lightning; the row of semicircular bodies on the crossbeam 
symbolizes the rain clouds, from which descend parallel marks, the 
falling rain. These six semicircular rain-cloud symbols are of differ- 
ent colors, yellow, green, red, and white, corresponding to the sup- 
posed colors of the cardinal points, and all have animal designs 
representing frogs and birds painted upon them. The manipulators 
of the serpent effigies are hidden from view by pine or cedar boughs 
inserted into a log on the floor, which is covered with figures of rings, 
symbolic of the earth. At the right of a median vertical line a ser- 
pent effigy is seen protruded through an opening, above which is a 
circular flap raised to a horizontal position. The serpent effigy on 
this side is searching for a youthful "mudhead," who has crawled 
below the disk. The left-hand serpent is represented in conflict 
with an adult mudhead, who has grasped it about the body and 
neck; the serpent appears to be biting at its opponent. We are look- 
ing at this strange contest from the raised spectators' floor of the 
kiva; the miniature cornfield, which one of the serpents knocked 
down a short time before, has been removed, and the clay pedestals 
which remained are distributed among the spectators. The weird 
effects of the light from the fireplace in the middle of the room have 
been brought out by the artist, Mrs Gill, who has successfully drawn 
these screens from the author's kodak photographs and sketches. 

Sixth Act 

There was yet another exhibition of serpent effigies in this con- 
tinuous performance, and the actors were announced in much the same 
way as their predecessors. They appeared shortly after the depar- 
ture of the Spider woman and her associates, and arranged their 
paraphernalia in the darkened room, holding up an additional blanket 
to conceal their preparations. When the blankets were dropped from 
before the fire, a miniature field of corn was seen on the kiva floor, 
and back of it were two vases surrounded, except on the side toward 
the fire, by a row T of squatting mudheads. A song immediately began, 
and suddenly the four lappets h which covered the orifice of each 
vase were turned back automatically, when out of the vases slowly 

"Plate xxxm, Proc. Wash. Acad. 8ci., vol. n, 1900. 

&These four semicircular flaps, symbols of rain clouds, were painted in four colors, yellow, green, 
red, and white. On the necks of the vases were parallel lines, symbols of falling rain, and on their 
sidi^ were stars and tadpole decoration. Each vase was placed on a bed of cedar or pine boughs to 
make it more stable. 



48 HOPI KATC1NAS [eth. axn. 21 

t 

emerged the heads of two artificial serpents drawing their bodies 
behind them. These effects were produced by hidden strings placed 
over the kiva rafters, and the images were made by this means to rise 
and fall, move backward and forward, or to approach each other. 
Their heads were drawn down to the floor and swept over the minia- 
ture corn held, overturning it as in the first act, when a sun screen 
was also employed. They struggled w r ith each other, winding their 
heads together, and performed various other gyrations at the wish of 
the manipulators. The effects produced w r ith these strings were 
effective, and the motions of the men who held the strings and manip- 
ulated the effigies were closety concealed. It is probable that some of 
the strings were attached to the rattles used by the chorus. 

The performance was a ver} T realistic one, for in the dim light of 
the room the strings were invisible, and the serpents seemed to rise 
voluntarily from the vases. At its close the effigies sank into the cavi- 
ties of the vases and the song ceased. In. the darkness the para- 
phernalia were wrapped in blankets, and the actors left the room, 
passing to another kiva, where the performance was repeated. The 
personators of this act were from the Tcivato kiva of Walpi, and their 
chief was Pautiwa. 

While we were witnessing these six exhibitions in one room shows 
were simultaneously being enacted in the other eight kivas on the 
East mesa. The six sets of actors, each with their paraphernalia, 
passed in turn from one room to another, in all of which spectators 
awaited their coming. Each of the performances was given nine 
times that night, and it may safely be said that all were witnessed b} T 
the 500 people who comprise the population of the three pueblos in 
one kiva or another/' It was midnight when this primitive theater 
closed, and the effigies were disjointed and carried to hidden crypts in 
the houses, where they were luted in jars with clay, not to see the 
light again until March of the next year. 

ADDITIONAL ACTS SOMETIMES PERFORMED 

Although the sixth act closed the series of theatrical exhibitions in 
1900, it by no means exhausts the dramatic resources of the Hopis in 
the presentation of their Great Serpent exhibition. This year (1900) 
was said by all to be one of abbreviation in all winter ceremonies and 
dramatic performances, but in more elaborate exhibitions, in other 
years, instead of six there are, we are told, as many as nine acts in this 
continuous show, employing one set of actors from each kiva on the 
mesa. Our account w T ould be more comprehensive if it included short 
references to one or two of the important additional acts which occur 
in the more elaborate performance.* 

"On such occasions each clan assembles in a certain kiva, which is said to be the kiva of that clan. 

&The sun screen and serpent effigies used by men of the Nacab kiva have been described in a former 
article (The Palulukofiti, Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. n, 1893). This performance has many 
points of likeness to that of actors from the plaza kiva of llano, described in the first act. 



fewk.es] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 49 

Sometimes the screen performance is accompanied by an exhibition 
by a masked man or men, who pretend to struggle with a snake effigy 
which they carry in their arms. This performance consists mainly in 
twisting these effigies about the body and neck of the performer, hold- 
ing them aloft, or even throwing them to the roof of the kiva, as else- 
where a described in an account of the celebration in 1893. 

In some years marionettes representing Corn maids are substituted 
for the two masked girls in the act of grinding corn, and these two 
figures are very skillfully manipulated by concealed actors. Although 
this representation was not introduced in 1900, it has often been 
described to me, and one of the Hopi men has drawn me a picture of the 
marionettes, which is worth reproduction in a plate (see plate xxvn). 

The figurines are brought into a darkened room wrapped in 
blankets, and are set up near the middle of the kiva in much the same 
way as the screens. The kneeling images, surrounded by a wooden 
framework, are manipulated by concealed men; when the song begins 
they are made to bend their bodies backward and forward in time, 
grinding the meal on miniature metates before them. The movements 
of girls in grinding meal are so cleverly imitated that the figurines, 
moved by hidden strings, at times raise their hands to their faces, 
which they rub with meal as the girls do when using the grinding 
stones in their rooms. 

During this marionette performance two bird effigies were made to 
walk back and forth along the upper horizontal bar of the framework, 
while bird calls issued from the rear of the room. 

The substitution of marionettes for masked girls suggests an 
explanation of the use of idols among the Hopis. A supernatural 
being of the Hopi Olympus may be represented in ceremon} r or 
drama by a man wearing a mask, or by a graven image or picture, a 
symbol of the same. Sometimes one, sometimes the other method of 
representing the god is employed, and often both. The image maybe 
used on the altar, while the masked man appears in the public exhibi- 
tion in the pueblo plaza. Neither idol nor masked personators are 
worshipped, but both are regarded as symbolic representations in which 
possibly the gods may temporarily reside. 

So with the use of marionettes to represent the Corn maidens in the 
theatrical exhibition or the personation of the beings by masked 
girls. They are symbolic representations of the mythic maidens 
whose beneficent gifts of corn and other seeds in ancient times is a 
constant theme in Hopi legends. 

The clan ancients or katcinas personated in the Great Serpent 
drama vary from year to year, implying the theatrical nature of the 
festival, but there are certain of these personations which invariably 

a Article cited. The masked man who thus struggles with the serpent effigy represents Calako, a 
sun god, but figures of him drawn by a Hopi artist were called Macibol katcina. 

21 ETH— 03 4 



50 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. an>\ 21 

appear. In the exhibition of 1893, the only one previous to 1900 on 
which we have reliable notes, there was one performance with a sun 
screen and serpent effigies which were manipulated by the men of the 
kiva under the Snake rock. The s} T mbols depicted on this screen 
differed somewhat from those on the screen employed in 1900, but the 
general character of the performance with it was the same. Briefly 
considered the acts given in 1893 w r ere as follow: 

First act. An exhibition with the sun screen and serpent effigies by 
men of Nacab kiva similar to the first act of 1900, but in which the actors 
personated Pawik (Duck), Tacab (Navaho), Hahai wuqti, and others. 
A masked man (Calako) stood before the screen holding in his arms 
an effigy of a Great Snake with which he appeared to struggle, and 
for that reason was called "The Struggling One." The serpent effigy 
carried was manipulated in such a way that the man and snake 
appeared to be engaged in a combat, much as in the fifth act of 1900, 
except that the serpent effigy was not thrown through an opening 
closed by a disk bearing sun symbols. The manipulator wore a false 
arm a hanging from one shoulder in place of his real arm, which was 
thrust within the body of the effigy, grasping a stick, the u backbone" 
of the monster. 

Second act. Dance of masked men representing Anya katcinas. 

Third act. Dance of masked men representing Tacab katcinas. 

Fourth act. Dance of masked men representing clowns and two 
Huhuan katcinas. 

Fifth act. Dance of men personating women of the Owaktiltu society, 
who threw their baskets to the spectators. 

Sixth act. Dance of men representing old women bearing willow 
wands. 

Sev&nth act. Dance of masked men representing Tanoan Anya 
katcinas. 

The god of death, Masauu, 6 was personated in the 1893 exhibition 
and appeared in the plaza about 2 p. m., "dancing through Walpi 
with a hobbling movement, singing snatches of a song. He was 
masked and wrapped in a rabbit-skin rug, and went to all the kivas, 
beating the entrance with a bush" {Bigelovia graveolens). 

On the day following the night exhibition in 1893 there were public 
dances of the Tacab and Anya katcinas. 

PARAPHERNALIA USED, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND SYMBOLISM 

The effigies of Palulukon now used at the East mesa are not very 
ancient, although there are one or two which show considerable antiq- 
uity. One of these older specimens has a body of buckskin, but the 
majority, and all the recent ones, are made of cotton cloth. The 



« For figures of the false arm see Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. VI, 1893, plate n. 
''Two boys took this part in 1900. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANTI 51 

present screens are of the latter material, but these are commonly 
said to have replaced others of skin or native cloth. The Walpi men 
made two new serpent effigies in their kivas in 1900, and all the 
material of which they were manufactured was purchased from the 
neighboring* trader at Keams Canyon. 

Each of the three pueblos, Hano, Sichumovi, and Walpi, has several 
of these serpent effigies, which are kept in the houses of the following 
clans: 

Hano, Sa (Tobacco) clan; Sichumovi, Patki (Rain-cloud) clan; Walpi, 
Tciia (Snake) clan, Pakab (Reed) clan. 

In ancient times they were kept in stone inclosures outside the 
pueblos, but these receptacles have been abandoned of late, on account 
of the inroads of nomads. It is said that the Oraibi and Middle mesa 
pueblos still have extramural receptacles for the Palulukon effigies. 
The house of the ancient Plumed Snake of Hano is a small cave in the 
side of the mesa near the ruin Tiirkinobi, where several broken serpent 
heads and effigy ribs, or wooden hoops, can now be seen, although the 
entrance is walled up and rarely opened. 

A knowledge of the mechanical construction of the serpent effigies 
may aid in an understanding of their manipulation. Their heads are 
either cut out of cottonwood or made of gourds, and are painted, and 
the protuberant goggle-eyes are small buckskin bags tied to the top. 
Each head bears a medial horn curving forward, sometimes made with 
joints and at other times solid. A radiating crest of hawk feathers is 
tied vertically to the back of the head. The teeth are cut in the gourd 
or wood of which the head is made and are painted red. The tongue 
is a leather strap, also painted red, and protrudes from the mouth a 
considerable distance. The top of the head is black, the bottom white, 
and these same colors continue along the sides of the body. 

The body consists of a central stick, called a backbone, over which 
is extended a covering that is held in place by a series of hoops 
graduated in size from the neck to the end. The effigy is manipulated 
by means of a stick, held by a man behind the screen. The "back- 
bone" has a ferule cut in it a few inches back of the neck, and to this 
ferule are tied a quartz crystal called the heart and a package which 
contains corn seeds of all colors, melon, squash, cotton, and other 
seeds, and a black prayer-stick. The cotton cloth stretched over the 
series of hoops, called ribs, which form the body, is painted black above 
and white below, with a red streak at the dividing line, where there 
are also other markings and symbols, like those on the kilts of the 
Snake priests. 

The backbones of the two effigies which were made to rise out of 
the vases were short and stumpy, but they have a u heart' 1 similar to 
the longer ones, and an attached package of seeds. 



52 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

RESUME OF EVENTS IN PALULUKONTI IN 1900 

February 11}. On this day corn was planted in three kivas, the 
Mofi kiva, Tcivato kiva of Walpi, and the plaza kiva of Hano. This 
corn was daily watered and the kivas were heated so that the seeds 
might sprout. The miniature cornfield was later made of these sprouts. 
Children are not allowed to know that the corn is thus planted before 
the exhibition. The planting of corn seeds has given the name "Corn 
planting" to Paliilukonti, just as the one of beans in a like way gave 
the name "Bean planting" to the Powamu, but these names char- 
acterize incidents not the true purpose of the festival. 

February 26. About two weeks after the corn seeds were planted 
the effigies of the Great Serpent were brought into the three kivas 
above mentioned at nightfall, when the rehearsals of the acts to be 
given later took place. 

February 27 (Yunya). This day was devoted to the preparation 
of the paraphernalia, and at sundown there was a rehearsal of the 
Great Serpent acts, as also on the following day. 

March 1 (Komoktotokya). In addition to the rehearsals in the kiva, 
masked men representing Wupamau, Honau, Hehea, Mucaias, Wuyok, 
Soyan ep, and Samo wiiqtaka katcinas appeared in the plazas. They 
dressed and masked themselves at Wala (The Gap), and marched up 
the trail into Hano, where they gathered at the kiva hatches, and held 
an animated conversation with the chief of the kiva, who came to the 
hatchway for that purpose. 

March 2 (Totohyd). Many masked men were seen throughout the 
day in the three East mesa pueblos. Early in the afternoon there 
were noticed in Hano three Woe katcinas, each with a chevron mark 
on the face, and one Wupamau, or Big High Sky god, bearing the 
sun mask a , and held by a mudhead priest by a rope tied about his 
loins. In Walpi shortly afterward two small boys dressed and masked 
to represent Masauu went from one kiva to another, standing on the 
hatch and beating the ladder with bundles of sticks. 

Late in the afternoon the chief kiva of Hano sent to all the kivas 
on the East mesa a delegation of masked men representing Mucaias, 
Buffalo; Wupamau, Big High Sky (sun) god; Honau, Bear; Ahote; 
Citoto; Tcanau; Wukokoti; and many mudheads. They went from 
one kiva entrance to another, holding conversations with the kiva 
chiefs and in various ways amusing the spectators. 

About sundown the men of the two Walpi kivas carried their snake 
effigies to the main spring of the pueblo, the home of Palulukon, 
called Tawapa, Sun spring, where they performed ceremonies, while 
the men of Hano took their serpent effigies to a spring called 

a The symbols of this mask resemble those of Tawa (sun) disks, and those of the masks of Ahi.il, 
Ahulani, and Wiiwuyomo, showing that the latter are probably the same sun gods under different 
clan names. 



fewkes] PALULUKONTI, OR ANKWANT1 53 

Monwiva, sacred to their Great Snake. The six acts in the kivas were 
performed directly after the return of the men with the effigies from 
these springs. 

During the festival all actors abstain from salt and meat and do not 
sleep with their wives, a tabu which is rigidly observed, especially on 
the day preceding the exhibition in the kiva. 

On several of the days of this festival there are foot races along the 
water courses in the valley, during which the naked racers kick 
small stone nodules in a sinistral circuit around the mesa. This was 
a prayer for streams full of water. 

The events which occurred when the effigies were taken to the 
springs were wholly ceremonial, and not dramatic. During the day 
previous to this event, all men of prominence, especially chiefs of 
clans, brought feathered strings to the kivas, and tied them to the 
necks of the serpent effigies. One or more prayer-sticks were also 
made to be used at the springs. Six of these were made in the per- 
formance of 1893. One was tied to the backbone of each effigy. Five 
others were deposited at the spring, some at the edge of the water, 
others beneath it. 

The exercises at the springs Tawapa and Monwiva were not wit- 
nessed by the author in 1900, but they were probably the same as 
were described in the account of this episode in 1893. a In that year, 
about 7.30 p. m., a procession went down to the spring carrying the 
effigies and the trumpets by which the roars of the serpent are imitated. 
This procession was led by a man personating Hahai wi'iqti and the kiva 
chief, ''making a connecting trail from the south edge of the basin 
[Tawapa], along the east and north sides of the pool, and up as close 
to the west edge as the mud would permit. Those following with 
the serpent effigies, beginning at the east side of the pool, laid the 
effigies down close to the edge of the water, along the north side. 
The youths placed their gourd trumpets on the meal trail, upon which 
also were the serpent effigies. All then sat on the north side facing 
the south. The leader, as he went down, deposited the five pahos 
. . . at the west side of the pool, setting them in a row fronting 
the east. 

"The leader of the procession bore the kopitcoki (cedar bark slow 
match). ... It had been lighted at the kiva fire before the 
procession started, and the fire was smouldering in the bark. Momi 
(kiva chief) lit a pipe by this torch and gave it to the leader, who 
made the usual response, smoked a few puffs and passed it to the next 
man on his right. Momi then lit another pipe and passed it also to 
the leader, and the two pipes passed down the two lines, in which 
they had arranged themselves when sitting, the elders in front, next 
tin- pool, the youths behind them. After all had smoked, the leader 

a Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. vi, 1893. 



5-1 HOPE KATCINAS [eth. ann.21 

prayed, and each of the nine elders followed in succession. The ten 
youths did not pray, but each took his trumpet [gourd] and, stepping 
one stride into the pool, stooped over, and, placing the bulbous end 
to his mouth with the small orifice on the surface of the water, 
trumpeted three or four times. Each of the youths then dipped up 
a little water in his trumpet and poured it into a vase. 

"The effigy bearers then dipped the tip of the serpents' heads and 
the ends of the hawk-tail plumes in the pool, and the leader said a 
short prayer and started back up the trail." 

Certainly the most remarkable of all the masked men who appeared 
that da}^ were the two personations of a being called Tcanau katcina. 
They wore circular masks with feathers projecting from the periphery 
and carried in their mouths realistic stuffed effigies of rattlesnakes, 
while over the e}^es of the masks were fastened carved wooden effigies 
of lizards. Although these masks suggest the custom of the well- 
known Snake dance, not the Snake clan but the Pakab clan is said to 
have introduced this ceremony into the Walpi ferial calendar. 

March 3 (Tifouni). On the da} r after the acts in the kivas there 
was a public dance of the Anya ka'tcinas in the Walpi plaza. During 
this dance grinding stones were placed in the middle of the open 
space by the Snake rock, behind which two girls representing Anya 
katcina manas took their position, and a line of Anya katcinas 
extended the whole length of the plaza. The latter served as chorus, 
while the girls ground meal, as in a kiva performance the night 
before. 

In this exhibition or dance there were also two men personating 
Hehea, whose actions were identical with those of the same personations 
in the l^iva performance. They sat on the ground as the girls ground 
the meal and the chorus sang. The personators in this dance were 
from the chief kiva of Walpi, and the exhibition has the same 
meaning as that of the night before. 

There also appeared in this public exhibition a masked personage 
called Hopak (Eastern) katcina, the signification of whose presence is 
unknown to the author. 

PERSONATIONS APPEARING IN PALULUKONTI 

The following personations appear in Palulukonti: 

Woe (Eagle). Appears in kiva drama. 

Wupaniau. Wanders through the pueblos, accompanied by a mudhead, 

who lassoes whomever he meets. 
Honau (Bear). Appears in kiva drama. 
Ahote. Wanders through the pueblo. 
Citoto. Appears in public with other masked men. 
Tcanau. Appears with preceding. 
Wukokoti. Appears with preceding. 
Kwahu (Eagle). Appears in kiva drama. 
Puukoii (War god). Appears in kiva drama. 



fewkes] SPRING SUMAIKOLI 55 

Kokyan -\viiqti. Appears in kiva drama. 

Piiukon's sister. Appears in kiva drama. 

Tacab Afiya. Appears in kiva drama. 

Tacab Afiya raana. Appears in kiva drama. 

Hahai wiiqti. Appears in kiva drama. 

Afiya. Performs ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Afiya mana. Grinds corn in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Hehea. Appears in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Hopak. Appears in ceremonial dance in plaza. 

Winter Marau Paholawu 

The winter prayer-stick-making of the Mamzrautu society was 
much more complicated in 1900 than that of the Lalakontu. The row 
of upright objects from the altar erected in October was put in place 
and before it were laid the tiponis of the chiefs of the society. On 
the final day there was a public dance in which there were personations 
of the Palahiko manas. The Hopi artist has made a fair picture of 
one of these Palahiko manas, which is here reproduced in plate lvi. 

Spring Sumaikoli 

The Yaya priests and Sumaikoli hold a spring- festival in Walpi, 
which in some particulars resembles the Sumaikoli celebration at 
Hano, elsewhere described. a 

The six masks of Sumaikoli and one of Kawikoli are arranged on 
the floor of the kiva behind the tiponis. New fire is kindled with 
rotating fire drills, and this fire is later carried by means of cedar-bark 
torches to shrines of the Fire god, four shrines in the foothills, 
where bonfires are kindled in sequence, north, west, south, and east. 

The carriers who bear these torches, and who kindle the four fires, 
deposit in the contiguous shrines prayer-sticks which Imve been made 
in the kiva before their exit. 

One of the most interesting features in the songs which are sung 
before the altar are the calls down a hole in the floor called the sipapfi 
to the goddess of the earth. 6 This being is represented by a bundle 
of sticks placed on the floor, and over this bundle the priest kneels 
when he shouts to the earth goddess. 

The symbolism of the Sumaikoli masks at Walpi is similar to that 
of the Hano masks, which are elsewhere c figured and described. They 
differ among themselves mainly in the colors of the different symbols. 
The picture of the Sumaikoli by the Hopi artist (see plate xxxiv) 
gives a fair idea of the paraphernalia. 

a Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n, 1892. 

b See The Lesser New-Fire Ceremony at Walpi, American Anthropologist, new series, vol. m, 
.July-September, 1901. 

'■Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n. 1892. In this early description these 
objects were erroneously called shields. They are worn before the fact' in elaborate Sumaikoli cele- 
brations. 



56 HOPI KATCINAS (eth. ann. 21 

Abbreviated Katcina Dances 

Throughout the summer months there occur in the Hopi pueblos a 
series of masked dances, generally of a day's duration, to which the 
author has given the name Abbreviated Katcina dances. They are 
not accompanied by secret ceremonies, and the participants vary in 
number, the beings personated differing from year to year. 

These dances close with what is called the Niman, or Departure of 
the Katcinas, a ceremony of nine days' duration, in which there is an 
elaborate altar, and many secret ceremonies. a There are, however, 
no altars in these abbreviated festivals, nor is there any public 
announcement of them by the town crier. The dances continue at 
intervals from morning to night, but are limited to one day, the three 
or four preceding days being spent in the kivas practicing songs, 
preparing and painting dance paraphernalia, and making other prep- 
arations for the public exhibition. The katcinas in these festivals are 
accompanied by one or more unmasked priests, who shout to them, 
sprinkle the dancers with meal, and lead the line as it passes from one 
dance place to another, showing the trail by sprinkling meal on the 
ground. These are called the katcina fathers (naamu), and in a general 
way correspond to the rain priests mentioned by students of Zuni 
ceremonies. 

Ordinarily all participants in one of these abbreviated dances wear 
masks with like symbols, but there are four or six dressed as women 
who accompan} r the dance b} r rasping a sheep scapula on a notched 
stick. Occasionally, however, there is a dance, limited to one day, in 
which all participants wear different kinds of masks, and personate 
different katcinas. This dance, known as the Soyohim, has been else- 
where described. 5 From the variety of personations which appear, 
this dance is a particularly good one for a study of the Hopi symbolism. 

Summer Tawa Paholawu (Sun Prayer-stick-making) 

The making of the sun prayer-sticks in midsummer is limited to a 
single day, but does not differ from that in winter/ The Sun priests 
assemble for this purpose in the room under a house near the Moii 
kiva, and the only fetish they use is a stone image of a frog, over 
which is stretched a string with attached feathers, and which lies on a 
line of meal drawn diagonally on the floor. 

As the Sun priests have no distinctive masks or public dance, no 
pictures were made to illustrate this ceremony. 

"For a description of Niman Katcina sec Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. II, 
1892, p. SC. 

b Same volume, p. 59. 

'The summer sun prayer-stick-making at both Walpi and llano is described in the volume just 
cited. 



fewkes] NIMAN KATCINA 57 

Summer Sumaikoli 

The summer Sumaikoli at Walpi has never been seen by an ethnolo- 
gist, but the ceremon} T at Hano is elsewhere described. a It is a single 
day ceremony in which the seven Sumaikoli masks, to which the priests 
pray, are set in a row on a buckskin at one end of the room. Feathers 
(nakwakwoci) are tied to the masks (shields), and prayer-sticks are 
made and distributed to distant shrines. 

The Sumaikoli helmet masks of Hano were captured in some Navaho 
foray and strewn about the base of the mesa. The} T were gathered by 
Kalacai. and are now kept with pious care in the room near Kalakwai's 
new house in Hano, Avhere they can be seen hanging to the wall. 
With Kalacai's death the Sun clan (Tail towa) of Hano became extinct 
and the care of the Sumaikoli devolved on others. 

There was no public exhibition of the Sumaikoli in the summer of 
1891, but the author has been told that the festival has of late been 
revived in Hano. The Hopi artist has given a fairly good picture of 
Sumaikoli as he appears in public b (see plate xxxiv). 

NlMAN 

This is an elaborate festival celebrating the departure of the 
katcinas from Walpi, and consists of elaborate rites before a compli- 
cated altar and a public dance, which differs in different Hopi pueblos. 
One of these is described in another place/ This is the only festival 
celebrating the departure of the katcinas, although there are several 
commemorating their advent. Thus, the Soyaluna dramatizes the 
advent of the Water-house or Rain-cloud clan's katcinas, the Pamiirti 
that of Zuni clans, especially Asa and Honani, and the Powamu the 
advent of the ancients of the Katcina clans. 

Tct* atikibi, Snake Dance 

The Snake dance has no masked performers, and the artist has not 
drawn pictures of any of the participants. 

Leeenti, or Lenpaki, Flute Dance 

The Flute dance also has no masked personators, and the artist has 
furnished no picture of participants. It might have been well to have 
obtained pictures of the Flute girls and youth, but photographs have 
been published d which show their paraphernalia better than native 
pictures. The Snake girl is dressed almost identically as the Flute 
girl, as shown by the figures mentioned. 

"Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n, 1892, p. 33. 

fr Dellenbaugh has published a few cuts from photographs representing sumaikoli personations, 
but tin- symbolism of the masks is not clearly indicated m them. See The North Americans of 
Yesterday New York, 1901. 

c Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n. L892, p. 7;>. 

d Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pari n, i ( .»uo. 



58 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. anx. 21 

Bulitikibi, Butterfly Dance 

The Butterfly festival, which is occasionally celebrated in Sichumovi, 
differs from the Lalakonti, Mamzrauti, and Owakulti by the absence 
of secret rites, altar. tiponi, or other fetishes. While these three fes- 
tivals are nine days' long*, with many elaborate secret rites, Bulitikibi is 
a one-day's public dance, without secret rites. 

The artist has figured two Buli manas or Butterfly girls as they are 
dressed when taking- part in this dance, and a leader bearing' a pole 
with attached streamers (see plate Lyn). Many men and girls partici- 
pate in this dance, their dress and paraphernalia corresponding very 
closely with that of the Tablita dancers of the Rio Grande pueblos. 

Lalakonti 

This festival is one of the most regular in the Hopi calendar, occur- 
ring each year in September. It is a woman's dance, with many 
secret rites, an elaborate altar, and a public exhibition, during which 
baskets and other objects are thrown to the assembled spectators. 
Most of the women who take part in this dance carry baskets, which 
the} 7 move in cadence with their songs. There are two maids called 
the Lakone girls, who throw the baskets and other objects to the 
spectators. 

The Hopi artist has represented the latter dressed in their customary 
paraphernalia (plate lv), but there is a slight difference in the dress of 
these girls in the Lalakonti at Walpi and at the other pueblos/' 

Owakulti 

This is likewise a woman's basket dance, which is occasionally cele- 
brated at Sichumovi, but is not an annual festival at that pueblo. Like 
the Lalakonti it has an elaborate altar which, however, differs very 
widely from that of other basket dances. 

The Lalakonti was introduced into Tusayan b} r the Patki or Rain- 
cloud clans; the Owakulti was brought from Awatobi by the Pakab 
and Buli clans. 

Mamzrauti h 

This festival is likewise a woman's dance, but the participants, 
instead of carrying baskets in their hands, as in the Lalakonti and 
Owakulti, carry slats of wood bearing appropriate symbols. 

Two girls called the Mamzrau manas (Mamzrau maids) appear in this 
dance, and throw objects on the ground. The Hopi artist has made 
two pictures of these girls, which show the style of their dress and 
paraphernalia (see plate lv). 

■ >-<■<■ article on the Lalakonti, American Anthropologist, vol. v, 1892, p. 105. 

ft For description of Mamzrauti sec American Anthropologist, July, 1892. Many ceremonies are 
named from tin- society which celebrates them and the termination pakit, to go down into the kiva; 
thus we have Maraupaki, Lenpaki, etc. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMURTI 59 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PICTURES 

The symbolism of the different beings mentioned in the preceding 
pages may be sufficiently well made out by an examination of the fol- 
lowing pictures and descriptions; but in order to facilitate references 
they are arranged, so far as possible, in the sequence in which the 
beings they represent appear in the Hopi ferial calendar. As the 
principal symbols are always delineated on the mask, special attention 
is given to the head in these descriptions. The words "head' 1 and 
"mask" are used interchangeably. 

The collection does not contain representations of all katcinas with 
which the Hopis are acquainted, nor is it claimed that pictures made 
by another man might not vary somewhat from those here figured. 
The chief symbolic designs characteristic of different gods are, how- 
ever, brought out with such distinctness that all would be immediately 
recognized by any intelligent Hopi. 

Pamurti Ceremony 
pautiwa 

(Plate II) 

The picture of the Zuni" sun god, Pautiwa, has a horizontal 
dumb-bell-shaped design across a green face, and a long protuberant 
snout.-' It has terraced symbols, representing rain clouds, attached to 
each side of the head, and a pine-bough collar tied around the neck. 
The head is crowned by a cluster of bright-colored feathers, and white 
cotton strings hang from the hair. 

The figure carries a skin meal pouch and a wooden slat (monkohu) 
in the left hand, and two crooked sticks in the right. The blankets, 
kilt, great cotton girdle, and other bodily paraphernalia are similar 
to those in other pictures. 

From his preeminence in the Pamurti, Pautiwa c is evidently a 
very important god, and, although his objective symbolism is unlike 
that of other Hopi sun gods, the part he plays is so similar to that 
played by Ahi'il that he may be identified as a sun god. As the Hopi 
representation was derived from Zufii, we may look to students of 
the mythology of that pueblo for an exact determination of his 
identity. 

Pautiwa was a leader of the Pamurti at Sichumovi in 1900, and the 
part was taken by Homovi. The ceremony opened by Pautiwa, fully 
masked and dressed, going from kiva to kiva informing the men that 
a meeting would be held at Homovi's house on a certain date not 

o The Zufii name also is Pautiwa. 

''For picture of the doll see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. VIII, fig. 23. 

' The ending "tiwa" is common in Hopi personal names of men, as Intiwa, Masiumtiwa, and 

Wikyatiwa. 



60 HOPr KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

many days distant. At each kiva Pautiwa unmasked and smoked 
with the kiva chiefs. 

At the meeting it was decided what personations should appear in 
Pamiirti and who should take part. 

CIPIKNE 

(Plate II) 

Another Zuni katcina who appears in the Pamiirti is called Cipikne, 
a drawing of whom is here given. In the picture the color of the 
mask is yellow, and there is a protuberant snout painted blue. Across 
the face the painter has drawn a dumb-bell-shaped symbol colored 
black, with a red border, resembling a like design in the Pautiwa 
figure. On the head there is depicted a bundle of feathers, and a col- 
lar made of the same objects is represented about the neck. 

The symbolism of Cipikne resembles that of Zuni beings called 
Salamopias," with which he would seem to be identical. In the festival 
mentioned the Ilopis personated two Cipiknes, differing only in color. 
The Zunis are said to be acquainted with several Salamopias of differ- 
ent colors. 

HAKTO 

(Plate II) 

The picture of Hakto/' also a Zuni katcina, shows a being with 
rounded helmet, having a characteristic Zuni collar on its lower 
border. The face is painted green, with yellow and red marks on 
each temple. A horizontal bar, to the ends of which hang worsted 
and red horsehair, is attached to the top of the head. 

Elk and deer horns are represented in both hands, and the kilt 
is made of buckskin. 

CAIASTACANA 

(Plate II) 

This picture represents a Zuni katcina of the same name, 6 ' which, like 
many others derived from this pueblo, has a collar on the lower rim of 
the helmet. On the right side of the head there is a horn, and on the 
left a projection the edges of which are terraced. A few yellow 
feathers appear in the hair. The artist has represented over a calico 
shirt a white cotton blanket with green and black border, the lower 
part of which partially conceals a ceremonial kilt. 

In the left hand the figure carries a pouch of sacred meal, a crook, 

"See Mrs Stevenson's article m Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1887, 
I». 533 et seq. 

''This name is close to the Zuhian, and is probably derivative in Tusayan. For picture of doll 
see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band VII, pi. v, fig. 3. 

cThe meaning of the Zuni name is " long horn." 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. II 






MMMMIW/ 



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AM, 



PAUTIWA 



£Ey 



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J3 J5 



* 



HAKTO 



CAIASTACANA 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. Ill 




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MELIOTYPE CO., B08TON. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMURTI 61 

and a bow. It has a quiver full of arrows hung on the back, and a 
bundle of sheep scapula? in the right hand. The leggings are fringed 
and the heel bands ornamented. 

HUTUTU 

(Plate III) 

The figure of Hututu" differs from that of Caiastacana in wearing 
an antelope skin instead of a woman's white blanket. Its mask differs 
from that of the Zuni being of the same name in having the terraced 
ornament on one side of the head replaced by a horn. 

HUIK 

(Plate III) 

This katcina, which, like the preceding, appears in the Pamurti, 
has some of the facial symbols of the Snow katcina. There are two 
terraced rectangular designs on the face, one inclosing or surrounding 
each eye. Four large eagle feathers, two on each side, are attached 
longitudinally to the top of the head, and there are variegated feathers 
on the crown. The figure is bearded. The kilt is colored green, its 
lower margin being rimmed with a row of conical tinklers h resembling 
those on the kilts of the Snake priests. 

TCOLAWITZE 

(Plate III) 

The Hopi artist gives a fair representation of Tcolawitze as he was 
personated, but has failed to draw the cedar-bark torch which he ordi- 
narily carries. 

He bears a bullroarer in the right hand, a bow and arrows in the 
left. He also has a few rats in one hand and a jack rabbit on his back, 
so that he is here depicted as he is often personated in rabbit hunts/' 

In the Pamurti Tcolawitze was personated by a naked boy whose 
body was covered with round dots, painted with different colors, as 
shown in the picture. 

LOIICA 

(Plate III) 

Traditions refer this personage to the Asa clan, which is commonly 
regarded of eastern origin. His picture is simple, with no charac- 
teristic symbolism. 

«The name, which is the same in the Zuni language, is prohably derived from "Hu-tu-tu!" the 
peculiar cry of the personator. 

''Deer hoofs, tin cones, or shells called mosilili, which occur in great numbers in ancient Arizona 
ruins, are ordinarily used for tinklers. 

e The same personage with the same name occurs at Zufii. See Journal of American Ethnology 
and Archaeology, vol. I, 1891. 



62 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

TCAKWAINA a 

(Plate IV) 

The matriarchal clan system is well preserved in the personages 
represented in the Tcakwaina katcina dances. In them there are the 
Tcakwaina men, the elder sister, the mother, the uncle, his brothers 
and sisters — in fact, representatives of the whole clan. The following 
pictures occur in the collection: 

Tcakwaina (male) 
Tcakwaina mana 
Tcakwaina yuadta (his mother) 
Tcakwaina taamu (their uncle) 

These pictures afford interesting examples of katcinas introduced 
by a Tewan clan, the Asa, and when the personations or the drawings 
representing the Hopi personages are compared with those of Zuni, 
eastern Keresan, and Tanoan pueblos, where similar Tcakwaina dances 
are celebrated, it will probably be found that there is a close resem- 
blance between them. The Asa or Tcakwaina people also claim to 
have introduced into Tusa3^an Loiica and Kokopelli, pictures of which 
are given in plates in and xxv. 

Tcakwaina (Male) 

The picture of the male Tcakwaina has a black, glossy b face, with 
white bearded chin and serrated teeth. The yellow eyes are cres- 
centic in form, and there is a warrior emblem attached to the hair. 
The shoulders are painted yellow, the body and upper arms black. 
As this being is regarded as a warrior, his picture shows a bow and 
arrows and a rattle. The kilt, probably buckskin, is undecorated, but 
is tied by a belt ornamented with the silver disks so common among 
Zunis and Navahos. 

A helmet of Tcakwaina which is said to be very ancient and to have 
been brought to Tusayan by the Asa people when they came from Zuni 
is exhibited in one of the kivas at the festival of the winter solstice. 
The eyes of this mask are round instead of crescentic, and its snout is 
very protuberant. Curved sticks like those used by girls in dressing 
their hair are attached to this mask. 

The introduction of a personation of Tcakwaina in the Pamurti is 
fitting, for this festival is the katcina return dance of the Tcakwaina 
or Asa clans. The Pamurti is a Zuni dance, and the Asa are repre- 
sented in Zuni by descendants of those Asa women who remained 
there while the rest went on to Tusayan. This explains why the Zunis 
claim this settlement as one of their pueblos in Tusayan. 

a The name Tcakwaina is said to occur in Zunian, Keresan, and Tanoan, as well as Hopi speech. 
bMade so by use of albumen of egg. For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethno- 
graphic, Band VII, pi. X,flg. 34. 



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TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. IV 




&&S 




TCAKWAINA 



TCAKWAINATAAMU 





TCAKWAINA MANA 



TCAKWAINA YUADTA 



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fewkesJ KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMURTI 63 

TCAKWAINA MANA 

A number of traditions are extant regarding a warrior maiden who 
was dressing her hair in whorls above her ears when the pueblo in 
which she lived was attacked by hostiles. The men, according- to 
these stories, were away when the attack began, and the defense fell 
upon the women. The girls, with their coiffures half made, seized 
bows and arrows and rushed to defend the pueblo. The eldest sisters 
of the Tcakwaina, often called the Tcakwaina maids, are mentioned in 
this connection, and the artist has pictorially represented this legend. 

As shown, the hair on the right side of the head hangs loosely, tied 
in a bundle near the scalp, but on the left side it has been partly 
wound over the U-shaped stick a customarily used in making the head- 
dress. To complete the coiffure this stick would have been drawn out, 
leaving the whorl, but, as the story goes, the enemy were upon them 
before this was possible, and the maids, with hair half dressed, seized 
the weapons of war, bows, and quivers of arrows, which the picture 
represents, and rushed to meet the foes. 

The remainder of the symbolism on the face of the girl, as the 
picture shows, resembles that of her brother, save that the eyes are 
round and not crescentic. Like that of another maid called Hehee, 
who appears in the Powamu festival, this picture has a small beard 
below a hideous mouth. 

Tcakwaina Yuadta 

The picture of the mother of Tcakwaina (yuadta, his mother) has a 
general resemblance to that of her son and daughter (Tcakwaina 
mana), as here shown. She wears a black mask, and has a white 
mouth and red beard. Her eyes are lozenge shaped. Her black 
blanket is decorated with white crosses. She bears, as a warrior 
symbol, an eagle feather, stained red, tied to the crown of her head, 
and carries a rattle in her right hand. 

Tcakwaina Taamu 

The Tcakwaina uncle has little in common in symbolism with any 
of the other three; in fact, there is nothing which suggests the sister. 
The mask is painted green, with a border of red and 3<ellow; the eyes 
are black, the beak is curved and pointed. The picture has a repre- 
sentation of a squash blossom on each side of the head and variegated 
feathers on the crown. 

"As tin- mask exhibited in the Wikwaliobi kiva at Soyaluna has a crooked stick (gnela) attached 
to it, it may represent the ancient warrior maid, for a similar article is now nsed byHopigirls 
in making their coifTun is. 



64 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ash. 21 

SIO HUMIS 

(Plate V) 

The picture representing a being- called the Sio Humis or the Zufii 
Hum is has on the head a representation of a tablet with the upper 
border cut into three semicircles, symbols of rain clouds. The white 
figures painted on this tablet represent sprouting- squash seeds, and the 
yellow disks sunflowers. The curved bands over the forehead are 
symbols of the rainbow. The face is divided by vertical bands into 
two fields of different colors, in which are representations of eyes and 
symbolic figures of sprouting gourds. 

The figure has a rattle in the left hand and a sprig of pine in the 
right, and a turtle shell is tied to the right leg. 

The supernatural here depicted was, according to legends, introduced 
from Zufii during the present generation by a man now living in 
Hano, who has a large number of helmets bearing the above-described 
designs. 

The meaning of the name Humis is doubtful. It is sometimes 
derived from Jemez, the name of an Eastern pueblo, and some- 
times from humita, corn. The former derivation would appear more 
reasonable. 

SIO HUMIS TAAMU* 

(Plate V) 

The picture gives a fair representation of the uncle of Sio Humis 
as personated in one of the dances of Pami'irti. The rounded helmet 
has a single apical gourd horn, painted black and white at its junction 
with the helmet. On each side of the head is a symbolic squash blossom, 
made of a wooden cylinder with radiating sticks connected by yarn. 
A broad black band extends horizontally across the eyes, below which 
is an elongated snout. The neck has a collar of pine twigs, and to the 
back of the head are tied black and variegated feathers. 

The figure has in its hands a } 7 ucca whip. The personator parades 
before the line of dancers with an ambling step, hooting as he goes. 

SIO AVATC HOYA 

(Plate V) 

Men personating Sio Avatc hoy& accompany those representing 
Sio Humis in the Pami'irti. They are dressed as women and per- 
form the same part as the katcina maids in some other dances; that 
is, they accompanied the songs with a rasping noise of sheep scapulae 
scraped over a notched stick. 

« For picture of the doll see Journal of American Ethnology and Archeology, vol. II, 1892. 
l> Sio (Zufii), Humis (Jemez or humita), taamu (their uncle). 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL.V 





SIO HUMIS 



SIO HUMIS TAAMU 





SIO AVATC HOYA 



WUWUYOMO 



MELIOTYPE CO., B09TON. 



pewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PAMUKTI 65 

In the pictures the masks are painted black, upon which field is a 
zigzag* vertical median hand with red borders. Their eyes are stel- 
late, consisting of round spots from which radiate blue bands. The 
snout is prolonged, and attached to the left of the head there is an 
artificial squash-flower symbol, while on the right two eagle feathers, 
with a bundle of horsehair stained red, are tied vertically. Their 
kilts are decorated with triangular figures like those on women's 
blankets. The} T have sprigs of cedar in the belt and carry branches 
of the same tree in their hands. 

WUWUYOMO 

(Plate V) 

The Honani clan at Sichumovi have in their keeping four disk- 
form masks, the symbolic markings of which resemble those of the 
sun mask of the Katcina clan. They were not worn in 1900, but in 
the festival of Pamiirti were arranged, with four Zuiii Calako masks, 
on the floor in the house of the oldest woman of the Honani or 
Badger clan, in whose keeping they are, forming a kind of altar before 
which the men danced. 

The artist has given a lateral view of a man wearing one of these 
objects. 

The mask is flat and is divided by a median line into two parts, one 
green, the other } T ellow. The chin is painted black; the middle of the 
face is occupied by a black triangular design from which protrudes a 
snout curved upward. There are zigzag lines on the»peripheiy of the 
mask, representing plaited corn husks, in which are inserted two kinds 
of feathers, three of which are longer than the remainder. There is 
a fox skin about the neck. 

The blanket is white, undecorated, and covers a ceremonial kilt, the 
green border of which appears in the figure. The figure shows 
knit cotton leggings and heel bands decorated with stars or crosses. 
In the left hand is represented the skin meal pouch, and in the right 
a staff, both of which the personator is said to carry. 

The symbolism of the mask as well as that of the dress is so close to 
that of Ahul that this being would seem to bear a relation to the 
Honani clan like that of Ahtil to the Katcina clan. 

Accompanying Wiiwiiyomo was a figure (not here reproduced) of 
his warrior companion, Kalektaka, who wears the warrior feathers on 
the head and a bandoleer over his shoulder, and carries a whizzer, a 
bow, and arrows. It was pointed out by several of the old Hopi 
priests that this particular warrior wears the embroidered parts of 
the sash in front of his waist, as the artist has represented it in his 
picture, instead of at one side, as is usually the case. 
21 eth— 03 5 



66 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

SIO CALAKO 

(Plate VI) 

This picture represents one of the Zuni giants personated in 
Sichumovi in July." whose masks were introduced from Zuni by Saha, 
father of Supela, and are now in the keeping of the Honani clan, of 
which he was a member. 

In the personation of these giants, the mask is fastened to a stick, 
which is carried aloft by a man concealed by blankets which are 
extended by hoops to form the body. 

The head of the figure is surmounted by a crest of eagle feathers 
which are tipped with small breast feathers of the eagle. There are 
two lateral horns and a protruding snout; a symbol in the form of an 
arrowhead is painted on the forehead. The eyes are shown as 
globular, and are situated on a horizontal black band which crosses the 
upper part of the face, and around the neck is a collar of black feathers. 

The body is represented as covered below with a blanket upon 
which are vertical masks representing feathers, or with a garment of 
feathers, characteristic of these giants, and over this, on the upper 
part of the body, is a representation of a white ceremonial blanket 
with triangular designs, symbols of rain clouds. 

The helmets or masks of the Zuni Calakos were displayed at Pamurti b 
with those of Wtiwuyomo in the ancestral home of the Honani clan, 
to which they belong. 

HELILULU 

(Plate VI) 

The figure of this katcina as drawn by the Hopi artist has two 
horizontal eagle feathers attached to the head and a cluster of red 
feathers and hair hanging on each side, which is a very uncommon 
feature. 

The figure has a mountain lion skin around the neck, and is repre- 
sented with yucca whips in the hands. The rows of small tin cone or 
shell rattles (called helilulii) along the lower rim of the kilt, shown in 
the picture, have probably led to the name by which it -is known. 

WOE 

(Plate VI) 

The sym holism of Woe katcina is a chevron across the nose, a sym- 
bolical design identical with that of the eagle, and figures of artificial 
flowers on the head. Two persons, a man and boy, represented the 
Woe katcina in a Buffalo dance in the winter of 1899-1900. 

a For description of this dance, see Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1897, p. 30 et seq. 
''This was highly appropriate, as this is a Zuni dance and these masks were derived from Zuni. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. VI 





SIO CALAKO 



WOE 




HELILULU 




w K» 



WOE AND TCUTCKUTU 



1EUOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 67 

The eagle is symbolic of the sun or sky god, and its appearance in 
a Buffalo dance is appropriate, since the Buffalo girl wears a sun sym- 
bol on her back. 

WOE AND TCUTCKUTU 

(Plate VI) 

Another picture represents Woe and two gluttons as they appear in 
one of the dances. The gluttons' bodies are painted yellow and their 
faces have red parallel bands across the cheeks extending from the 
eyes and the corners of the mouth to the ears. a They have ear pend- 
ants h and necklaces of rabbit's tails. Over the shoulder each has a ban- 
doleer, to which a roll of paper-bread or piki is attached. Two bowls 
with bundles of food are drawn at the side of the main figure. Woe 
has a chevron design painted red on the nose and cheeks, turquoise ear 
pendants, and sheepskin wig. The legs, body, and arms are colored 
brown and white. The figure wears a bandoleer and white blanket, 

with red sash. 

Powamu Festival 

The following personages appear in this festival: 

Ah ill. HeheS. 

Katcina mana and Kerwan. Hehea. 

Eototo and Woe. Hehea mana. 

Tumas and Tuilwup. Telavai. 

Hahai wuqti and Natacka mana. Powamu. 

Tehabi and Tuilwup taamu. Wuwuyomo. 

Natacka naamii. Atocle. 

Kumbi Natacka. Awatobi Soyok taka. 

Soyok wuqti. Awatobi Soyok wiiqti. 

AHUL 

(Plate VII) 

The figure of Ahiil has all the symbolism characteristic of this god 
when personated as leader of the katcinas in their annual return to 
Walpi in the Powamu festival. 

The disk-shaped mask is crossed by horizontal bands painted white 
and black, separating the face into a lower part, colored black, and an 
upper, which is divided into yellow and green zones, the former being 
turned to the observer. Black crosses cover these two upper zones. 
In the middle of the face is painted a triangular black figure, and to 
the middle 1 of the horizontal bands which separate the chin from the two 
upper zones there is attached a curved representation of the beak, 
painted green. 

The zigzag lines around the periphery of the disk represent plaited 
corn husks in which are inserted eagle or turkey feathers, the tips of 

"The same markings thai the Tataukyamti priests bear in the New-fire ceremony. 
& These decorations adorn the Tataukyamu priests. 



68 HOPI KATCINA8 [eth. ann. 21 

which are colored black. The red lines interspersed with these 
feathers represent horsehair stained red. 

The reddish-brown body about the neck represents a fox skin, the 
Legs and bushy tail of which are indicated. 

The picture shows a ceremonial blanket or kilt, colored green, with 
embroidered edge, around the body, and a similar kilt on the loins. 
The ceremonial dance sash is represented on one side, hanging down 
to the right knee. 

The network leg-covering represents the garment worn by the 
sim god. and the row of globular bodies down each leg are shell 
tinklers. The moccasins are painted green and the anklets are orna- 
mented with terrace designs in red, representing rain clouds. 

In the left hand there are a small meal pouch made of a fox skin 
with dependent tail, a bundle of bean sprouts painted green, and a 
slat of wood, dentate at each end, representing a chief's badge. In 
the right hand is a staff, on the top of which are drawn two eagle 
feathers and a few red horsehairs. Midway in its length is tied an 
ear of corn, a crook, and attached breast feathers of the eagle. 

HAHAI WUQTI. 

(Plate VII) 

The picture of Hahai wuqti, like that of Kokyan (spider) wiiqti 
(woman), has e}^es of crescentic form. The hair is done up in two 
elongated bodies which hang by the sides of her head, and she has a bang 
of red horsehair on the forehead. She wears a red fox skin around her 
neck, and to her waist are tied two sashes, the extremities of which, 
highly embroidered, are shown in the picture. In her right hand she 
carries a gourde 

Hahai wuqti appears in the kiva exhibition of Paluliikonti, or 
Ankwaiiti, when she offers sacred meal to the Snake effigies for food 
and presents her breasts to them to suckle. The best representation 
of Hahai wiiqti is at Powamu, when she accompanies her children, the 
monsters called Natackas. In both festivals she wears the parapher- 
nalia shown in the figure. 6 

TUMAS 
(Plate VII) 

Tumas is the mother of Tunwup, who flogs the children in the 
Powamu festival. Her mask, as shown in the drawing/' has fan-like 



"The mask of the Soyal katcina, Ahiilani, has similar marks in alternate eelebrations of the 
Soyaluna. Pictures of, the sun have been drawn for the author with similar crescentic eyes, from 
which it is inferred that Ahiilani is a sun god who appears as a bird (eagle) man in Soyaluna and 
that Hahai wiiqti and Kokyan wiiqti arc diiTerent names of the same supernatural. 

b For photograph of Hahai wuqti, Natacka naamu, and Soyok mana, see Fifteenth Annual Report 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 1897, pi. cvi. For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fur 
Ethnographie, Hand vn, pi. ix, fig. 27. 

'■ For picture of doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnogrpaphie, Hand VII, pi. XI, fi.n'. -11. Both 
Tumas and Tunwup have several aliases in different Hopi pueblos; at Oraibi the latter is known as 
Ho katcina. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOG v 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. VII 



#\ s ~> 




AHUL 



HAHAI WUQTI 




TUMAS 



TUNWUF 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 69 

appendages made of crow feathers on each side. On the top of the 
head are parrot feathers and breast feathers of the eagle. The 
edge of the mask is surrounded by woven yarn colored black and red. 
The face, which is painted blue, is almost covered by a triangular black 
figure rimmed with white occupying the position of the mouth. 

A fox skin is about her neck; she wears a woman's decorated 
blanket, and carries a meal plaque in her hands. When the flogging 
of children takes place at Hano, Tumas stands at the foot of the kiva 
ladder while her two sons, called Tunwup, perform this act. 

TUNWUP 

(Plate VII) 

With the picture of Tumas the Hopi artist has also introduced ligures 
of her two sons, Tunwup, as they appear in the child-flogging in 
Powamu. Tunwup has a white mask with black, prominent eyes. An 
arrow-shaped figure is painted on the forehead, and there is a horn 
on each side of the head/' 

The mouth is large, of rectangular shape, and there is a fox skin 
about the neck. The body is painted black with parallel vertical 
white markings. A belt made of ears of different-colored corn 
strung together girts the waist. The kilt is made of a fringe of red 
horsehair, and the heel bands are of the same material. There is a 
yucca whip in each hand. 

Details of the ceremonial Powamu child flogging at Walpi and 
Hano vary somewhat. In the Hano celebration an altar is made in 
the kiva at that time by the chiefs, Anote and Satele, both of whom 
place their official badges upon a rectangle of meal drawn on the kiva 
floor. Into this rectangle the children are led by their foster parents 
and flogged in the presence of the inhabitants of the pueblo. 

The two floggers, Tunwup, stand one on each side of the figure 
made of meal, holding their whips of yucca. As they dance they 
strike the boys or girls before them as hard as they can, after which 
they pass the whips to a priest standing by. After each flogging 
the yucca whips are waved in the air, which is called the purification. 
After the children have been flogged many adults, both men and 
women, present their bared bodies, legs, and arms to the blows of the 
yucca whips. 

In a dance in the Walpi kivas, at the opening of the Powamu 
festival, in which fifteen or twenty Tunwups were personated, several 
of theii number, as well as spectators, were terribly flogged on bare 
buck- and abdomens. 

A- the figure of Tunwup is ji conspicuous one on the altar of the 

o The symbolism of Tufiwup resembles thai oi Calako, whom the author identifies as a sun god. 
Traditions declare thai tin- Brsl youths were flogged by Calako. 



70 HOPI KATCLNAS [eth. ann. 21 

Niman Kateina in several Hopi pueblos, it is probable that this super- 
natural being was introduced from a ruin called Kicuba, once inhabited 
by the Kateina elan. 

The following beings form the Tunwup group, personations of the 
ancients of the Kateina clan: 

Tunwup tatakti I men). 
Tumas (mother of Tunwup). 
Tunwup taainU (their uncle). 

TEHABI AND TUNWUP TAAMU 

(Plate VIII) 

A drawing of a mudhead clown bearing on his back a figure resem- 
bling- Tunwup was identified as representing Tehabi. These two were 
accompanied by a third figure called Tunwup taamu (Tunwup, their 
uncle), the whole picture representing an episode in one of the 
ceremonies. 

Tunwup's uncle has a green mask, two horns, great goggle-e} T es, and 
a black band with upright parallel white lines across the face. The 
figure is bearded and has a fox skin about the neck. The bod}^ is 
daubed black, but wears a white ceremonial kilt with red and black 
border, which is tied to the wais£ by a large white cotton kilt. Like 
his nephew, he carries yucca whips. 

KEKWAN AND KATCINA MANA 
(Plate VIII) 

These two figures illustrate one of the most beautiful incidents in 
Powamii, when the beans which have been artificially sprouted in the 
kivas are brought out into the plazas and distributed. The two figures 
represent male and female persons, and between them is a flat basket 
in which are carried the bean sprouts which have been grown in the kiva. 

Kerwan has a green mask with eyes and mouth indicated by black 
crescents. On the top of the head there are two eagle tail feathers 
and a cluster of parrot and eagle breast feathers. The female figure 
has hair hanging down the back, a yellow masquette with red horse- 
hair before the face, and an eagle breast feather on the crown of the 
head. She wears a woman's blanket tied about the waist with a large 
cotton belt, the whole covered by a white blanket. 

SOYOKOS (MONSTERS) 

The name Soyoko is applied to certain monsters called Natackas, 
which appear in Powamu. There are three sets of Natacka masks on 
the East mesa — one in Hano, in the keeping of the Tobacco elan, now 
hanging in a back room of Anote's house; another in Sichumovi; and 
a third set in Walpi. 



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TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. VIII 




TEHABI 



TUNWUP TAAMU 




KERWAN AND MANA 



HELIOTYPE CO., B08TON. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 71 

These Natackas are undoubtedly derived from eastern pueblos, for 
they are represented at Zuni by the so-called Natacko, which the}' 
closely resemble in symbolism. They were introduced into Tusayan 
by the Tanoan colonists, the Asa and the Hano clans, the Middle mesa 
Natackas being simply derived from the East mesa. They are not 
found at Oraibi, as these clans are not represented there. 

Besides the Soyoko or monsters which regularly appear in the 
Walpi Powamu, there are other similar bogies which make occasional 
visits. Two of these, called Awatobi Soyok taka and Soyok wiiqti, 
were derived from Awatobi, one, Atocle, from Zuni, and one, 
Tcabaiyo." is of unknown derivation. All apparently have the same 
function, but there is only a remote similarity in their symbolism. 

The name Soyok or So} T uku, given by the Hopi to the Natackas, is 
linguistically a Keresan word, and as the mythologic conceptions 
and objective symbolism are very similar in the two stocks, we may 
regard the Hopi being as a derivation from the Keresan. The fact 
that these personages are found in the Hopi pueblos where there are 
other evidences of incorporation from eastern pueblos tells in favor 
of the theory that they were brought to Tusayan from eastern 
pueblos. 

In the personation of Natacka we find also a person called naamu, 
their father. The following list includes the varieties of these per- 
sonations: 

Nanatacka tatakti (males). 
Nanatacka civaamu (their sisters). 
Natacka wiiqti (mother). 
Natacka naamu (their father). 

Natacka Naamu 
(Plate IX) 

The father as figured by the artist has on the head a crest of turkey 
tail feathers and two eagle feathers, each tipped with a red breast 
feather. He has a goggle-eyed black mask with a tritid symbol on 
the forehead and a curved horn on each side of the head. 

The father of the Natackas appears at Powamu with their sisters 
and Hahai wiiqti. and the three visit all the houses of the pueblos/' 

During these visits Hahai wiiqti carries on a conversation with 
inmates of the houses in a falsetto voice, and gives to the men or boys 
a mouse trap made of yucca fiber, and a stick, telling them that in 
eight days she will return with her children, the Natackas; that they 
must trap game and procure meat for these when they come. To the 
woman of the house 4 Hahai wiiqti gives an ear of corn, telling her to 
grind it and have meal and bread for the Natackas when they return. 

" The mask is owned by the Snake elan. Atocle a1 Zuni is sometimes called Soyok. 
''There are three groups, one for eaeh pueblo on the East mesa. 



< -I HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

K iM i?i Natacka 
Plate IX ) 

The black Xatacka has a black mask with goggle eyes and with a green 
arrowhead on the forehead. It has two horns, one of which the artist 
has represented, and a crest of conventional eagle wing feathers* ris- 
ing from a bunch of black feathers on the back of the head. A fox 
skin hangs about the neck. Kumbi Natacka wears a buckskin garment 
over a calico shirt, and carries a saw in one hand, a hatchet in the 
other. The black objects hanging over the shoulder are locks of hair, 
from which depend eagle tail feathers. 

The small figure accompanying Kumbi Natacka represents a Hehea 
katcina, two or more of which go with the Natackas in their begging 
trip through the pueblos. The body is covered with phallic symbols, 
and a lasso is carried in the right hand. The leggings are of sheep- 
skin stained black. The face has the characteristic zigzag symbols of 
Hehea. a 

Kutca Natacka 

i 

(Plate IX) 

The white Natacka resembles the black, save that the mask is white 
instead of black. He also carries a saw in his right hand, and a yucca 
whip in his left. In the personations of this Natacka the men, as a 
rule, carry bows and arrows in their left hands. 

There are also • Natackas of other colors which the artist has not 
figured. 

Natacka Wuqti, or Soyok Wuqti 

(Plate X) 

Soyok wuqti 6 has a large black mask with great yellow goggle e} r es, 
and red beard and hair, in which is tied a red feather, symbol of 
death or war. She carries in one hand a crook to which several shell 
rattles (mosilili) are attached, and in the other a huge knife. She is 
much feared by the little children, who shudder as she passes through 
the pueblos and halts to threaten with death those she meets. She 
appears at Powamu at about the same time as the Natackas, but does 
not accompany them. 

The episode illustrated by the figure shows an interview of the 
Soyok woman and a lad who is crying with fright. The woman has 
demanded food of the boy, and he offers a rat on the end of a stick. 
The bogy shakes her head, demanding a jack rabbit which the boy 
carries in his right hand. 

a I'.,!- figure <>f the doll see [nternationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. ix, fig. 30. 

''Soyok from skoyo, a Kcresan word meaning monster or bogy. 



fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 73 

Natacka Mana 

The sister of the Natackas, called also Natacka rnana and Soyok 
mana," accompanies her brothers on their begging trip through the 
pueblos of the East mesa. Her picture represents a person with black 
mask and white chin, and with hair arranged in two whorls over the 
ears, as is customary with maidens. She has round, green eyes, a 
square mouth with red teeth, and a beard. On her back she carries a 
basket suspended by a band which passes across her forehead. In 
this basket she collects the meat and bread which the Natackas obtain 
from the different households. Her clothing is a woman's blanket, 
over which is thrown a buckskin, and she carries in one hand a large 
knife. 

HEHEA 

(Plate XI) 

Hehea katcina, like many others, may be personated without kilt 
or in complete dress. In the former case a sheepskin replacing an 
old-time buffalo skin is hung over the shoulder and phallic emblems 
are painted on arms, legs, and body. The mask is decorated with the 
zigzag marking on each cheek. In this form Hehea appears in 
certain kiva exercises at the ceremonial grinding of meal by the Ana 
katcina manas. We also find him associated with the Corn maids and 
with the Natackas. The phallic symbols are depicted on the bodies 
of the Wuwutcimtu and Tataukyamu. in the New-fire ceremony, and 
there are other evidences which associate the former with Hehea. 

A picture of this form of Hehea was drawn, but has not been repro- 
duced. It represents a large and small Hehea, each with character- 
istic zigzag symbols on the face and with oblique eyes and mouth. 
Both have phallic symbols on body and limbs, and wear artificial 
flowers on their heads/' 

The body has a sheepskin covering stained black and leggings of 
same material, which have replaced buffalo skins formerly used for 
the same purpose. Each carries a lariat, the use of which is 
explained in the account of the visits of the Natackas on their begging 
trips to different houses. 

Another picture of Hehea, which also represents a primitive con- 
ception of this personage, has a kilt and the elaborate dress in which he 
sometimes appears in ceremonial public dances. It is reproduced in 
plate xi. 

a This part is taken by a lad. For picture of t lie doll sec [nternationales Archiv fur Etb.nograpb.ie, 
Band vn, pi. ix. 

''Compare this artificial flower with thai of the Wttwutcimtfl society. The member- of both 
this society and the Tataukyamu have similar phallic symbols painted on body and limbs. For a pic- 
ture of the doll, see [nternationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn, pis. vu, vm, figs, hi, 18. 



74 HOPT KATCINAS [kth.ann.ji 

Hehea is evidently an ancient katcina," and from his appearance in 
many primitive ceremonies, public and secret, we may regard him as 
connected with a very old ritual. 

The Wuwiitcimtu priests in the New-tire celebration at Walpi often 
decorate their faces (masks are not used in this rite) with the symbols 
of Hehea, and he is intimately associated with Corn maids (Palahiko 
mana) ; ' of the Mamzrau festival. 

HEHEA MANA 

(Plate XI) 

The Hehea mana, sister of Hehea, accompanies the Natacka group 
in Powamu. She is represented by the artist with the character- 
istic coiffure of a maiden, and has the same zigzag facial lines as her 
brother. On her arms are the same phallic symbols, and in her hand 
she carries a lariat. 

If any one refuses to grant the requests of the Natackas for meat 
or food, both she and her brother try to lasso the delinquent. 

HEHEE 

(Plate XI) 

This figure represents a warrior maid who sometimes appears in 
Powamu. There is such a close resemblance between her and Tcak- 
waina mana (see page 63) that they would seem to be identical person- 
ages. The reason for her unfinished coiffure is given in the account 
of the Tcakwaina maid. 

, AWATOBI SOYOK TAKA 

(Plate XII) 

The massacre at Awatobi took place just two centuries ago, but 
there are several katcinas surviving in Walpi which are said to have 
been derived from that pueblo. Among these may be mentioned two 
bogies called Soy ok taka and Soy ok mana, male and female monsters. 
These are occasionally personated at, Walpi, and, as their names imply, 
originally came from Awatobi. Soyok taka corresponds with Natacka, 
and probably both originally came to Tusayan from eastern pueblos. 

Soyok taka wears a mask without distinct symbolism, and has a 
protuberant snout, with teeth made of corn husks. He has goggle 
eyes and hair hanging down over his face. His garment is a rabbit- 
skin rug, and, like Natacka, lie carries a saw.' 1 On his back hangs a 
basket containing a child whom he has captured. 

a Perhaps derived from Awatobi. 

&The Corn maids have several different names, varying with elans. For picture of doll in which 
this association appears, see Internationales Archiv Eur Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. x, tig. 31. 
'•A modern innovation in both instances. 



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pewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 75 

AWATOBI SOYOK WTJQTI 
(Plate XII) 

The figure of the Awatobi Sovok woman differs but little from 
that of the Walpi, but has prominent corn-husk teeth and two white 
parallel burs on each cheek. These two symbols were in fact said 
to distinguish the Awatobi from the Walpi Soyok wiiqti; several 
priests called attention to the differences when the pictures were 
shown them. 

TCABAIYO 

(Plate XIII) 

Tcabaiyo is still another of the bogy gods. The mask belongs to 
Honyi, of the Snake clan, who always personates this being. The 
picture represents him in the act of seizing a small boy who, from 
the zigzag marks on his face and the sheepskin blanket, may be a 
Hehea child. 

Tcabaiyo is threatening to kill the boy with the great knife which 
he carries in his left hand. In the picture the black mask has a long 
swollen proboscis. The eyes are protuberant, and there is a broad- 
headed arrow in the middle of the forehead. A white crescent is 
painted on the cheek. Feathers of the eagle wing form a fan-shaped 
crest, and a bunch of feathers is tied to the back of the helmet. 
Tcabaiyo wears a fox skin about the neck. Feathers of the eagle 
tail are attached to his upper arm. The red-colored garment repre- 
sents a buckskin; that part of the dress in the form of a white man's 
waistcoat is an innovation. Arms and legs are spotted with black 
dots and the breech clout is held in place by an embroidered sash. 

Tcabaiyo occasionally appears in Powamii and his symbolism has a 
close likeness to that of other Natackas or Soyokos. Though he is 
referred to the Soyoko or Natacka group, he is supposed to be derived 
from a different clan, and he bears a name characteristic of that clan. 

ATOCLE 

(Plate XIII) 

There is still another of these Soyokos (monsters) whose functions 
are nearly the same as those of the sister or mother of the Natackas. 
This personage has a Zuni name, Atocle," which betrays her origin. 
Atocle is 5in old woman, personated by a man, who goes about 
the Zuni pueblo frightening children in much the same way that Sovok 
wi'Kjti does {it Walpi. 

"The actions of this person at Zuni arc described in the Journal of American Ethnology ami 
Archeology, vol. n. 1892, where she is called an old scold. 



76 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

The Hopi variant, as shown in the picture, has a black helmet with 
projecting flat snout, and a mass of hair to which is attached a red 
feather. In one hand is a bow and arrows, in the other a knife, 
suggesting weapons for her function. She is accompanied by a 
clown, who holds her back by a lasso tied about her waist. 

so WUQTI 
(Plate XIV) 

So wi'iqti, Grandmother woman, is here represented by the Hopi 
artist as clasping' hands with her child, a Powamu katcina. On each 
cheek there is a red spot, and in her hair is an artificial flower. She 
carries on her back Hehea, her grandchild, as the zigzag marks on 
his face clearly indicate, and has a pine bough in her hand. The 
fact that her grandchild has Hehea symbols would seem to refer her 
to the group to which the latter and his sister belong. 

MASAUU 

CPlate XIV) 

The picture of Masauu has a round helmet decorated with spots of 
different colors. At the top of this helmet there are many twigs, to 
which prayer feathers (nakwakwocis) are attached. There is a deco- 
rated kilt around the neck, and a rabbit-skin rug, shirt, and kilt about 
the body. The legs and arms are painted red and spotted black. The 
two rings on the breast are parts of a necklace made of human bones. 
The figure carries a yucca whip in each hand. 

EOTOTO 

(Plate XIV) 

This is one of the most important katcinas, and is very prominent 
in several celebrations. 

The artist's picture of Eototo has a white head covering, with small 
holes for eyes and mouth, and diminutive ear appendages. There is 
a fox skin about the neck. 

The blanket is white, and is worn over a white kilt tied with an 
embroidered sash, the ends of which are seen below. The figure also 
has knit hose and heel bands. In the left hand there is a skin pouch 
of sacred meal and a chiefs badge a (monkohii), while the right hand 
carries a bundle'of sheep scapulae and a gourd bottle with water from 
a sacred spring. 6 

Eototo is one of the most prominent masked personages at Walpi 

"Sec Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n, 1892. For picture of doll, see Inter- 
nationales Archiv Kir Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. ix, fig. 24. 

£>The use of this water and sacred meal is described in the Journal of American Ethnology and 
Archaeology, vol. n, 1892. 



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SO WUQTI 




MASAUU 



EOTOTO 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 7 i 

in the celebration of the Departure of the Katcinas. On the last 
morning of that festival he is accompanied by three other katcinas 
who march around the kiva entrance, holding- conversation with the 
chief below and receiving offerings, as has been described elsewhere/' 

The god Eototo was introduced from the old pueblo, Sikyatki, and 
his old mask or helmet is in the keeping of the descendants of the 
Kokop family, Avhich once inhabited that pueblo. The close similarity 
in symbolic designs to Masauu, also a Sikyatki god, shows that the 
two names are virtually dual appellations of the same mythological 
conception, but that they originated in this pueblo is not yet proved. 

One of the most interesting personations of Masauu appeared in 
Powamii in 1900, when a man represented this god in the five Walpi 
kivas. He wore a helmet made of a large gourd, pierced with 
openings for eyes and mouth and painted black with micaceous hema- 
tite sprinkled over them. He and a companion carried old-fashioned 
planting sticks and imitated planting, while about twenty unmasked 
men, representing a chorus called Maswik b katcinas, some person- 
ating males, others females, danced and sang about them. 

At the close of the personation in each kiva, the representative 
of Masauu was loaded with prayer offerings. This archaic cere- 
mony was regarded with great reverence and was shunned by all save 
the initiated. 

KWAHU 

(Plate XV) 

Kwahu, the Eagle katcina, is figured in the drawing with an eagle's 
head above the helmet in a way that recalls an Aztec picture. The 
characteristic symbolic marks of certain birds of prey, as the eagle 
and hawk, are the chevron marks on the face, which are well shown in 
this picture. 

In personations of this and other birds the wings are represented by 
a string of feathers tied to the arms, as shown in the picture. 

PALAKWAYO 

(Plate XV) 

The symbolism of Palakwavo, the Red Hawk, is similar to that of 
Ti'irpockwa, .but there is no bird's head above the helmet. The figure 
also has the moisture tablet on the back. In each of the outstretched 
hands is carried a bell. 



rournal of American Kthnology and Archaeology, vol. n, L892. 
l> Masauu, wik (bearers;. 



7^ HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

KECA 

(Plate XV) 

Tin' figure of Keca, the Kite, has two parallel black marks on each 
side of the face, not unlike the facial symbols of the war god, Puiikon 
hoya. The body is white with black spots representing feathers, but 
the forearms and legs are painted yellow. The wings are imitated by 
a row of feathers tied to the arms, and the tail by feathers attached 
to the breechclout. Keca holds in his left hand a hare and in his 
right a rabbit. 

PAWIK a 

(Plate XV) 

Pawik, the Duck katcina, is represented in the accompanying pic- 
tures. The helmet is green with a long curved snout painted yel- 
low, around the base of which is tied wool stained red. The eyes 
are rectangular, the left yellow, the right blue. Two upright eagle 
feathers are attached to the left side of the helmet, near which is a 
bunch of horsehair stained red. On the right side of the helmet is 
tied an ovoid symbol of an undeveloped squash with a breast feather 
of the eagle projecting from one pole and red horsehair about its base 
of attachment. The upper part of the helmet is girt by parallel 
bands of black, yellow, and red. The lower rim has a black band in 
which there are patches of white. The tree represented between the 
two figures is the pine. 

TOTCA 

(Plate XVI) 

Totca, the Humming Bird, has a globular head painted blue, with 
long pointed beak. The dorsal part of the body is colored green, the 
ventral yellow. The rows of feathers down the arms are wings, b}> r a 
movement of which the flight of a bird is imitated. 

MONWU AND KOYIMSI 

(Plate XVI) 

This personation of the Owl has a helmet with rows of parellel 
yellow, green, red, and black crescents, and a prominent hooked 
beak. He wears a rabbit-skin blanket tied b} T an embroidered sash, 
and holds a bow and arrows in one hand and a rattle in the other. The 
figure is accompanied by a clown who has a feather in each hand. 

a For description of Pawik katcina see Tusayan Katcinas, Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, 1897, pages 2 ( M-'S0Z. 



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TOTCA 




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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN POWAMU 79 

MONWti WpQTI 

(Plate XVI) 

The Owl woman and her two young are figured, in this picture, 
and need no explanation additional to that given of the Owl katcina 
with whom she is associated. 

SALAB MONWU 
(Plate XVII) 

The head shown in this picture is readily recognized as that of an 
Owl. He wears a kilt made of buckskin, and has a belt with silver 
disks. He carries a pine branch and bow in the left hand, a rattle in 
the right. 

HOTSKO 

(Plate XVII) 

The figure of Hotsko is owl-like, with broad mouth, and wears a 
rabbit-skin rug tied on the body by an embroidered sash. This picture 
evidently represents a bird, but the author can not identify it. 

TURPOCKWA 

(Plate XVII) 

The picture of this bird has a helmet surmounted by a bird's head, 
like that of the eagle, and a black chevron on the face. The beak is 
long and slender. 

Turpockwa, like many other birds, has a moisture or sun tablet on 
the back, the horizontal plumes of which show on each side of the 
neck. The personators arms, here extended, have attached feathers 
like wings. The dress and other paraphernalia shown in the figure 
can hardly be regarded as characteristic. 

YAUPA 

(Plate XVII) 

Yaupa, the Mocking Bird, has a helmet painted white, with a tri- 
angular design on the face, to the sides of which ring-like figures are 
attached. The beak is long and slender, and there are clusters of 
bright parrot feathers on the top of the head; indications of the wings 
are shown in the black lines along the arms. The spots on the body 
represent feathers. 



80 HOPI KATOINAS [eth. axn. 21 

HOSPOA 
( Plate XVIII) 

Hospoa, the Road Runner, as shown in the picture, has a green 
helmet covered with rows of Mack and white crescents, a short beak, 
and stellate eyes. 

On the back this bird has a painted skin stretched over a framework, 
called a moisture tablet. To each upper corner are attached two feath- 
ers, which project horizontally, and along* the edges is a string with 
attached horsehair stained red. 

There is a flute in one hand, a rattle in the other. The garments are 
a ceremonial kilt, girdle, and embroidered sash. 

PATSZRO 
(Plate XVIII) 

Patszro, the Snipe katcina, has a figure of the snipe painted on the 
forehead, a long, slender beak, and semicircular markings on each 
cheek. These markings consist of white, red, and yellow bands, the 
first furnished with a row of black wings. 

The body is naked, painted white on the ventral, green oil the dorsal 
side. The tail feathers are tied to the belt in such a way that their 
extremities show behind. 

The spots on the body represent small downy feathers attached by 
means of gum or some sticky substance. 

KOYONA 

(Plate XVIII) 

Koyona, the Turkey, has a green-colored helmet, with long extended 
beak and bright red wattles, which are made of flannel cloth. The 
wings and tail are made of feathers attached to the arms and belt. 
There are many small feathers attached to the body with gum. 

KOWAKO 

(Plate XVIII) 

The picture of Kowako, the Chicken katcina, has a red comb and 
wattles; the body is painted red on the dorsal, white on the ventral side. 

The personator wears a ceremonial white kilt with embroidered 
green border worked into rain-cloud symbols. The wattles and comb 
are made of red flannel, and feathers are tied to the arms for wings. 

The figures of both Koyona and Kowako (Chicken) which the Hopis 
made are more realistic than the personations which were 1 seen by the 
author, although the latter wear elaborate masks, with wattles, comb. 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING- IN POWAMU 81 

and beak, which are tine imitations of the heads of these birds. The 
realism of these masks, as compared with the conventionalism of the 
masks of Patszro, Kwayo, and others, would indicate the later intro- 
duction of Kovona and Kowako into the katcina cult. 

MOMO 
(Plate XIX) 

Momo, the Bee katcina, has a yellow head with black crescentic 
bands extending on each side from the globular eyes. The back of 
the head is banded yellow and green, and on the crown there are 
pedunculated bodies arranged in a row, with two long, stiff, black 
projections representing antenna?. There are also feathers on the 
back of the helmet. He carries a miniature bow and arrows. In 
the dance he imitates the hum of a bee, and goes from one spectator 
to another, shooting the blunt arrows at them. To still the cries of 
children, due to mere fright, the Bee katcina squirts a little water on 
the supposed wound/' 

TETANAYA 
(Plate XIX) 

The picture, of the Wasp katcina has body, legs, arms, and mask 
painted with parallel lines of green, brown, red, yellow, and black. 
There are two straight vertical horns on the head and a long slim 
proboscis, also banded with black and white. This being is only 
occasionally personated in the winter ceremonies. 

TELAVAI 

(Plate XX) 

On the morning of the last day of Powamu, the beans which have 
sprouted in the kivas are plucked tip and distributed by masked 
persons to all the people in the pueblos, who boil and eat them as a 
great relish. Each of the nine kivas delegates two or more men to 
distribute the sprouts grown in that kiva. From the fact that these 
men distribute the bean sprouts at early dawn, they are called Telavai 
(Dawn), although they represent Malo, Owa, Tacab, or others. 

There arc in the collection a number of paintings to which this name 
was given which did not appeal' in the Powamu in L900. 

The distinctive symbolism of Telavai is a rain-cloud design on each 
cheek, and eyaa that are each represented by a band having one end 
curved. There are four horizontally arranged eagle feathers on top 
of the helmet, surmounted by a cluster of variegated feathers. 

a in 1900 ;i small syringe was used \<>r this purpose. 
21 ETH— 03- -(') 



82 HOPI KATCINAS [Era. ann. 21 

OWA 
(Plates XX, LXIII) 

The figure of Owa 1ms a helmet mask colored green, with yellow, 
red, and black lines drawn diagonally across the cheeks. The snout 
is protuberant and the eyes are represented by black bands. The hair 
hangs down the back. Parrot and eagJe feathers are attached to the 
crown or the head. 

The body is painted red, and there are parallel yellow bands on 
body, arms, and legs. The ceremonial kilt about the loins is tied by 
a woman's belt and embroidered sack. A fox skin sometimes depends 
from the rear. Under the right knee is represented a turtle-shell 
rattle, and the figure has moccasins and heel bands. 

Owa carries a bow and arrows in the left hand, and a small gourd 
rattle in the right. These are the presents which this being commonly 
makes to children in the Powamu festival. 

MALO 

(Plate XXI) 

In a drawing of Malo katcina the artist has represented the main 
symbols of this being as he is seen when personated in dances. 

The face is crossed by an oblique medial band, in which are rows of 
spots. The face on one side of this band is painted yellow, on the 
other green. The figure has a representation of a squash blossom on 
the right side of the head and two eagle feathers on the left, to which 
is attached a bundle of horsehair stained red/' 

, hum is 

(Plate XXI) 

The figure of Humis katcina shows a helmet with a terraced tablet, 
symbolic of rain clouds. To the highest point are attached two eagle 
feathers, and to each of the angles of the lateral terrace a turkey tail 
feather and a sprig of grass. The whole tablet is rimmed with red 
and painted green, Avith designs upon it. Symbols of sprouting corn 
and terraced rain clouds appear on the fiat sides. 

The face of the helmet is divided medially by a black band, in which 
are three white rings. On the right half of the face, which is blue, 
there is on each side of the e} 7 e-slit a symbol of the sprouting squash 
or gourd, replaced on the left side of the face by small symbols of rain 
clouds. Humis has a collar of pine boughs, sprigs of which are also 
inserted in the armlets, the belt and the kilt. The body is smeared 
with corn smut, and there are two pairs of crescents, painted black, 

a For description of Malo katcina, see Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n, 1892. 

For picture ni" the doll, sec I nternationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. vin, tig. 21. 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEAKING IN POWAMU" 83 

on the abdomen. Humis carries a rattle in the right hand and a sprig 
of pine in the left. A small black stick is tied to his left wrist. 

The two figures which accompany Humis represent Hano clowns, 
who are accustomed to amuse the audience during the celebration of 
the dances in which he appears. 

Each clown wears a cap with two straight horns made of leather, 
with corn husks tied to the tops. The horns are banded alternately 
black and white, as are also the body, arms, and legs. The figure to 
the left has a bowl filled with Hopi wafer bread before him; the one 
at the right carries a roll of the same in his right hand. 

The name Humis is supposed to have been derived from the pueblo 
Jemez in New Mexico and to be the same as the Zufii Hemacikwi, 
a dance which is ordinarily celebrated in summer. 

HOPI AVATC HOYA 
(Plate XXI) 

The Hopi Avatc hoya accompanies the Humis katcina, and, as may 
be seen by consulting the pictures, differs widely from the Sio (Zufii) 
Avatc hoya. The mask is painted black, with white rings; the body, 
arms, and legs, are painted red, with white rings on the body and 
arms, and with black rings on the legs. The mouth and eyes are 
represented by green rings. He wears cones made of corn husks in 
his ears and curved feathers on the head." 

HUHUAN 

(Plate XXI) 

The pictures of Huhuan represent beings with a characteristic gait, 
who appear in Powamu, when they distribute gifts from one of the 
kivas. 

They wear sheepskin caps and necklaces of mosaic ear pendants. 
They should not be confounded with the Barter katcinas, who trade 
dolls, etc.. in certain festivals. Their symbolic markings are a checker 
band of white and colored squares covering the helmet. 

M'VAK 
(male XXII) 

There are three pictures of Xi'ivak, the Snow katcina, two of which 
represent male personages and one a female. The latter is called the 
(old-bringing woman, and is possibly mother of the former. 

This personage 6 is regarded by all the Hopi as a llano (Tanoan) 
katcina, and tin 1 dance in which he figures is said to have been derived 
from the far east. 



a For picture of doll, see Internat ioiui lc< Archiv liir Ktlino^nipliir, P>;in<] vn, pi. i \. fig. 29. 
b For picture of doll, Bee same volume, pi. v, fig. 4. 



84 HOPI KATCINAS |eth. anx. 21 

Near the settlement of Hano people at Isba, Coyote spring, not far 
from the Government House, but on the right of the road from 
Keams Canyon, there is a large spring called Monwiva, which is sacred 
to the Plumed Snake of Hano. In the March festival, effigies of this 
monster arc carried to this spring, where certain ceremonies arc per- 
formed similar to those which the Walpians observe a at Tawapa. 

A year ago (1899) this spring, which had become partially rilled 
with sand, was dug out and walled, at which time an elaborate masked 
dance representing Nuvak katcina was performed near it. This 
intimate association between Paluliikon (Plumed Snake) and Nuvak 
(Snow) appears on a mask of the latter, presently described and 
figured. 

The picture of one form of Snow katcina, shown in the accompany- 
ing figure, has rectangular terraced designs on the back of the head 
and zigzag sticks representing lightning snakes on the upper edge. 
The figure wears a white blanket reversed. The picture shows the 
stitches of the embroideiy on the lower margin. 

A second figure of the Snow katcina, on which the predominant 
color is green instead of white, is readily distinguished from the 
former by figures of snakes' heads painted on each cheek. It has the 
same four lightning symbols on the head and two eagle tail feathers. 
This figure wears an ordinary dance kilt, embroidered with rain-cloud 
and falling-rain designs, and held in place by a girdle. It carries a 
flute in one hand. 

YOHOZRO WUQTI* 
(Plate XXII) 

The Cold-bringing woman, who is connected with the Niivak or 
Snow katcina, is claimed by the people of Hano as one of their 
supernaturals. She is depicted as wearing a white mask with a red 
spot on each cheek, a small beard, and a red tongue hanging from a 
mouth which has prominent teeth. 

She has ear pendants, and a red feather is attached to the crown of 
her head. There is a fox skin about her neck, and she is clothed in a 
white blanket, tied with a knotted girdle. 

POWAMU 

(Plates XIV and XXII) 

On the morning of the last day of the Powamu festival there are 
dances in the kivas in which participate unmasked men called Powamu 
katcinas, a figure of one of whom is given in the accompanying plate. 

" For ;i description of these, see Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. vi, 1893. 

bThe Hano name, [mbesaiya, which is applied to Yohozro wiiqti, means grandmother, possibly the 

Snow katcinn's grandmother. 



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YOHOZRO WUQTI 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEAKING IN POWAMU 85 

These men wear in their hair a number of artificial flowers, made 
of painted corn shacks. The bodies of these men are painted, but 
otherwise they wear no distinctive dress or paraphernalia. 

WUKOKOTI 

(Plate XXIII) 

This figure of Wukokoti (Big Head) has a black face with 
protruding snout, two lateral horns, and prominent globular eyes. 
The artist represents one of two beings who roam through the pueblos 
in the March festival, hooting wherever they go. It is one of many 
beings of the same name who appear in the February and March fes- 
tivals. The personators carry bundles of sheep scapulas, which in late 
years have been substituted for those of deer. 

KOHONINO 

(Plate XXIII) 

This figure a represents a katcina derived from the Havasupai (or 
Kohonino) Indians engaged in animated conversation with a man of 
the same tribe. 

The mask has a headband, on each side of which is a horn wrapped 
with red and black calico. The marks crossing the headband also 
represent variegated cloth. 

Two eagle feathers arise from the head, and to the top of the feath- 
er^ are attached red balls representing fruit of the prickly pear. 

The chin is crossed by oblique bands, colored red and blue, and the 
mouth is triangular in shape. Two red spots, one on each cheek, 
complete the symbolism of the picture. 

The accompanying figure representing a Havasupai Indian is 
unmasked, and shows several characteristic marks. He has a head- 
band, from which rises a hoop, to which are attached two eagle 
feathers, with a fragment of red cloth in the rear. The coat and 
leggings, like Kohonino garments, are buckskin, and there is fringe 
on the latter. 

TCOSBUCI AND SOYAN EP 
(Plate XXIV) 

The main figure is said to have been derived from a Yuman tribe, as 
the Walapai, who formerly wore turquoise (tcosbuci) nose ornaments. 
The artist has represented Tcosbuci and Soyan ep fencing with arrows. 

The symbolic mark of the former is an hourglass design. The face 
i- painted green, the eyes are of brown color with green border. The 
hair is tied Yuma fashion behind the head. The red ring in the middle 
of the face represents a turquoise. 

a For picture of the doll, set- Internationales Archiv iiir Ethnographie, Band vn, fig. lb. 



86 HOPI KATCINAS [ETH. ANN. 21 

Tcosbuci has black bands painted on the left arm and right leg. 
He wears a black kilt under a buckskin shirt, and has a quiver with 
anows. The bow is carried in one hand. 

Soyan ep has a black mask with feathers on his head, lozenge-shaped 
eyes, and small goatee. Both, legs and arms are striped with black 
bands. His shirt is made of buckskin. 

NAKIATCOP 
(Plate XXIV) 

The figure of Nakiatcop has a crest of eagle feathers on the head, 
and in most respects resembles the Dawn katcina. The mask used 
in personating this being is said to belong to the Badger clan. 

KOKOPELLI 
(Plate XXV) 

The Hopi call a certain dipterous insect kokopelli and apply the 
same name to a personation said to have been introduced by the Asa 
clan. 

The head is painted black and has a white median facial line. The 
snout is long, pointed, and striped in spiral black and white. On 
each side of the head is a white circle with diametrical lines drawn in 
black, and there is a warrior feather on top. 

The body is black, and girt by an embroidered sash. There are buck- 
skin leggings, stained yellow and green. A hump is always found on 
the back in pictures or dolls of Kokopelli. 

The author has been informed that in old times many of these beings 
appeared at the same time, but he has never seen the personation. 

KOKOPELLI MANA 
(Plate XXV) 

The Kokopelli girl has a slender, protuberant snout painted with 
spiral lines. She carries in her hand two packets ° of food made of 
mush wrapped in corn husks. 

LAPUKTI b 

(Plate XXV) 

The symbolic marks of Lapukti are three parallel marks on each 
cheek, hair of cedar bark, long telescopic eyes, and a protuberant 
snout, lie carries a rattle in his right hand, a crook in the left, and 
wears shirt and pantaloons. The picture brings out all these charac- 
teristics. 



a Somipiki. 

b For picture of doll, see [nternationales Archiv Cur Ethnographie, Hand vn, pi. xi, fig. 40. 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IX PALULUKONTI 87 

Palulikonti (Ankwanti) Festival 

MACIBOL 

(Plate XXVI i 

These two figures represent masked men who sometimes appear in 
the March festival (Ankwanti) carrying effigies of the Great Serpent, 
with which they appear to struggle, twisting them about their bodies 
and causing them to make various gyrations in a startling manner. 

One of the arms represented in the picture is a false one, which is 
hung on the shoulder of the performer, the real arm being hidden in 
the body of the serpent effigy. The man holds the stick which is the 
backbone of the serpent with the hidden hand and with it imparts 
the wonderfully realistic movements to the serpent. 

Each figure wears a buckskin blanket and a mask painted green, 
across which is a black zigzag band rimmed with white, which in form 
resembles the snake symbol on the kilt of the Snake priests. The 
helmet has two horns and a bunch of feathers on the top. 

The backs of the two serpent effigies differ in color, one being black 
and the other brown, but the bellies of both are white. The triansrular 
symbols on them represent bird tracks; the double parallel marks 
represent feathers. 

Their heads have a fan -shaped crest of feathers, a median horn curv- 
ing forward, and a necklace of feathered strings. The eyes are promi- 
nent, and the teeth and tongue are colored red. 

Macibol is another name for Calako, the sun god, and the episode 
here figured represents the sky god wielding the lightning. 

PALULUKON AND TATCUKTI 

(Plate XXVI) 

There are many rites in the Ankwanti in which the effig-ies of Palii- 
liikon, the Great Snake, play an instructive role. This picture repre- 
sents the struggle of a clown with one of these effigies, as personated 
in the March mystery drama. 

The effigy is made to rise from a jar on the floor to the ceiling, and 
when it is thus extended a clown steps up to it and appears to struggle 
with it; he is finally overcome. There are modifications of this drama 
which call for special description, but none of these are represented 
in the collection of pictures. 

FIGURINES OF CORN MAIDENS 

(Plate XXVII) 

On certain years there is introduced in the Ilopi mystery drama, 
Ankwanti, an interesting marionette performance which is illustrated 
by this picture. The Honani or Badger clan of Sichumovi have two 

3ee A Theatrical Performance ;it Walpi, Proceedings Washington Academy of Science, vol. n, 
1900, pages GU.>-o2 ( J, and pages 40-55 of tin- paper. 



88 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

figurines representing the Corn maidens, which wore made by a man 
named Totci, who now lives at Zuni. These figurines and a framework 
or upright with which they are used are shown in this picture, which 
represents the figures kneeling before a miniature grinding stone 
placed on the floor. 

As the symbolism has been explained in a description of Calako 
mana, it need not be redescribed, but it may be well to note that 
the dotted bodies appearing on these figurines below the kilt rep- 
resent the feathered garment which this maid and some other mythical 
personages are said to wear/* 

The designs on the framework symbolize rain clouds and falling 
rain. During the mystery play the two bird effigies are made to move 
back and forth on the framework by a man concealed behind the screen, 
who also imitates bird cries. 

The two figurines are manipulated by means of strings and other 
mechanical appliances. Their arms are jointed, and as a song is sung 
the marionettes are made to imitate meal grinding, raising their hands 
at intervals from the meal stones to their faces. 

TACAB ANYA AND MANA 
(Plate XXVII) 

This picture represents a being called Navaho Anya katcina, and his 
sister, who grinds corn ceremonially in the kivas on the final night of 
the Ankwanti. The attitude of the girl is that assumed by her after 
the corn has been ground, when she and her sister dance and posture 
their bodies before a line of Anya katcina personators serving as a 
chorus. 

The masks of the Navaho Anyas are similar to those of the Hopi, 
except that the former have terraced figures or rain-cloud symbols in 
each lower corner, and a red instead of a black beard. The male wears 
a red kilt, tied by a belt of silver disks, which are common Navaho 
ornaments. 

The dress of the girl consists of a black velvet shirt and a red calico 
skirt, with a piece of calico over her shoulders. She wears a Navaho 
necklace. 

Her coiffure is a cue tied behind the head, like that of the Navahos. 
The projecting lip, illustrating a habit of gesticulating with the lower 
jaw so common among Navahos, is common in Hopi pictures of these 
Indians. 

OWANOZROZRO 

(Plate XXVIII) 

This being appears in the Ankwanti, going from kiva to kiva 
beating <>n the hatchways and calling down to the inmates. The 

" Fabrics obtained in cliff houses and other <>i<l Arizona ruins show that it is probable that cloth in 
which feathers were woven was worn by the ancient ancestors <>l the Hopis. 



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FIGURINES OF CORN MAIDENS 




TACAB ANA AND MANA 




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COTO (WALPI) 




COTO (ORAIBI) 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEAKING IN PALULUKONTI 89 

picture represents him beating- a stone with a yucca whip. The mask 
is colored white, and has a projecting month, goggle eves, two horns, 
and a mass of hair. The part of stone beater is now taken by boys, 
and the two personators seen in 1900 stood at the kiva entrances 
striking the ladder and raised hatchway, calling down the kiva entrance 
as if angry. They wore loose blankets and no ceremonial kilts. 

GOTO 
(Plate XXVIII) 

There are two pictures of Coto, the Star katcina, one represent- 
ing the Walpi, the other the Oraibi variant; the masks of both are 
readily distinguished from all others by the arrangement of the star 
symbols. 

The East mesa or Walpi Star katcina has three vertical stars 
attached to the top of the masks, a star painted on the right cheek, 
and a half-moon on the left. There are also star figures on the fore- 
arms and legs. Four feathers are represented on top of the mask 
and others hang from the elbows. There are yucca whips in the 
hands. The kilt has a radiating turkey tail feather covering, which 
has a unique form. , 

The whole face of the Oraibi Star katcina is covered by a single 
star. It has a string of feathers extending down the back and a collar 
of spruce twigs. The body is painted yellow and black and the arms 
and legs have longitudinal bands. 

The garments are painted red, and in the left hand is carried a 
yucca whip, in the right a bell. Red color appears to characterize 
all the paraphernalia. 

HOPAK AND MAXA 

(Plate XXIX) 

One of the katcinas which appeared in the Ankwanti was called 
Hopak (hopoko, eastern), and evidently derives its name from the 
fact that it came from eastern pueblos. Hopak was accompanied by 
a girl being, evidently his sister (civaadta). 

The distinguishing symbolism is the triangular mouth and the 
zigzag markings around the face, which is painted green. The hair 
of the girl is dressed in the same way as that of the Zunis and the 
Pueblo women of the Rio Grande. Small rectangles in two colors are 
painted on each cheek. The girl was called sister of the Puiikoii kat- 
cina when he appeared in the Ankwanti. 



90 HOPl KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

KOKVAN WtJQTI 
(Plate XXIX) 

When the Pi'ii'ikon katcinas danced in the Ankwanti there accom- 
panied the dancers a personation called So wiiqti, Grandmother woman, 
and as the grandmother of Pi'ii'ikon is Kokyan wiiqti (Spider woman). 
So wiiqti is supposed to be another name for this being. 

The mask is perfectly black, with yellow crescentic eyes and Ayhite 
hair. She wears a dark-blue blanket, oyer which is a white cere- 
monial blanket with rain-cloud and butterfly symbols. She carries a 
sprig of pine in each hand. 

PUUKON KATCINA 
(Plate XXIX) 

The picture of Piiiikon katcina & has a black mask surmounted b} T 
a netted war bonnet, with two eagle tail feathers attached to the apex. 
There is a small conical extension on top of this bonnet, the usual 
distinguishing feature of the lesser war god. 

The figure has a white blanket about the body which is painted 
black, and wears a white kilt with rain clouds embroidered on the 
margins. The hose are made of an open-worked netted cotton fabric. 
In the left hand there is a bow and arrow, and in the right is the 
ancient war implement, a stone tied by a buckskin to the extremity 
of a stick/ 

PUUKON HOYA 

(Plate XXX) 

'The face of Piiukon hoya bears the customary parallel A^ertical marks, 
and on the head is a war bonnet with apical extension and warrior 
feathers. He wears on his back a quiver of mountain-lion skin, and 
carries a bow and arrow in his left hand, the symbolic lightning frame- 
work, with feathers attached at the angles, in the right. The white 
marks on body, legs, and arms shown in the picture are characteristic. 
The reader's attention is called to the similarity of the symbols of this 
picture to those of Piiukon katcina. 

PALUNA HOYA 
(Plate XXX) 

Palufia hoya, the twin brother of Pi'ii'ikon ho} T a, has a mask with a 
protuberant snout, but does not wear a war bonnet. He has, like 

"The part was taken by Nanahe, a Ilopi who lives in Zufii and who had returned to Walpi for that 
purpose. 
b For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie, Hand vn, pi. v, fig. 59. 
<• < me of these implements can be seen on the altar of the Kalektaka in the Momteita ceremony. 



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f-ewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN PALULUKUNTI 91 

his brother, two vertical marks on each cheek, which, however, are 
black instead of white, and the warrior feather on his head. He 
carries a whizzer in the right hand and a bow and arrows in his 
left, and wears a bandoleer across his left shoulder. His body and 
extremities are painted brown and black. 

TCUKUBOT 
(Plate XXX) 

This is one of the numerous horned katcinas, distinguished by a 
black helmet, white goggle eyes, and two bands across the face. They 
roam about through the pueblos in certain great festivals. 

TCANATJ 

(Plate XXX) 

Tcanaii is an instructive personage. The picture represents him 
as he appears in the Ankwanti. 

The mask is flat and has eagle feathers and two sticks similar to 
those of the Wupamau mask radiating from the margin. The brown 
bodies between these radiating eagle feathers are also feathers, a 
bunch of which covers the back of the helmet/' 

The face is destitute of sjmibolic markings, but a stuffed image of 
a snake hangs from the mouth. 

Tcanau carries a slat of wood and a meal bag resembling that of 
the Snake priests in his left hand, and in his right a crooked stick. 
Four of these beings appeared in the Ankwanti, and the personation 
is said to have been originally introduced into Tusayan by the Pakab 
elan. 

WUPAMAU 

(Plate XXXI) 

This picture 6 represents a being the mask of which has a symbolism 
recalling that of the sun. The face is flat, and is divided into three 
regions by a horizontal and a vertical line. One of the lateral regions 
is yellow, the other is green. The chin is black and there is along 
snout slightly curved downward, with an appended piece of leather, 
colored red, representing the tongue. 

Around the rim of this face, more especially the upper part, is a 
plaited corn-husk border, in which are inserted at intervals three 
prominent eagle feathers and numerous smaller feathers. The latter 
arc bul portions of a mass which cover the whole hack of the helmet. 

When Wupamau appears in Powamu or Ankwanti, he is accom- 

a The masks seen in the Ankwanti have carved wooden lizards attached to their foreheads. 
b For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn. pi. vi, fig. u. 



( .>li HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

panied by a clown carrying a lasso, which in the picture is fastened 
around the body of the katcina. 

There are masks of Wupamau in all three villages of the East 
mesa, and these are all worn in the Ankwanti ceremony. 

MUCAIAS TAKA 
(Plate XXXI) 

The Buffalo youth, as represented in the picture, has a face painted 
black, with white crescents indicating eyes and mouth. Over his 
head is a blackened wig made of a sheepskin, which also hangs down 
his back, replacing the buffalo skin, which was always used when this 
animal was abundant. To each side of the head covering is attached 
a horn with appended eagle feathers. Across the forehead is an 
embroidered fabric like those used for katcina heel bands. a 

The kilt of the Buffalo youth is white, with red and black stripes 
along the edges; it is tied by a string to which shells are attached. 
A large cotton belt is now generally used for a girdle. 

In his left hand the Buffalo youth carries a zigzag stick, represent- 
ing lightning, to each end of which feathers are attached. In his 
right hand he has a rattle decorated with stars. b 

MUCAIAS MANA 
(Plate XXXI) 

This picture represents the Buffalo maid, who appears in the 
Mucaiasti, or Buffalo dance, with the youth mentioned above. She 
is unmasked, but wears hanging down over her forehead before the 
eyes a fringe of black hair tied to a string about her forehead. On 
the crown of her head there is a bunch of parrot and eagle breast 
feathers. A wooden stick, to one end of which is attached a s}mibolic 
squash blossom and to the other two eagle tail feathers, is placed 
horizontally over the crown of the head. This squash blossom is 
made of yarn stretched over radiating spines. Two black parallel 
lines are painted on each cheek, and she wears a profusion of necklaces 
and three white cotton blankets. About her body, tied under her left 
arm, is a ceremonial dance kilt, the embroidered decorations repre- 
senting rain clouds and falling rain. 

The two other blankets, one of which is tied over her right 
shoulder, the other about her loins, bear on the embroidered rim 
rain-cloud and butterfly decorations. She has white leggings, 
embroidered anklets, and white moccasins. The blanket is bound to 

a In old times these bunds were made of porcupine quills, but these are now rare and are replaced 
by embroidered worsted of different colors. 

t> A very good noil of Mucaias taka, made for the author in 1900, has patches of white on the body, 
arms, and legs, and the kilt is tied by a miniature white girdle. 



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fewkesJ KATCINAS APPEARING IN PALULUKONTI 93 

her loins by a srreat cotton belt, the ends of which are shown on the 
left side. 

In each hand she carries a notched prayer-stick, called a sun ladder, 
which is painted yellow on one side of the median line, green on the 
other." 

On her back the Buffalo maid wears a sun symbol, which, divested 
of the peripheral eagle feathers, the artist has showm to the right of 
the picture. The tips of these feathers are shown on each side of the 
arms; the accompanying lines represent stained horsehair. 

ANYA KATCINA MANAS GRINDING CORN 

(Plate XXXII) 

In several ceremonies, especially those in the kivas which drama- 
tize the growth of corn, there is a ceremonial corn grinding, which 
also sometimes occurs in the public plazas, as is illustrated by this 
picture. The figures of the group are as follows: 

1. Two Afiya katcina manas 

'2. Two Hehea katcinas 

3. Four Any a katcinas 

4. One Paiakyanm 

All these figures have symbolic masks which have elsewhere been 
described as characteristic. 

It will be noticed that the two whorls of the girls' hair are different 
from those generally worn by Hopi maids. This particular form is 
said to represent a very ancient coiffure, which is made by winding 
the hair over an hourglass-shaped piece of wood, but this object is 
not removed, as are the curved sticks commonly used in making the 
whorU. 

The sequence of events in this ceremonial corn grinding is as 
follows: The two Heheas first enter the kiva or plaza, bearing on 
their backs two metates or grinding stones done up in sheepskins, 
which they place side by side. Narrow boards, decorated with rain 
clouds and bird figures, are set up about them, and a plaque of meal, 
with a brush, is placed by their side. The Heheas, having arranged 
these objects, seat themselves on each side of the grinding stones in 
the attitude shown in the picture. The masked girls then enter and 
take their positions by the metates. 

A line of thirty or more Afiya katcinas. of which only four are 
shown in the picture, then file in and take their positions back of the 
maids: with them enters the Paiakyamu, or glutton, who seats himself 
facing the girls. 

After an interlocution between the Heheas and the kiva chief, 
who sits by the fireplace facing them, the trend of their conversation 
being that the girls are clever meal grinders, the chorus begins a 

"Tin- artist 1 » j i ■— made a mistake in painting both Bides green. 



V)4 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

song, accompanied by a dance, while the girls grind the meal and the 
Heheas clap their hands. After a short time the Heheas take some of 
the meal from the grinding stones and carry it to the kiva chief or to 
the clown, and put it in his mouth to show its excellence. They 
respond that it is good, and the Heheas resume their seats, shouting 
and clapping their hands as before. 

After a little while the Heheas take more of the meal and thrust it into 
the mouths of the other spectators for them to taste, all the time car- 
rying on a bantering conversation with the chief. After this proceeds 
for some time the girls rise, the metates are brushed, done up in the 
sheepskins, and laid at one side. The girls then stand in front of the 
line of Anya katcinas and posture their bodies, holding ears of corn 
in the hands, which they extend one after another in the attitudes 
shown in the picture of Alo mana. 

The being called Airy a katcina, while apparently very old among the 
Hopis, resembles the Zuni Kokokci in both symbolism and general 
character, which suggests that both ma}^ have been derived from a 
common source. It is not improbable that this source in both instances 
was the pueblos of the Patki clans, the ruins of which are situated 
on the Little Colorado river. 

It is interesting in this connection to note that the whorls of hair of 
the Anya manas more nearly resemble those of the Zuni personations 
of girls than those of the Hopi, which, so far as it goes, tells in favor 
of a common derivation. 

HOKYANA 
(Plate XXXIII) 

The figure of Hokvana katcina is accompanied by that of a drummer. 
He wears a bearded maskette colored green and has hair cut in ter- 
races across the forehead and below the ears, but hanging down the 
back. This way of cutting the hair in terraces is symbolic of rain 
clouds. 

There is a bunch of feathers on top of the head, and a string with 
attached feathers hangs down the back. The lower rim of the maskette 
has alternate blocks of red, green, white, and black colors, as in Anya 
katcina masks. One side of the body is painted red, the other blue. 

The drummer is dressed like a Navaho, with calico or silk headband, 
velvet trousers, buckskin leggings with silver buttons, and belt of 
silver disks. 

Hokvana is said to be distinguished from Anya by his peculiar step in 
dancing. 



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y(j HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ANN, 21 

Sumaikoli Ceremony 

8UMAIKOL] AND YAYA 
( Plate XXXIV) 

This picture represents a Sumaikoli led by a Yaya priest, as they 
appear in two festivals each year, one in the spring, the other in 
summer. New lire is kindled by frictional methods in the former 
and is carried by means of a cedar-bark torch. to shrines of the 
fire god at the four cardinal points. In abbreviated presentations 
the masks are left in the kiva, where they are arranged in a row with 
that of Kawikoli, and the men who carry the fire are unmasked and 
not accompanied by a Yaya priest. The Sumaikoli are supposed to 
be blind, and eyes in the masks are mere pin holes, so that when 
they are worn a guide is necessary. 

There are six masks of Sumaikoli and one of Kawikoli in Walpi and 
Hano which differ slightly in colors and symbolism, but the accom- 
panying figure gives a fair idea of one of the Sumaikolis. 

It will be noted that the figure wears the same embroidered sash 
on the head that is seen in the picture of Masanu, and that the 
appendages to the leggings are the same shell tinklers which are pre- 
scribed for sun gods. 

KAWIKOLI 
(Plate XXXV) 

The picture of Kawikoli represents a being with a globular mask 
painted black, having two white marks on each cheek. A bundle of 
feathered strings is tied to each side, and the skin of a mountain 
lion surrounds the neck. The chin has red and green curved bands 
inclosing a white area. The figure is represented as carrying fire in a 
cedar-bark torch from one shrine to another, accompanied by a Yaya 
priest, who has a rattle in his right hand and an unknown object in 
the left. The kilt is tied behind and has draperies of colored yarn. 

The mask of Kawikoli is displayed with those of Sumaikoli in the 
festivals of these personages. Kawikoli is also personated at Zufii, 
from which pueblo the name was probably derived. 

CIWIKOLI 
(Plate XXXV) 

The picture of Ciwikoli represents a being with mask painted 
brownish red, having two parallel white lines on each cheek. There 
are tadpole figures on the sides of the mask and a fan-shaped feather 
appendage to the top of the head. 



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Ciwikoli wears a kilt made of red-stained horsehair, and a ban- 
doleer. He carries a whizzer or bull roarer in his right hand. A fox 
skin is tied about his neck. 

Ciwikoli is a Zufii personation. Words like Sumaikoli, Kawikoli, 
Ciwikoli, having the termination -koli, are foreign to the Hopi lan- 
guage, although common in eastern pueblo tongues. 

Navaho Katcinas 

TACAB (NAACTADJl) 

(Plate XXXV) 

This Navaho god is incorporated in the East mesa ritual, and is 
known by the following characteristic symbolism: 

The mask has a projecting visor, to the rim of which is attached a 
row of eagle feathers inserted vertically in a wad of straw, the edge 
of which shows above the visor. A conical structure made of sticks 
colored red, tipped with yarn, red horsehair, and eagle feathers 
arises from the top of the head. 

One side of the face is colored green, the other red, the two sides 
being separated by a white median band, across which are parallel 
black lines. The eyes are represented by horizontal hands painted 
black. The pointed marks above and below the eye slits, w T ith which 
they are parallel, represent gourd sprouts. A symbolic squash blos- 
som is appended to each side of the helmet. This object is made of 
wood or a section of a gourd, and is crossed on the concave face by 
diametrical lines, at the point of intersection of which there is an eagle 
feather. The right side of the body and corresponding arm are colored 
yellow, the left red. A network of red lines covers the body, as is 
indicated in the picture. 

The bandoleer and necklace are pine boughs, which are also carried 
in the hands. Two eagle feathers are tied to each armlet. The belt 
is composed of silver disks, and the kilt is colored red and white; the 
latter has green diagonals, and tassels on the lower corners. Sleigh 
bells are attached to a garter of yarn tied below the knee. 

TACAB (TENKBIDJl) 

(Plate XXXVI) 

The artist has figured in this plate one of the most common Navaho 
katcinas personated by the Hopis. The eyes are black, horizontal 
bands, curved at the outer ends; the snout is long. On that side of 
the head which is turned to the observer there is a symbol of a half- 
formed squash surrounded by red horsehair, and to the opposite 1 side 
of the head are attached two vertical eagle feathers. On the crown 
21 eth- n:\ 7 



98 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

of the head are variegated parrot feathers. The red fringe on the 
forehead represents the hair. 

TACAB (YEBITCAl) 

(Plate XXXVI) 

The name of this Navaho supernatural is translated Grandfather 
katcina, and the Hopis say that the Navaho name has a like meaning. 
The artist has depicted on the mask a stalk of corn on a white face. 
The eyes and mouth are surrounded by two half rectangles. A 
conventional ear of corn is painted on the left cheek. There is like- 
wise a crest of eagle feathers on the head. Yebitcai wears a blue 
calico shirt, black velvet pantaloons, and Navaho leggings. Both the 
pantaloons and the leggings have a row of white disks along the out- 
side which represent the well-known silver buttons, and he wears a 
belt of silver disks strung on a leather strap. A buckskin is repre- 
sented over his right shoulder, and in his- left hand he carries a bow 
and two arrows, and a skin pouch for sacred meal. 

TACAB 
(Plate XXXVI) 

The artist has also represented another Navaho katcina with points 
of symbolism similar to that of Yebitcai. The face is painted white, 
with crescents under the eyes and mouth. There is a representation 
of a stalk of growing corn on the median line of the mask, and an ear 
of maize on each side. 

The figure wears a red kilt and a black bandoleer, and carries yucca 
whips in his hands. 

SOYOHIM KATCINAS 

Under this name the Hopis include many masked personages which 
appear in dances called by the same name (called here also Abbreviated 
Katcina dances). 

KAE 

(Plate XXXVI) 

Very few of the Hopis identified the picture of this katcina as Kae 
or Corn katcina, the name given to it by the artist. The validity of 
this identification is supported by the predominance of the maize 
symbol, which covers the whole back of the mask. 

To the rear lower part of the head are attached feathers, two of 
which are vertically placed. The right side of the face is painted 
green, and on it are markings representing sprouting corn seeds. 
The visor has wooden slats, symbolic of lightning, tied to its rim. 

On one side of the picture the artist has represented the ordinary 
triple rain-cloud symbol above a corn plant, and some of the Hopis said 
that the rain-cloud design should have been painted on all the pictures 
in the collection. 



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aho'te 

(Plate XXXVII) 

Two pictures, both called Ahote, from the cry uttered by the per- 
sonator, differ widely from each other in symbolism. The name of 
one has the accent on the penult, that of the other on the antepenult. 

Aho'te has a helmet painted yellow, with goggle eyes, a prominent 
snout, and face covered with red and black four-pointed stars. The 
figure has two bandoleers, a white kilt with pendent fox skin, and 
an embroidered sash. A large string of eagle feathers hangs down 
the back. 

a'hote 

(Plate XXXVII) 

A'hote has a black helmet with great goggle eyes and a single four- 
pointed star on the right cheek, a new moon on the left. Unlike 
Aho'te, he has two horns, one on each side of the head, and a triangle 
on the forehead painted yellow, in which are black and red rings. On 
the head there is a small fanlike feather appendage. 

TURTUMSI 
(Plate LXII) 

The picture of Turtumsi represents a goggle-eyed katcina with yel- 
low mask, on which are parallel rows of black lines extending longitu- 
dinally. The figure has a black beard, to which are fastened two 
cotton strings. A row of eagle feathers is attached to the head and 
hangs down the back, as shown in the picture, and there is a rattle 
in the right hand, a bow and arrows in the left. 

Several Hopis gave the name Komantci (Comanche) to this katcina. 
Possibly it was derived from this tribe, with which the ancient Hopis 
were familiar. 

PATCOSK 

(Plate XXXVII) 

This characteristic being is readily distinguished by the cactus on 
the head and in the hand, lie also carries a bow and arrows. 

HOTOTO 
(Plate XXXVII) 

Hototo katcina has crescentic marks painted green and red on the 
face, goggle-eyes, and a short snout. In his right hand he carries an 
object on which appears the zigzag lightning symbol. 

The Hopis say that Hototo is so named from the cry "Hototo, 
hototo!" which the personator utters. 



100 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

KEME 
(Plate XXXVIII) 

The drawing of Kerne katcifta has slanting bands of yellow, green, 
and red across the middle of the face, which is painted green, with 
terraced figures in red and yellow in two diagonal corners. The top 
of the head, as represented, is flat, and to it are appended bunches of 
parrot and turkey feathers, two of which project on each side. 

The dress and other paraphernalia of Kerne katcina are in no 
respect distinctive. 

SIWAP 

(Plate XXXVIII) 

Siwap katcina has a black helmet with a prominent globular snout, 
green eyes, and a triangular, green-colored figure on the forehead. 
The necklace is made of corn husks, a few of which are also tucked into 
the belt. The kilt is black, and there is an antelope horn in each hand. 

HOTCANI 

(Plate XXXVIII) 

The symbolic markings of this being are clearly brought out b} T the 
Hopi artist in his picture. 

The face is painted green, crossed by a black band with red border. 
On the top of the head are radiating feathers and parrot plumes. 
Pine boughs are inserted in the armlets and belt, and there are branches 
of , the same tree about the neck. The kilt is white, without decora- 
tion, and the sashes are embroidered. 

From the linguistic similarity of the name Hotcani to Hotcauni of 
the Sia, mentioned by Mrs Stevenson, they are regarded as identical. 
The Hopi variant is probably derived from the Keresan. 

TAWA 
(Plate XXXVIII) 

The Sun katcina has a disk-shaped mask, which is divided by a 
horizontal black band into two regions, the upper being subdivided 
into two smaller portions by a median vertical line. The left lateral 
upper division is red, the right yellow, the former being surrounded 
by a yellow and black border, the latter by a red and black. In the 
lower half of the face, which is green, appear lines representing eyes, 
and a double triangle of hourglass shape representing the mouth. 

Around the border of the mask is represented a plaited corn husk, 
in which radiating eagle feathers are inserted. A string with attached 
red horsehair is tied around the rim or margin of the disk. 



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fewkes] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 101 

Iii his left hand Tawa carries the iiute which is associated with him 
in certain Hopi solar myths. a 

It will be found that this type of sun symbolism is to be easily 
detected in various katcinas of different names which have been men- 
tioned, and it is more than probable that many of these, possessing the 
same, or nearly the same, symbolic markings, are sun gods under dif- 
ferent names. This multitude of sun gods is readily explained by the 
composite nature of the present Hopi people, for each clan formerly 
had its own sun god, which, when the clan joined Walpi, was added 
to the existing mythological system. The type of symbolism has per- 
sisted, thus revealing their identity. 

KAU 
(Plate XXXIX) 

This katcina is readily recognized by the two horns and dependent 
crest of feathers on the head, the characteristic mouth, and short 
beard. The two figures here given differ from each other in their 
colors — one being green, the other yellow. Both have characteristic 
triangular symbols on the forehead. 

MUZRIBI 
(Plate XXXIX) 

The picture of Muzribi, the Bean katcina, has on each side of the 
mouth, or snout, the sprouting seed of a bean. The face is bor- 
dered by yellow and red marginal lines which are continued into the 
curved markings, representing bean sprouts, on the cheeks. 

There are four horizontally -place 1 feathers on the top of the head> 
and a bunch of smaller feathers at their attachment. 

LENYA 

(Plate XXXIX) 

Leirya, the Flute katcina, as shown in the picture, has a green face 
with rectangular eyes, the left colored yellow bordered with black, 
the right blue with the same colored border. There are chevrons of- 
black lines on the cheeks; the mouth is triangular in form. 

Attached to the crown of the head there is an annulet made of 
corn husk painted green, in which are inserted artificial flowers and 
leathers. 

Lenya wears on the back a tablet made of skin stretched over a 
rectangular frame, the edge of which is shown on each side of the 

a There are many published pictures of the Hopi symbolic sun disk. See Fifteenth Annual Report 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology, L897, pl.crv; American Anthropologist, vol. x, 1897, pi. n, figs. 
36, 37, 40, pi. IV, tig. 112; Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. VI, 1893, pi. I; Proceedings Washington 
Academy of Science, vol. II, 1900, pi. XXXII. 



102 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

neck iincl body. The dentate markings on the visible edge represent 
a plaited corn husk border, and the appended red marks represent 
horsehair. The two objects extended horizontally on the upper 
corners are eagle feathers arising from a cluster of feathers at their 
attachment. 

Lenya carries a flute in his left, a rattle in his right hand. 

panwu a 
(Plate XL) 

Panwu, the Mountain Sheep katcina, is represented by two figures, 
one of which wears a kilt tied with great cotton girdle, shirt, and 
leggings, while the other is naked. The heads of these two figures 
are practically identical, both haying two imitations of sheep horns, 
along which are drawn zigzag lines in green color, representing light- 
ning. The mask has a protuberant visor, from which hang turkey 
tail feathers. The snout is prominent, and there are artificial squash 
blossoms on the sides of the head. The naked figure has the back 
and sides of the body and outside of the limbs painted blue or green, 
with the abdominal region white. Attention is called to the peculiar 
unknown bodies inserted into armlets and garters. 

The other picture of this katcina has the same symbols on the mask, 
but the figure wears a buckskin shirt and fringed leggings. A white 
kilt with red and black borders is tied about the loins by a great 
cotton girdle, and a semicircular framework with attached feathers 
is carried on the back. 

TIWENU 
(Plate XL) 

The picture representing Tiwenu has a tablet on the head, the 
upper rim of which has a terrace form representing rain clouds. On 
the sides of the face are pictures of symbolic corn ears of different col- 
ors, that on the left representing white corn, that on the right, green 
corn. The semicircle painted on the tablet represents a rainbow above 
a white field in which is a four-pointed star. 

The eye slits are painted black, with a white margin. The lower 
part of the face is black, the chin white. There is a projecting snout, 
with teeth and red lips. The figure carries a pine branch in each 
hand. 

KOROCTTJ 

(Plate LXI) 

This is a Keresan katcina, as its name 6 signifies. The picture 
represents a plain mask with a white or black arrowhead figure for 

" For picture of the doll, see Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographic, Band vu, pi. vil, fig. 14. 
bAkorosta. The words sung by Koroctu are Keresan, as is the case with those sung by several 
other katcinas of eastern origin. 



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fewkes] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 103 

mouth and two horizontal black marks with upturned ends for eyes. 
The face is green, with red, yellow, and black border; the ears have 
pendants of corn husks. The blanket is white, with embroidered 
border. 

Each figure carries in one hand a skin pouch with sacred meal, and 
in the other a rattle or a number of deer scapulae. 

kwewu a 
(Plate XL) 

The picture representing the Wolf katcina has a well-drawn wolf's 
head with projecting mouth, and a wolf's paw, painted black, on each 
cheek. To the tips of the ears are appended feathers, stained red, and 
there are eagle feathers on the side of the head. 

The kilt is made of horsehair, stained red, hanging from a belt 
which supports the breechclout. The legs and forearms are spotted. 
Kwewu is generally personated with the Antelope and Deer katcinas 
running back and forth along the line of dancers, assuming the 
posture represented in the drawing. 

TCUB 6 

(Plate XLI) 

The picture of Tciib, the Antelope katcina, represents a being 
with two antelope horns on top of the head, an hourglass design in 
black on the face, black spots on each cheek, and a bunch of feathers, 
from which arise two eagle tail feathers, on the back of the head. 
The mask has a long protuberant snout and an artificial squash blossom 
on each side. 

The bodily decoration and dress are in no respect characteristic. 
In the hand there is a staff, to the top of which feathers are attached. 
The symbolism of Tciib katcina is very close to that of Sowinwu. 

SOWINWU 

(Plate XLI) 

In the three pictures of Sowinwu the artist has represented two 
Deer katcinas ascribed to the old pueblo Awatobi, and with them a 
deer hunter of that pueblo, the tradition of whom is still told at Walpi. 

The Deer katcinas have green helmets with projecting visors, from 
which hang rows of turkey feathers. Deer horns are attached to the 
top of the head and two eagle tail feathers project from the back. 
There is an hourglass design in black on the middle of the face and a 
black dot on each cheek. A circle with radial lines, denoting the six 
cardinal points, is painted on each side of the mask. 

«F<>r picture of the doll, sic [nternationales A.rchiv fur Ethnographie, Band vn, pi. v, fig. 2. 
bFor picture of the doll, sec same volume, pi. vn, fig. 13. 



104 HOPl KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

The hunter has the chevron symbolic of the eagle over the nose 
and wears a kilt of rod horsehair. He wears a bandoleer and a netted 
shirt. In his right hand he carries a rattle, in his left a bow and 
arrows. 

The author lias obtained the following legend regarding the deer 
hunter: An Awatobi maid gave birth to a child, which she hid in a 
cleft in the mesa side. Isauu (Coyote) found this babe and carried it 
in her mouth to Tcubio wi'iqti, the Antelope woman, who lived in 
Awatobi. Tcubio wiiqti had milk and brought up the child, who 
became a celebrated hunter of antelopes. 

The Sowinwii katcina has not been personated of late years b}^ the 
Walpi men, but there is good authority for the statement that it has 
been represented within a few years by the Mishongnovi people. At 
the period of the destruction of Awatobi many of the clans went to 
the Middle mesa and one or two of the Awatobi cults are still more 
vigorous there than elsewhere. 

CIPOMELLI 

(Plate XLI) 

The figure represents an ancient katcina peculiar to the pueblo 
Hano, but now rarely personated. 

TUMAE 

(Plate XLII) 

The picture of this katcina has a face divided into a yellow and 
green section by a vertical black line. The lower part of the face is 
separated from both by a horizontal black line, and is colored red. 
In the middle of this red zone there is a rectangular chin painted 
white, the pigment which gives the name to the figure. Both Hopis 
and Tewas call this katcina Tumae (white earth), referring to the white 
pigment on the chin. 

MATIA 

(Plate XLII) 

This figure has a human hand painted on the face, on which account 
it is called Matia, or Hand katcina. Another designation, Talakin, 
refers to the girl who follows, stirring the contents of a cooking pot 
which Matia carries on his back. He is said to appear in the foot 
races, but the author has never seen him personated at Walpi. 

A being with the figure of a hand on the face occurs also in Zufii 
dances. 



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fewkes] SOYOHIM KATCINAS 105 

FIOKOT 

(Plate XLIII) 

The pictures of this katcina have a circle of various colors on the 
forehead and red club-shaped bodies on the cheeks. The figures wear 
embroidered sashes on their shoulders — an unusual position for these 
objects — and tight-fitting black kilts, tied above with green belts. 
Evidently the distinguishing symbols of Piokot are the diagonal club- 
shaped marks on the cheeks, for two other pictures of Piokot, by a 
different artist, have neithi r the variegated circle on the forehead nor 
the embroidered scarf about the neck. 

TURKW r INU 

(Plate XLIII) 

This figure has an undecorated mask with a row of parallel marks, 
symbolic of falling rain, on the upper edge, where there are likewise 
three semicircular figures representing rain clouds. A row of turke}^ 
feathers is drawn before the face. The hair and beard are represented 
by pine boughs. It carries a ceremonial water gourd in each hand 
and wears a simple white kilt with green border, decorated with red- 
colored rain-cloud symbols. 

The name (tiirkwi) indicates that this katcina was derived from 
some mountain pueblo. The Tewas give the same name (Pompin) to 
it that they give to the San Francisco mountains. One of the best 
traditionists has said that this katcina was derived from people who 
once lived in the foothills of these mountains. 

TURKWINU MANA 

(Plate XLIII) 

The maid or sister g£ Tiirkwinii has a headdress in the form of 
a terraced tablet, upon which semicircular rain-cloud symbols are 
painted. She likewise has pine boughs representing hair. 

Her face is divided by a median band, with parallel horizontal black 
lines, into two parts, the left side being painted brown and the right 
painted white. There are semicircular lines about the mouth. She 
wears a white blanket bound by a great cotton belt, has turkey feathers 
tied to the blanket, and carries a cake in her hand. 

TOHO 

(Plate LXIII) 

Toho, the Puma, wears a mask of green color, with a projecting 
snout armed with teeth. Eagle feathers are attached to a string 
hanging down the back, and there are parrot feathers in the hair. 



106 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

The body has yellow parallel bars on breast, arms, and legs. The kilt 
is of horsehair stained red, and in each hand is a whip made of yucca 

wands. 

KUTCA 
(Plate XLIV) 

Kutca, White katcina, has a white mask with two parallel vertical 
black marks on each cheek and a mouth of triangular shape. 

There is a horn tipped with an eagle feather attached to the left 
side of his head; its proximal and distal extremities are connected 
by a string, to which is tied red horsehair. A sunflower symbol is 
depicted on his forehead, and there are eagle and parrot feathers on 
top of his head. He carries a bow in the left hand and a bundle of 
sheep scapulae in the right, and wears over a spotted (calico) shirt a 
white cotton blanket decorated with butterfly and rain-cloud symbols. 
On his back is a mountain-lion's skin. 

KUTCA MANA 

(Plate XLIV) 

The sister (mana) rt of the preceding has, like her brother, a white 
mask with two parallel black marks on each cheek. The hourglass 
bodies on each side of the head represent whorls of hair, but are made 
of corn husks. 

UKCICIMU 

(Plate XLIV) 

This figure has a green mask, with projecting snout, arising from 
a fringe of sheepskin stained red. The eyes are protuberant and 
colored yellow. There are colored feathers on the crown of the head 
and two eagle feathers at the back. The paw of an animal is depicted 
on each cheek. The figure is clothed in a rabbit-skin rug, girt with a 
belt, has naked feet, and wears a pair of red horsehair anklets. The 
wands in the hands are of cactus, and to their ends roasted ears of corn 
are tied. 

YEHOHO 

(Plate XLIV) 

The left cheek of Yehoho is colored yellow, the right red; they are 
separated by a black band. The eyes are curved at the corners, and 
on the head there are two horns. The necklace is made of pine 
boughs. 

This katcina wears a rabbit-skin rug and an embroidered belt, and 
across the body there are two bandoleers formed of ears of roasted 
corn tied in strings. He holds an ear of the same in each hand. 

The garment worn by Yehoho is called tokotcpatcuba, and the corn 
on the bandoleers is called takpabu. 

a Mana literally means maid. 



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fewkes] ZUNI KATCINAS 107 

Zuni Katcinas 

SIO 

(Plate XLV) 

The Zuni katcina a has designs on the face which recall the solar 
symbols. The upper part is divided by a vertical line into two regions, 
one red and the other green (blue in the picture), the right-hand side 
being bordered by yellow and green, the left-hand side by red and 
spotted bands. The remaining or lower part of the face is colored 
green; the left eye is painted yellow. There is a long, slim, yellow, 
protuberant snout. A symbolic squash is appended to the right side 
of the helmet, and two vertical eagle feathers are tied to the left side. 
There are likewise indications of a fan-like crest of eagle feathers 
on the top of the helmet and a cluster of highly colored feathers at 
the point of attachment of the two vertical eagle feathers. 

SIO MANA AND THREE KOYIMSI 
(Plate XLV) 

In this picture the Zuni maid and three mudheads are represented 
as they appear in an East mesa ceremony. 

The maid wears a maskette like that of Anya mana, and holds aloft 
in one hand a badge of office, which among the Zunis is beautifully 
formed of parrot feathers. In her other hand she carries a clay 
basket or sacred meal receptacle. Her headdress is Zuni rather than 
Hopi. 

The figures of the Koyimsi are characteristic, each wearing a 
helmet with cloth knobs full of seeds. Two of these beings, who 
wear small fawn skin bandoleers, hold aloft rattles, and one has a 
drum, which he is represented as beating with the characteristic Zuni 
drumstick. 

CITULILU 
(Plate XLVI) 

The significance of the Zuni name Citulilu. 6 is shown at once by the 
rattlesnake on the forehead. 

The two pictures of Citulilu differ only in the color of the mask 
and of the snake on it. One has a yellow, the other a black face; 
the snake on the former is green, that on the latter is brown. 

The fan-shaped crest over the helmet is made of turkey tail feathers 
and the red mass represents painted wool. The snout is long and 
protuberant, with a red tongue made of leather. 

a For description of dance called by this name, see Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, 
VOl. n, 1892. 
b Cetola, a Zuni word for rattlesnake. 



108 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. anx. 21 

The costuming of Citulilii is similar to that of the Ilopi Snake 
priests, although the body, save the forearms and legs, is not painted 
red, but black. He wears an armlet to which are fastened strips of 
buckskin, dyed red. The bandoleer is also stained red. The kilt, 
like that of Snake priests, is painted red, and upon it is drawn a 
zigzag design representing the Great Plumed Snake, with alternating 
white bars and angular designs. The green bands above and below 
represent rainbows. The sash is of buckskin, stained red. The heel 
bands have the same color and are made of horsehair. Citulilii 
carries a yucca whip in each hand. 

There is said to be also a red, white, and green Citulilii katcina. 

TEUK 
(Plate XL VI) 

The picture of this katcina was identified by most of the Hopis as 
that of a Sio or Zufii katcina. The symbolism of the mask is similar 
to that of Tacab katcina, with which it is sometimes confounded. 

PAKWABI 

(Plate XLVI) 

The picture of Pakwabi represents a warrior. He wears a war 
bonnet made of buckskin, with perforations and an apex tipped with 
a feather. Four archaic rain-cloud symbols are painted around the 
lower rim. 

The face is black, the eyes are white, the snout is long and project- 
ing, the hair is done up in a queue down the back. The blue covering 
of the body is of calico, over which is thrown a buckskin. A bandoleer 
is worn over the left shoulder and the kilt has Navaho silver disks. 

The pantaloons and leggings are likewise Navaho, the former 
velvet, with rows of silver buttons. In his right hand Pakwabi 
carries a whizzer, ornamented with a zigzag lightning symbol, and in 
his left are a bow and arrows. 

The name is evidently from some place or pueblo from which the 
personage was derived. If so, the name of that pueblo may have been 
derived from pakwa (frog), obi (place). 

KWACUS ALEK TAKA AND ALO MANA 

(Plate XL VII) 

The picture of Kwacus Alek taka has a green mask with red back 
and two eagle tail feathers resembling horns, one on each side. 

Alo mana, the sister of Alek taka, has a white maskette with 
artificial wig and feathers dependent from the lower rim. She is 
represented in the characteristic attitude assumed in her dance. 



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fewkes] ANCIENT CLAN MASKS 109 

Both these beings are said to be of Zurii origin and the latter was 
formerly personated by a man from Hano. The characteristic atti- 
tude of Alo mana is also taken by the girls after the ceremonial corn 
grinding elsewhere described. 

Ancient Clan Masks 

In the back rooms and dark corners of most of the important clans 
of the pueblos of the East mesa masks will be found hanging to the 
roof beams, the use of which has almost wholly been abandoned. The 
distinctive names of these masks are difficult to obtain, and they are 
generally known by such designations as Wuwukoti, ancient masks 
or heads. The chiefs of the clans ordinarily claim them as their par- 
ticular property, and other men of the pueblo who are familiar with 
their existence usually call them by the names of the chiefs. 

Some of these old masks are brought forth from time to time, 
renovated, and put to use; others are never worn, but are carefulty 
preserved with reverence befitting their antiquity, for the majority 
are reputed to be very ancient. 

It is probable that some of these masks, dingy with age and rarely 
or never repainted, have come into the possession of the present own- 
ers at the death of the last members of kindred clans. Others have 
been passed down directly from chief to chief, still remaining in 
keeping of the clan which brought them into the country, and ma} 7 
be regarded as among the more ancient of Hopi masks. Unfortu- 
nately the knowledge of their characteristic symbols has in some 
instances been lost. 

There are also individual masks which have riot the special sanctity 
that pertains to the above. These were introduced from other pueblos 
by visitors or by those who had observed them elsewhere in their 
trading or other trips. These are not regularly used each year, but 
may be brought out on special occasions for variety or other reasons. 
They are associated with the man who introduced them, and often bear 
his name. 

There is a general similarity in these old clan helmets, both in form 
and in symbolism, which would seem to refer them to a group by 
themselves. Among the common features may be mentioned the 
two horns, the radiating eagle feathers, red horsehair, and the mark- 
ings on the face. Thus the clan mask of Kotka (Bear chief) is almost 
identical with that of Wiki (Snake chief), and both resemble that of 
Naka (Katcina chief). P^vidently they are not totemic of the clan, or 
at least their symbols are not characteristic of the clan, but their simi- 
larity implies that they are symbolic of some common personations 
for which they were once used. 

Of all the masks now employed in personations the author regards 
the old clan masks as nearest in symbolic designs to those of Calako, 



110 HOP1 KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

and it is possible that they were used in representing the same beings 
for which Calako masks are still employed. The author believes that 
the Calako giants are personations of sun gods and that the ancient 
clan masks of the Hopi are survivals of those once used in sun per- 
sonations by extinct or nearly extinct clans. The former use of these 
masks in sun worship and their antiquity give them a particular 
sanctity; the chiefs rarely use them, but preserve them with great 
reverence. 

Objection might be made to this identification, for these clan masks 
have two horns, which are absent in Hopi sun masks, and the facial 
markings are different. The author theoretically connects the horns 
with those of the bison, and believes that the clans which once had 
these forms of sun masks derived them from those tribes which prac- 
ticed a Buffalo sun ceremony. 

OLD MASK (KATCINA CLAN) 
(Plate XL VII) 

This ancient mask is called Naka's katcina from the name of the 
chief in whose keeping it now is, and probably belonged to an old 
Katcina clan. The picture represents a disk-formed head, painted 
green, with goggle eyes. The upper half of the head is surrounded 
by a plaited corn-husk border, with inserted eagle feathers forming a 
crest, in which are red lines, indicating horsehair. On each side of 
the head are represented horns, decorated with zigzag marks, which 
are repeated, on the forehead. 

The mask which is here figured is not now used, but hangs in a 
back room of the house of the Katcina clan. It is said to have been 
brought from Kicyuba, the ancient pueblo of this clan. Probably 
the clan of which it was the sun mask is now extinct, and the mask 
remains in the keeping of the chief of the clan nearest related to that 
which once owned it. The sun mask of the Katcina clan, called 
Ahiil or Old Man Sun, is elsewhere described. 

OLD MASK (TOLA CLAN) 
(Plate XL VII) 

The ancient mask of the Telia or Snake clan, called Wiki's katcina, 
in whose keeping as clan chief it is, has a rounded top, with bearded 
face surrounded by a plaited corn -husk border in which are inserted 
radiating eagle feathers and red horsehair. 

A horn is appended to each side of the head, and between the eyes 
on the forehead appears an arrow symbol. The body is painted red 
and the kilt is horsehair of the same color. 



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fewk.es] ANCIENT CLAN MASKS 111 

OLD MASK (HONAU CLAN) 

(Plate XLVIII) 

The ancient mask of the Honau or Bear clan is called Kotka's 
katcina, and is in the keeping of this chief. The Bear people were the 
first to arrive at Walpi, and their last village before they came there 
was situated at Tilrkinobi, on the mesa above Sikyatki, where the 
ruins of their old home are still pointed out. Kotka belongs to the 
Spider (Kokyan) clan of the Honau phratry, and is not only chief but 
also the sole remaining male member of this ancient Hopi family. 

The similarity of the mask to other old helmets is striking. The 
edge of the face is surrounded by plaited corn husks in which are 
inserted eagle tail feathers forming the crest. The red marks 
represent red horsehair. The two horns are commonly found with 
Wuwiikoti masks, and the beard is not an uncommon feature. The 
red object protruding from the mouth represents a tongue. 

POHAHA (TE CLAN) 
(Plate XLVIII) 

This picture represents a katcina called Pohaha by the Tewas, 
Nalucala by the Hopis, the mask of which is owned by Wehe, a mem- 
ber of the Te clan. The propriety of the name Nalucala (four horns) 
appears from the picture. The face is divided as in other sun masks, 
and there is a hideous mouth and beard. In the right hand the figure 
carries a whizzer or bull-roarer, and in the left a bow and arrows. It 
wears a bandoleer on the shoulder, over which is thrown a buckskin. 

The leggings remind one of those worn by the eastern or Plains 
Indians, with whom the Tewas were formerly connected. This is 
undoubtedlv one of the katcinas which the Tewa colonists brought to 
the East mesa in early times. 

HOPINYU (iSAUU CLAN) 
(Plate XLVIII) 

This picture represents an ancient personage of the Isauii (Coyote) 
clan, and is commonly known as Lesu's katcina, from the fact that 
the mask used in personating it is in the keeping of this man, who is 
the clan chief. 

The face is divided by a median vertical line into two fields, one 
colored white, the other green. The lower part of the face, separated 
from the upper by a horizontal line, is colored red, and there is a 
long, pointed snout. Both sides of the face are covered with small 
crosses or stars. 



112 HOPI KATCINAS [kth. ann. 21 

A row of eagle feathers is continued from the head down the back, 
with red lines shown among* the feathers, indicating* horsehair. 
There are highly colored parrot feathers on the top of the head. 

Accompanying the figure of Hopinyu, the artist has drawn a pic- 
ture of Samo wuqtaka (Old Man Cactus), who carries a cactus fruit 
in one hand and a basket of the same on his back. 

Hopinyu is sometimes called a Sikyatki katcina, as the clan by 
which the helmet is now owned formerly lived in a pueblo near 
Sikyatki, called Kukiitcomo, which is now a ruin. The author has 
seen a fragment of pottery from Sikyatki, on which is drawn a face 
identical in symbolism with that which is here depicted as charac- 
teristic of Hopinyu. a 

KE TOWA BISENA 

(Plate LXII) 

This ancient mask belongs to the Bear family of Hano, and has a 
general similarity to Kotka's 5 mask, or that of the Honau (Bear) 
family of Walpi. 

There are the same radiating eagle feathers about the head, the 
lozenge-shaped eyes, mouth, and long beard, but no horns are repre- 
sented in the picture. In place of the latter we have, on the right- 
hand side, a symbolic squash blossom, and on the left, feathers. 

The katcina, as represented, has a fox skin about the neck and a 
bear skin over the shoulders. He carries a ceremonial water gourd in 
the right hand, a small pine tree in the left. The artist has also 
represented two bear paws on the feet. 

Masks Introduced by Individuals 
sio (soyowa) 

(Plate XLV) 

A Hopi named Wikyatiwa^" introduced a few years ago into Walpi 
from Zuni a katcina to which the name Soyowa has been given. 
The picture of this being shows a mask with two upright tablets, one 
on each side, terraced to symbolize rain clouds. On the f roht of the 
lower part of these tablets there are symbolic sunflower symbols, and 
the visor of the mask has the form of a crest of eagle feathers. Two 
figures painted on the forehead are rain-cloud s}mibols. The face is 
green, with three oblique lines, colored yellow, red, and blue, on each 
cheek. The introduction of this katcina by a man still living at 
Walpi is an instructive example of the way in which additions have 
been made to the Hopi pantheon in modern times. 

« The etymology of this word is doubtful, hut there can be detected in it a likeness jo the word 
hopoko (eastern), referring, no doubt, to its origin from eastern pueblos, from which the Sikyatki 
Clans arc reputed to have conic 

l> Kotka really belongs to the Spider elan, which all regard as one of the Bear group. 

oWikyatiwa is a member of the Walpi Snake elan. 



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fewkes] MASKS INTRODUCED BY INDIVIDUALS 113 

YUNA a 
(Plate XLIX) 

The Cactus katcina, introduced by Homovi, has not been personated 
for, many years. On the head are drawn branches of the so-called 
prickly-pear cactus, the red berries of which are realistically shown. 

The symbols of the helmet are the moon and stars on a white field, 
and similar stars appear on the breast and forearms. Elaborate arm- 
lets with suspended feathers are shown near the shoulders, and a bow 
and arrows are represented in the left hand. To the former, feathers 
of the eagle are attached. The collar is of pine branches, and sprigs 
from the same tree are inserted in the armlets and belt. 

YUNA MANA 

(Plate XLIX) 

The Cactus maid who accompanies the Cactus katcina carries a pair 
of cactus tongs, an implement made of wood by which the prickly pear 
is gathered, in her right hand, and in her left a basket or bowl con- 
taining the fruit. She wears a mask painted white with two vertical 
black marks on each cheek. She has likewise turquoise ear pendants, 
triangular mouth, and hair arranged in two whorls above the ears. 

wakac h 

(Plate XLIX) 

The Cow katcina mask, commonly named after Satele, a Hano man of 
the Bear clan who introduced it, has a cow's head, realistically drawn, 
but with no distinctive symbolic markings. 

makto c 
(Plate XLIX) 

The mask represented in this picture has the figure of a putekohu, 
or rabbit stick, across the face. It has likewise two parallel marks 
on each cheek, and carries rabbit sticks, one of which is raised as if 
in the act of being thrown. There are two rabbit sticks in the left 
hand. Pontima, chief of the Ala clan, owns the mask, and it is com- 
monly called his katcina. 

pakiokwik 

(Plate LXII) 

Pakiokwik, the Fish katcina, was introduced into Hano by a man 
named Kanu. A design representing a fish is depicted on the face. 

"From the Spanish tuna, prickly pear. 

& Evidently from Spanish vaca, cow. The Hopi word wakac means cow. 

cThis name is derived from the circle which rabbit hunters make when they hunt these animals; 
makto hunt. 

21 ETH— 03 8 



114 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

This is an excellent example, of which there are many, serving to show 
how a man who in recent years has seen an object which he believed 
to be efficacious in bringing rain, has made a picture of it on his mask. 

Person ators Appearing in Races Called Wawac 

Several masked men are introduced by the Hopis in their foot races, 
which are elsewhere a described. A Hopi foot race is conducted as 
follows: A half dozen men representing clowns wearing masks take 
position in line at one end of the plaza behind a blanket placed on the 
ground, upon which are the prizes — corn, dried peaches, and paper- 
bread. They challenge the spectators to run for these prizes, and any- 
one who wishes to do so steps before the blanket, and immediately 
the race is on, the course being generally across the plaza. 

The clown or masked man carries a whip or sheep shears, and if he 
overtakes the contestant he strikes him vigorously with the whip, or 
in some cases cuts off his hair. If, however, the spectator who has 
accepted the challenge outruns the masked man, the prize which was 
announced before starting belongs to him. 

These races often occur in the midst of katcina dances, and clowns 
and other masked individuals participate in them to amuse the 
spectators. 

In pictures of Wawac the Hopi artist has as a rule represented the 
prizes, generally a string of paper-bread (piki), hanging above the 
picture. 

AYA 

(Plate L) 

This katcina appears in pairs in the Wawac, or Racing Katcina, 
and is readily recognized by the rattle (ay a), which has swastika deco- 
rations on both sides, forming the head. The snout is seen in the blue 
projection near the left hand. 

Aya wears the belt in a peculiar way, the ends hanging in front 
and behind, not on one side as is usually the case. 

The red objects above the pictures represent rolls of paper-bread, 
the prizes in the races. 

LETOTOBI 

(Plate L) 

The two figures represented in this picture have the characteristic 
attitude of runners; they appear in the Wawac, as the prizes hanging- 
above them indicate. Their masks have characteristic red bands 
across the mouths and eyes, and are surmounted by crests of yellow 
fox skins. Their bodies are smeared black. 

« A Tusayan Foot Race, Bulletin Essex Institute, vol. xxiv, 1892, p. 113-136. 



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fewkes] KATCINAS APPEARING IN WAWAC 115 

HEMICO 

(Plate L) 

The picture represents an Indian pursued by the dreaded katcina 
called Henrico. a The bundle of paper-bread and a few ears of roasted 
corn which hang above them are prizes. 

Hemico has in his hand a pair of sheep shears, with which, if he 
overtakes his opponent in the race, he cuts off his hair. In his right 
hand he carries a yucca whip, with which he also flogs his opponent. 
Other characteristic symbols of this being are parallel bands of color 
across the forehead, and ring figures of various colors dependent from 
a yellow band around the top. 

Hemico is said to have been derived from Sikyatki, and it is 
recounted in legends still preserved that he cut a Walpi girl's throat 
with a stone knife, the deed which ultimately led to an attack on 
Sikyatki by the Walpians and the destruction of that pueblo. 

TCUKAPELLI 

(Plate LI) 

These two beings, one of whom wears a peculiar mask, represent 
episodes sometimes introduced during katcina dances as a byplay to 
amuse spectators. In this instance one of the Tcukapellis b has under 
his left arm a bag full of clay balls, one of which he holds in his right 
hand in the attitude of throwing it at his companion. The other has 
four tufts of hair fastened to the top of his head. The bodies are 
naked, save for a breechclout, and are smeared with mud. 

PALABIKUNA 

(Plate LI) 

This katcina appears in the Wawac, as is indicated by the rolls of 
paper-bread hanging above the figure. He wears a red kilt, c which 
gives him his name, and carries yucca wands in his hands with which 
he flogs the naked runners in the races if he overtakes them. The 
objects on the sides of the head are frameworks of sticks. 

KONA 

(Plate LI) 

Kona, the Chipmunk katcina, likewise appears in the Wawac, as 
the prizes of yellow and red paper-bread hanging above the figure 

a The word hemico is applied to the queue in which the Hopi meu tie their hair behind their 
heads. 

bMud ball (tcuka) thrower. 
cPala, red, pitkone, kilt. 



116 HOPI KATCINAS [eth.ann.21 

indicate and the yucca whips in his hands imply. The mask repre- 
sents the head of the chipmunk, and the body is painted in parallel 
stripes to make the resemblance even more realistic. 

MACMAHOLA 
(Plate LI) 

This being sometimes takes part in the foot races. The picture 
shows a globular mask, two sausage-like appendages on the top of the 
head, and an old planting stick in one hand. 

TCILIKOMATO 

(Plate LI) 

This picture represents a hunting katcina, with rabbit sticks 

(putckohu) in both hands. There are two vertical black marks on 

each cheek and two horns on the head. Tcilikomato is personated 
in foot races. 

WIKTCINA 
(Plate LII) 

This being assists the clowns, and amuses the spectators by throw- 
ing mud during the dances and festivals. 

PIPTUKA a 
(Plate LII) 

Piptuka appears in public dances and is a participant in the antics 
of the mudheads, or clowns. He carries a hoe over his shoulder and a 
planting stick in his left hand, indicating his connection with planting. 

PATUN 

(Plate LII) 

Patuii, the Squash katcina, is represented as a man with body 
painted green with black stripes, bearing squash blossoms in his 
hands. The mask is of the same green color, with black stripes, and 
is made of a large gourd bearing an imitation of a squash flower on the 
larger end. 

TATACMU 
(Plate LIII) 

These two figures are playing a game which is sometimes intro- 
duced in katcina dances. This game consists mainly in striking a 
buckskin ball with a stick. Each person holds the end of a string 
attached to this ball, which flies back and forth as struck by the 
players. 

"Sec Journal <>f American Ethnology and Archaeology, vol. n, 1892, p. 82, 155., 




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fewkes] NAKOPAN PERSONAGES 117 

They wear masks which have nose, eyebrows, and mouth repre- 
sented in relief. The eyes have black radiating lines, and there is a 
black zone on the lower edge of the mask. The hair is a fragment of 
sheepskin painted black, and there are several feathers on the head. 
Each player has eagle tail feathers tied to his shoulders. 

PASKI 

(Plate LIII) 

These pictures of Paski represent a planting katcina. An examina- 
tion of the masks shows one with red and green parallel lines on the 
cheeks, the other with a broad red band. One has the hair done up 
in a queue behind; the other has it hanging down the back. Both 
wear black belts on their loins and have white kilts thrown over the 
shoulders in a peculiar wa}^. They are represented as using modern 

hoes. a 

Nakopan Personages 

(Plate LIV) 

A short distance from the ruin of Sikyatki there is a cave in the 
side of the mesa concerning which there is a well-known tradition 
preserved to our time. It seems that when Sik}?atki was in its prime 
two children left their home and lived in this cave hidden from their 
mother. Their hiding place, at first unknown to their parent, was 
afterward discovered, and their mother daily brought them food and 
laid it on the rocks above the cave. The children used to go to this 
place to obtain the food, and a pictograph still visible there marks the 
place where they sat. 

The author was anxious to get a picture of the Nakopan hoya, or 
the Nakopan children, as they are called, and this plate drawn by a 
Hopi named Winuta is the result. The following personages are 
depicted in the picture: 

cu Telavai or Dawn katcina; &, Hahai wi'iqti; c, Mana, maid; d, 
Paiakyamu; e, Hehea katcina; y, Anya katcina; g, Tatcukti. 

On account of the illicit love of Hahai wiiqti and Paiakyamu, 
who are represented arm in arm, Telavai. her husband, sought the 
maid, whose arms he grasps. Hehea, Anya, and possibly Tatcukti, 
the children, fled from Sikyatki and lived in a neighboring cave. 

This picture, so far as the evidence goes, supports the belief that 
the Sikyatki people were familiar with the katcina cult; and it is 
instructive to notice that it portrays some of the most ancient katcinas 
of the Hopis. 

a In old times a planting stick was employed. 



118 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

Beings not called Katcinas 

lakone mana 
(Plate LV) 

The two maids represented in this picture appear in the basket 
dance called the Lalakonti. The bands on their heads support rain- 
cloud symbols, and to these bands are attached horns and squash- 
blossom symbols. The objects rising vertically from the back of the 
heads and the clusters in the same place represent eagle tail feathers. 

The faces of the girls are painted yellow, with black bands across 
the temples and from each corner of the mouth to the ears. In their 
hands they carry half corncobs with two appended eagle feathers, 
which objects are thrown into figures of rain clouds made of meal on 
the ground by their male companion, called Lakone taka. 

The dress of Lakone mana, especially the appendages to the head- 
band, differs somewhat in the different Hopi pueblos, as may be seen 
by consulting a description of the basket dances. a 

MAMZRAU MANA 
(Plate LV) 

These pictures represent the two girls who appear in the Maraupaki 
or Mamzrauti, an October festival, in which the women carry in their 
hands wooden tablets bearing figures of corn and rain clouds, and other 
designs. 

The thighs of the personators are painted with black rectangles, and 
on the heads there are wooden frameworks with apical eagle feathers 
and red horsehair. They wear kilts reaching nearly to the knees, the 
only instance to the author's knowledge of the use of this garment by 
girls in ceremonial dances. Their hair is tied down the back. 

PALAHIKO MANA 

(Plate L VI) 

This figure represents Palahiko mana as she appears in the Mamz- 
rauti ceremony. The head tablet is tied by a string under the chin, 
and to this tablet is attached a band which passes over the forehead, 
as shown in the picture. The tablet is made of flat boards, and con- 
sists of six parts, two vertical, two lateral, and two diagonal, each 
representing rain -cloud symbols tipped by eagle feathers. 

The red objects, one on each side between the lateral and vertical 
components of the tablet, are symbolic squash blossoms, or the whorls in 
which Hopi maidens dress their hair. The cup-shaped, pedunculated 

a Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. xn, 1899, p. 81-96. 



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fewkes] BEINGS NOT CALLED KATCINAS 119 

objects in the hair represent corn flowers. The band across the fore- 
head marked with bars represents an ear of corn, and the red bodies 
attached to each end are fragments of sheepskin, symbols of corn 
tassels. Two eagle tail feathers also are attached to each end of the 
symbolic corn ear. The median object, colored green, hanging between 
the eyes, represents a fragment of Haliotis shell. 

Red chevrons are painted on the face. The square, green pendants, 
one on each side of the head, represent turquoise ear pendants, which 
are highly prized by the Hopi maidens. 

Palahiko mana r( wears three blankets — a kilt, thrown across the 
right shoulder and hanging under the left arm, with rain-cloud and 
falling-rain designs embroidered on it, and two wedding blankets, 
with triangular rain-cloud and butterfly symbols, tied about the body. 
The ends of the great white girdle are shown under the upper of these 
blankets on the left side. The necklace is of coral beads, and strings of 
turquoise pendants are shown about the neck. The figure carries a 
feathered stick in each hand. 

HOPI CALAKO MANA 
(Plate L VI) 

On one of the two pictures of this being is seen a mask with a 
prominent tablet almost identical with that of the preceding. The 
tablet represents terraced rain clouds, of which there are two vertical 
and two horizontal, one of each on each side. The object with bifid 
tips on each side of the tablet represents the squash blossom, symbolic 
of maidens' hair dress. 

Across the forehead is a symbol of an ear of corn, with two feathers 
attached to each end. The ring hanging over the forehead represents 
a fragment of Haliotis shell. There are imitation flowers made of 
wood represented in the hair. The left eye is yellow, the right blue. 
The chevrons on the cheek are similar to those found on the face of 
Palahiko mana/' 

The artist has represented a garment of feathers, over which is 
thrown a white ceremonial blanket with embroidered border. The 
two adjacent trees are pines. 

BULI MANA 
(Plate L VI I) 

Buli mana, the Butterfly maid, appears in a dance which was intro- 
duced from the Rio Grande pueblos, where it is called the " Tablita," 
from the tablets worn by the women on their heads. This dance is 

a For picture of doll, Bee Internationales Arehiv fiir Ethnographic, Band VII, pi. IX, X, fitf. 28, 31; 
Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1897, pl.cvn, cix, fig. 39. 
l> These beings, Palahiko mana and Calako mana, probably represent the same conception. 



120 HOPI KATCINAS [kth. ann. 21 

occasionally performed at the East mesa, but is unaccompanied by 
secret rites. 

Each figure bears on the head a board tablet, the edge of which is 
cut into terraces representing rain clouds. Figures of sunflowers or 
the sun, or other symbols are painted on these tablets. 

Although the personator of this maid is without a mask, her cheeks 
are painted with red spots. The blue or the yellow garment, as the 
ease may be, is made of calico, under which is a woman's blanket, 
bound to the waist by a red belt. 

The small figure between the two girls represents the standard 
bearer, who precedes a procession composed of men and women alter- 
nating with each other, the latter being dressed as in the pictures. 
The standard bearer carries a long pole, to the top of which is 
attached a gourd, painted black, with red-stained horsehair and parrot 
and other feathers attached. In the few representations of the But- 
terfly dance which have been given in late years, this standard bearer 
has carried a banneret on which is painted a picture of a Hopi girl. 

'COTOKINUNWU 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture represents Cotokinunwu, the Heart-of-the-sky god, 
who is readily recognized by the single curved horn on the head 
and the rain-cloud symbols on the face and base of the horn. 

In his left hand he carries the framework of sticks which symbolizes 
the lightning. This framework has attached to each angle an eagle 
feather, which the painter has indicated in black lines. 

In the right hand he carries the whizzer or bull-roarer, a slat to 
which a string is attached, with lightning represented by a zigzag 
band in red. Two bandoleers are represented. The legs and forearms 
are painted black. a 

KAISALE 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture was identified by all as Kaisale, the name given it by 
the artist. 

KAISALE MANA 

(Plate LVIII) 

This picture represents a maid accompanied by a Hano glutton 
(Paiakyamu). The former holds an ear of corn aloft, as in the dance 
called Klahewe which is celebrated at Zufii. 



"The symbol of the Sky god is sometimes an equal-armed cross. Other symbols are lightning 
designs or figures of plumed snakes. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LVIII 





f^TTM 



COTOKINUNWU 



KAISALE 




PAIAKYAMU 



KAISALE MANA 



HEUOTYPE CO., B09TON. 




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fewkes] AHULANI, SOYAL KATCINA 121 

ALOSAKA 
(Plate LIX) 

Two pictures of Alosaka were drawn by the Hopi artist. One of 
these has a mask with two short, curved horns, such as novices wear 
in the Aaltu society. In the left hand this Alosaka carries a deer 
horn, and in the right a representation of a badge (monkohu) made of 
a slat of wood/' 

The second picture of Alosaka 6 is more elaborate than the first. 
It has the two horns on the head, and the chin is painted black. The 
semicircular figure above the head represents the rainbow on which 
gods are said to travel; it is appropriately introduced with Alosaka, 
who is said to have walked on it from the San Francisco mountains to 
meet an Awatobi maid. 

A great part of the picture is taken up by a large rectangular 
figure of a moisture tablet (pavaoakaci), an object worn on the back 
by man}^ personators. This tablet is, strictly speaking, a frame- 
work over which is stretched cloth or buckskin, painted as indicated 
in the figure/ The zigzag lines about the border represent plaited 
corn husks, in which feathers are inserted. The red lines drawn 
between these feathers represent red horsehair, and the small circular 
objects, three in number on each side, are small disks made of gourds. 

Ahulani^ 

(Plate LX) 

This figure represents the Soyal katcina, Ahulani, and the two 
Soyal manas as they appear on the morning of the last day (Totokya) 
of Soyaluna, as elsewhere described. The decoration of the Ahulani 
mask differs in its symbolism on alternate years, accordingly as the 
Snake or the Flute dance is celebrated. In the latter case the eyes 
and mouth are represented by crescentic marks, but in the former we 
find a horizontal black band across the face through the eyes. 

Ahulani carries under his left arm several ears of corn, and spruce 
boughs or twigs. In his left hand he bears a chiefs badge and skin 
pouch with sacred meal, while in his right he carries a staff. 

The two Soyal manas differ only in the color of the corn which 
they cariT; one has yellow, the other blue corn. Each has a yellow 
maskette, before which falls a bang composed of horsehair stained 
red. An eagle breast feather is fastened to the scalp. The lower 

a For figure oi mofikohus, see description of the New-fire eereraony, where personations of Alosaka 
appear, American Anthropologist, new scries, vol. n, 1900, p. 90. 

£>The name Alosaka is the Awatobi name of the germ god, the Sikyatki equivalent being Masauu 
and Eototo, and the general name Muyifiwu. 

'• Morphologically a sun emblem or " hack shield " representing the sun. 

^The returning one. l. e., the sun god. 



122 HOPI KATCINAS [ETH.ANN.21 

part of the mask is banded green, red, and black, and black feathers 
are attached to its lower border. In their hands the maids carry basket 
plaques, on which are rings of corn ears set on end, with cedar boughs, 
here represented green. In the white inclosed space formed by this 
ring of corn ears is raw cotton. 

In the Walpi winter solstice festival, the three beings here rep- 
resented emerged from the kiva at dawn, and sang at different points 
in the pueblo, after which the} T retired to the kiva and distributed 
seed corn to the women of the village. 05 

The similarity of the words Ahulani and Ahul is explained by a 
derivation of both from the word ahulti (return). The Ahul katcina 
is the Return katcina, the first in Powamu to return to the pueblo. 
He is in fact the Tawa wiiqtaka (Old Ma.j Sun), and the similarity of 
the symbolism of his mask to that of the sun is evident. So Ahulani 
is the " return katcina making," or the returning sun of the Patki, as 
Ahul is the returning sun of the Katcina clan. Both these names are 
attributal names of the sun. 

Although Ahulani, as his picture shows, has no sun symbolism in 
his mask, his crescent eyes are often seen in sun symbols. There is 
another indication that he may be in some way connected with the sun. 
A personation of Ahul katcina is said to appear in some of the other 
pueblos in place of Ahulani, which substitution indicates their identity. 
In the dance in the kiva the night before Ahulani and the Soyal manas 
appear, there is a man representing a bird which the author interprets 
as a personation of the sun; & the Soyal manas are regarded as either 
germ goddesses or cultus heroines of the Water-house or Raincloud 
clan. In kiva exercises the personation of the sun takes an eagle form, 
which is not assumed in public, although the same god is personated 
in the plaza under the name Ahulani. 

TANOAN NAMES FOR HOPI KATCINAS 

In the following list are given the Hano (Tanoan) names of about 
sixty of the personages figured in the preceding pages. Many of 
these are simply Tanoan translations of the Hopi names, a few names 
are identical with the Hopi, and a large number are entirely different. 

In the instances where the names are identical it is probable that 
the Hopi designation has been derived from the Hano rather than 
vice versa, and in those cases where the Hano people know a katcina 
by its Hopi name it is possible that their knowledge of it came from 
their neighbors rather than from their old home on the Rio Grande. 

The substitution of a Tanoan name for a Hopi katcina for its 
original name often sheds light on the character of the original. Thus 
Muyin wiiqtaka is the Tanoan Nanoikusi, Earth Altar Man; Nanoiu- 

aSee The Winter Solstice Ceremony at Walpi, American Anthropologist, vol. XI, 1898, p. 65, 101. 
b Called Kwatoku, Eagle-sky-one, High-sky-eagle; one of the sun birds. 




< 




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DC 
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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXIII 




HELIOTYPE CO., B09TON. 



FEWKES] 



TANOAN NAMES FOR HOPI KATCINAS 



123 



kwia, Earth Altar Woman, is called in Hopi Tuwapontumsi. The 
lists follow: 



Hopi name 


Hano (Tanoan) name 


Alosaka 


Cerii 


Ailya 


Onkweni 


Atocle 


Atocle 


Caiastacana 


Katcinetcen 


Calako 


Calako 


Cipikne 


Orlakepenne 


Citoto 


Porpinki 


Citulilii 


Citulilii 


Coho 


Agaiyo 


Cotokinunwu 


Kwentulaci 


Eototo 


Tcemulo 


Hahai wiiqti 


Pokikwia 


Hakto 


Parsepenne 


Heliliilu 


Helilulii 


Hokyaila 


Koiitedje 


Hototo 


Sempotanle 


Humis 


Tsewe 


Kaisale 


Tefitaiye 


Kalektaka (Akus) 


Potaiye 


Kawikoli 


Papepekanne 


Kiwatoka 


Tcete 


Kokle 


Kokle 


Kokopelli 


Nipokwaiye 


Kokyan wiiqti 


Yowanosaiye 


Koroctii 


Estoroka 


Kwacus Alektaka 


Zekwafisaiye 


Kwahu 


Tee 


Macmahola 


Penemo 


Masauii 


Pene 


Monwu 


Mahone 


Muyinwu mana 


Naiioiukwia 


Muyinwu taka 


Nanoikusi 


Nakiatcop 


Pelekayi 


Natacka 


Natacka 


Niivak 


Pofi 


Pakwabi 


Yiitce 


Paliiliikon 


Avaiyo 


Palufia hoy a 


Towatokwena 


Patcosk 


Kwefltcelepoe 


Pautiwa 


Pautiwa 



124 



HOPI KATCINAS 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



1 1< >1 »i name 


Hano i Tanoan i name 


Paw ik 


Orpin 


Piiukofi hoya 

* 


Ewaile 


Si,, 


Tconi 


Sio Avatc hoya 


Potedji 


Sowinwu 


Pen 


Soyohim 


Temedje 


Soyoko 


Soyoko 


Sumaikoli 


Sumaikoli 


Talatumsi 


Cenikwia 


Tataukyamu 


Tcipiwaiye 


Tatciikti 


Untamellipo 


Tcabaiyo 


Tcabaiyo 


Tcakwaina 


Teakwaina 


Tcilikomato 


Kwandepe • 


Tcolawitze 


Tcolawitze 


Tciib 


Ton 


Tehabe 


Hoho-Pocililu 


Telavai 


Zuiitele 


Tiwenu 


Ti wenu 


Tuniae 


On teen 


Tun w up 


Ho 


Ti'irkwinu 


Pompin 


Wakac 


Wakac 


Wukokot 


Tekwede 


Wupamau 


Tceta 


Wiiwiiyomo 


Senna 


Yehoho 


Chikokakyan 


Yohozro wiiqti 


Imbesaiye 



ORIGIN OF FOREIGN KATCINAS 

A few facts have been gathered regarding the legendary derivation 
or origin of certain katcinas. The names of these katcinas are given 
below, with the clans which are reputed to have brought them to \Yalpi 
or other Hopi pueblos of the East mesa, and the pueblos from which 
they art 1 supposed to have come. Several of these are now in ruins. 

Pakatcomo {Patki clan) " 

LaKone mana Soyal raana 

Cotokinunwu Hopi Calako mana 

Pal ill iik (>fi Turkwinu h 

Ahiilani (Soyal katcina) Ti'irkwinu mana 



"Pakatcomo is the name of ;i ruin in the Walpi valley, where the Patki and related clans lived 
after they abandoned Hdmolobi and other pueblos farther south, as already stated. 

''The name refers to San Francisco mountains. It is therefore doubtful whether this katcina came 
from Pakatcomo. 



FEWKES] 



ORIGIN OF FOREIGN KATCINAS 



125 



Kicyvba (Katcina clan) a 



Wuwiikoti 
Ahiil 

Anwiicnaco taka 
Tunwup 
Tunwup taadta 



Tcanau 
Piiukofi 

Paluiia hoya 
Owakiil tiyo 
Owakul raana 
Alosaka 



Masauu 

Eotot* > 
Nakopan hoya 



Tciielawu h 

Hele 

Wupamau 

Ana 



Awatobi (Pakab chin) 1 ' 



Mamzrau mana 
Palahiko mana 
Sowifiwii 
Soyok taka 
Soyok mana 
Kwewu 



Sikyatki (ITokqp clan) 



Henrico 
Hopinyu 



Tuwanacabi {Ilonani clan)' 1 

Wuwuyomo Bnli mana 

Zufii 

By far the largest number of katcinas in Walpi and Sichumovi 
were derived from Zuni, and these generally preserve their Zuni 
names : 



Sio Humis 

Sio Humis taadta 

Sio Avatc hoya 

Hopak katcina 

Hopak mana 

Kaisale and mana 

Citulilu 

Sio Calak< > 

Pawik 

Soyowa 

Tei'ik 

Kawikoli 

Malo 

Sio 

Heliliilu 

Sio mana 

I lokyana 

Pautiwa 

( liwikoli 



Tcolawitze 

"»> Atocle 

Kwacus Alek taka 

Alo mana 

Caiastacana 

Hototo 

Powa 

Kaisale 

Sumaikoli 

Tcakwaina 

Tcakwaina mana 

Tcakwaina taadta 

Tcakwaina yuadta 

Loiica 

Kokopelli 

Kokopelli mana 

Tcosbuci 

Soyan ep 

Samo wiiqtaka 



a Kicyuba, a very sacred place to the Katcina clan, and the site ol their former home. Water from 
Kicyuba is regarded as very potent in ceremonies for rain. 

'<A mountain not far from Kicyuba is called Tciielawu's Chair. 

c Awatobi is a historic ruin destroyed the last year of the seventeenth century hy warriors from the 
other Hbpi pueblos. See Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1*98. 

d\ ruin not far from Oraibi, where it is said the katcinas emerged from the under world and grave 
the katcina mysteries to the Ilonani elan. 



126 HOPI KATCINAS [eth. ann. 21 

llano 

The following katcinas are distinctively Tanoan, and were derived 
from the pueblo of Hano: 

Wakac Yohozro wiiqti 

Xalucala Mucaias taka 

Ke Towa Bisena Macaias mana 
Niivak 

Several katcinas personated by the Hopis are called by Navaho 
names and are said to have been derived from the tribe, the name of 
which they sometimes have: 

Tenebidji Owa katcina taka 

Naactadji Owa katcina mana 

Yebitcai a 

ALPHABET USED IN SPELLING NAMES 

The vowels a, e, i, o, u have their continental values, as in father, 
they, pique, go, true. E, i,,and u are broadened when used with a 
breve (e, 1, u) or before a doubled consonant, assuming their values in 
met, hit, and put. U is pronounced as u in but, au as ow in cow, ai 
as in aisle; ii varies from German o to u, French eu to u. 

The consonants p, b, t, d, k, f , v, s, z, 1, m, n, w, y, h have approx- 
imate^ their English values, but p, b, f , and v, and t and d are diffi- 
cult to distinguish. C is pronounced as in ocean (as sh in shed), j as z 
in azure (French j), tc as ch in chew, dj as j in jaw, g as in get, n as ng 
in sing, q as German ch in ich; r is obscure, never rolled. 

a The Hopi translate this Navaho name Katcina kwamu, Grandfather of the katcinas. 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



FIRST PART 



BY 



J. 1ST. B. HEWITT 



127 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 133 

An Onondaga version 141 

A Seneca version 221 

A Mohawk version 255 

21 ETH— 03 9 129 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate LXIV. 

LXV. 

LXVI. 

LXVII. 

LXVIII. 

LXIX. 



Page 

William Henry Fishcarrier, a Cayuga chief (age 88), Canada. . 340 

Robert David (Gadjinonda / he' ), a Cayuga chief, Canada 340 

William Sandy, William Henry Fishcarrier, Alexander Hill, 

Robert David 340 

William Sandy (born Fishcarrier), Cayuga warrior, Canada.. 340 

John Buck, Onondaga chief and fire-keeper, Canada 340 

William Wedge, Cayuga head chief and fire-keeper, Canada.. 340 

131 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 

FIRST PART 



By J. N. B. Hewitt 



INTRODUCTION 

The term Iroquoian is derived from the name Iroquois, which , 
adapted from the Algonquian Indian language by the early French 
explorers, was applied originally to a group of five tribes then united 
in a permanent confederacy for offense and defense, and inhabiting the 
central and eastern portions of the region now comprised within the 
State of New York. Among other names they were called the Five 
Nations, and the League of the Iroquois, and, after their adoption of 
the Tuscaroras, in 1722, the Six Nations. These five tribes attained 
the zenith of their remarkable career during the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, when, by the exploitation of the fundamental 
principles of the constitution of their League, they dominated by force 
of arms the greater part of the watershed of the Great lakes. Never 
very numerous, they reached this commanding position by an incisive 
and unexcelled diplomacy, by an effective political organization founded 
on maternal blood relationship, both real and fictitious, and by an apti- 
tude for coordinate political action, all due to a mentality superior to 
that of the surrounding tribes. 

The sophiology — that is, the bod}^ of opinions — of a people such as 
the Iroquois is necessarily interesting and very abundant. It would 
be an almost interminable work to collect these opinions exhaustively 
and to publish them in a body, so in the accompanying texts only 
narratives relating to the genesis of things are included. The follow- 
ing comments may serve to aid the scholar who would study these 
narratives at first hand, giving him what the author regards as the 
mo>t apparent viewpoints of their relators and originators: 

It must not be overlooked that these texts represent largely the 
spoken language of to-day, conveying the modern thought of (he 
people, although there are many survivals in both word and concept 
from older generations and past planes of thought. These archaisms 

133 



134 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [etit.ann.21 

when encountered appear enigmatic and quaint, and are not under- 
stood by the uninformed. The relators themselves often do not know 
the signification of the terms they employ. The author has attempted, 
where it appeared needful, to reduce evident metaphors to statements 
of concrete things which gave rise originally to the figures of speech. 

The attempts of a primitive people to give in the form of a narrative 
the origins and to expound the causes of things, the sum of which 
constitutes their philosophy, assume in time the form of cosmologic 
legends or myths. In these legends are stored the combined wisdom 
and speculations of their wise men, their ancients, their prophets, and 
their soothsayers. 

By primitive man all motions and activities were interpreted as mani- 
festations of life and will. Things animate and things inanimate were 
comprised in one heterogeneous class, sharing a common nature. All 
things, therefore, were thought to have life and to exercise will, 
whose behests were accomplished through orenda — that is, through 
magic power, reputed to be inherent in all things. Thus, all phe- 
nomena, all states, all changes, and all activity were interpreted as 
the results of the exercise of magic power directed by some control- 
ling mind. The various beings and bodies and operations of environ- 
ing nature were interpreted strictly in terms of the subjective self. 
Into the known world self was projected. The wind was the breath 
of some person. The lightning was the winking of some person's 
eyes. The generative or reproductive power in nature was personi- 
fied, and life and growth were in the fostering care of this personage. 

Upon the concepts evolved from their impressions of things and 
from their experience with the bodies of their environment rest the 
authority for men's doctrines and the reasons for their rites and cere- 
monies. Hence arises the great importance of recording, translating, 
and interpreting from the vernacular the legends constituting the 
cosmology of peoples still largely dominated by the thoughts peculiar 
to the cultural stage of imputative and self -centered reasoning. The 
great difficulty of accurately defining and interpreting the ideas of 
primitive man without a deep and detailed stud}^ and a close transla- 
tion of the words embodying these ideas renders it imperative for 
their correct apprehension that they be carefully recorded in the 
vernacular, and that there be made not only a free but also a literal 
rendering of the record, in such wise that the highly subjective 
thought of barbaric man may be cast, so far as is possible, into the 
more objective phraseology of science and enlightenment. By this 
means it is possible to obtain a juster and more accurate comprehen- 
sion and interpretation of the thoughts and conceptions underlying 
and interwoven with the cosmologic and other legends of primitive 
man than that obtained by the ordinary method of recording only a 
free and popular version of them. 



hewitt] INTRODUCTION 135 

A fact of great importance made evident in these texts is that 
anthropic persons, called man-beings in the accompanying translations, 
were, in Iroquoian thought, the primal beings. They were the first to 
exercise the functions and to experience the lot of their several kinds. 
Sometimes these first beings have been called the prototypes of the 
things of like kind which are to-day. Some of these beings were mere 
fictions, figures of speech made concrete and objective. They were 
not beasts, but they belonged to a rather vague class, of which man 
was the characteristic type. To speak with the logicians, no other 
deduction from the intension and the extension of the term ongwe, 
man-being, appears sufficiently broad to set forth the true interpre- 
tation of the personages the narrative of whose lives and acts con- 
stitutes the subject matter of these texts. Among these primal beings 
may be named Daylight, Earthquake, Winter, Medicine, Wind, or 
Air, Life (germination), and Flower. So it seems evident from this 
fact that beast powers, the so-called beast gods, were not the first 
beings or chief actors at the beginning of time. 

Beast gods appear later. In the development of Iroquoian thought, 
beasts and animals, plants and trees, rocks, and streams of water, hav- 
ing human or other effective attributes or properties in a paramount 
measure, were naturally regarded as the controllers of those attributes 
or properties, which could be made available by orenda or magic power. 
And thus began the reign of the beast gods, plant gods, tree gods, and 
their kind. The signification of the Iroquoian term usually rendered 
into English by the term "god" is "disposer," or "controller." This 
definition supplies the reason that the reputed controllers of the opera- 
tions of nature received worship and prayers. To the Iroquois god 
and controller are synonymous terms. 

From the very nature of the subject-matter and the slow acquire- 
ment of new ideas and development of concepts, the content of a cos- 
mologic myth or legend must be the result of a gradual combination 
and readjustment of diverse materials, which, in the flux of time, are 
recast many times into new forms to satisfy the growing knowledge 
and wider experience and deeper research of the people among whom 
the myth is current. In different branches of a cognate group of peo- 
ples the old materials, the old ideas and concepts, modified by accul- 
tural influences and by new and alien ideas, may be combined and 
arranged in quite unlike forms, and hence arise varying versions of a 
cosmogonic legend. These different versions modify the thought con- 
temporary with them, and are in turn still further changed by accul- 
tural influences and motives arising from the activities of the people. 
And in later times, when they no longer constitute the chief body of 
the philosophy of the people, these legends and stories concerning the 
causes and beginnings of things are called myths. 



136 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [etS.ann.21 

As has been suggested, the development of legend is not always 
internal, from the activities of the people dealing with the materials 
supplied by the legend itself, but often, and naturally, from alien 
material, from ideas and concepts consciously or unconsciously adopted 
from other peoples. And thus older forms and concepts, the ancient 
dogmas, are displaced or changed by accultural influences and by a 
more definite knowledge of nature acquired through a wider experi- 
ence, a closer observation, and a more discriminating interpretation 
and apprehension of environing phenomena. Cosmologies, therefore, 
are composite, representing the accumulated explanations of many 
things by many generations in diverse times. The correct and funda- 
mental analysis must therefore seek by a wide comparison of mate- 
rials to separate the accultural from the autochthonous product. This 
analysis, however, can bring to light only such material as still exhibits 
by some marked token of incongruity its alien origin; for it is obvious 
that accultural matter in time becomes so thoroughly assimilated and 
recast that a more or less complete congruity is established between it 
and the cosmologic material with which it is joined, but to which it is, 
in fact, alien. Furthermore, where reason demands it, metaphor and 
personification must be reduced to concrete statements of objective 
facts upon which the original figurative expressions were founded; in 
short, the process resulting in metaphor and personification must be 
carefully retraced, so far as it ma} r be possible so to do from the 
materials in hand. 

It must not be overlooked that although these legends concerning 
the beginnings of things are usually called myths, creation stories, or 
cosmogonies, the terms myth and creation are, in fact, misnomers. 
In all of these narratives, except such as are of modern date, creation 
in the modern acceptation of the word is never signified, nor is it even 
conceived; and when these legends or narratives are called myths, it 
is because a full comprehension and a correct interpretation of them 
have to a large extent been lost or because they have been supplanted 
by more accurate knowledge, and they are related without a clear con- 
ception of what they were designed to signify, and rather from custom 
than as the source of the major portion of the customs and ceremonies 
and opinions in vogue among the people relating them. 

Five different versions of the Iroquoian cosmology have been 
recorded b} 7 the author at different times from 1889 to 1900. Of these 
only three appear in the fellowing pages, namely, one Onondaga, one 
Mohawk, and one Seneca legend. 

The first text is an Onondaga version of the Iroquoian cosmology, 
obtained in 1889 on the Grand River reservation, Canada, from the 
late chief and fire-keeper, John Buck, of the Onondaga tribe. After- 
ward, in 1897, it was revised and somewhat enlarged by the aid of Mr 
Joshua Buck, a son of the first relator. It is not as long as the Mohawk 



hewitt] INTRODUCTION 137 

text printed herewith because the relator seemed averse to telling 
more than a brief outline of the legend. A version in the Onondaga, 
much longer and fuller than any herewith printed, has been recorded 
from the mouth of Chief John Arthur Gibson, and will be printed in 
a later report of the Bureau. 

The second text is a Seneca version of the cosmologic legend, obtained 
in 1896 on the Cattaraugus reservation, in the western part of the State 
of New York, from the late Mr John Armstrong, of Seneca-Delaware- 
English mixed blood, an intelligent and conscientious annalist. Later, 
at various times, it was revised in this office with the assistance of 
Mr Andrew John. 

The last text in order is a Mohawk version, obtained in 1896 and 
1897 on the Grand River reservation in Canada from Mr Seth New- 
house, an intelligent and educated member of the Mohawk tribe. 

In general outlines the legend, as related here, is identical with that 
found among all of the northern tribes of the Iroquoian stock of 
languages. It is told partly in the language of tradition and ceremony, 
which is formal, sometimes quaint, sometimes archaic, frequently 
mystical, and largely metaphorical. But the figures of speech are 
made concrete by the elementary thought of the Iroquois, and the 
metaphor is regarded as a fact. 

Regarding the subject-matter of these texts, it may be said that it is 
in the main of aboriginal origin. The most marked post-Columbian 
modification is found in the portion relating to the formation of the 
physical bodies of man and of the animals and plants, in that relating 
to the idea of a hell, and in the adaptation of the rib story from the 
ancient Hebrew mythology in connection with the creation of woman. 
These alien elements are retained in the texts to show by concrete 
examples how such foreign material may be adopted and recast to 
conform to the requirements of its new setting. In the translation 
some of the quaintness of the original is retained, as well as some of 
its seeming tautology. No liberty, however, has been taken with the 
texts either in the way of emendation or addition or in rendering them 
into English. They are given exactly as related. It may possibly 
be objected that the interlinear and the free translations are too literal; 
but the aboriginal thought, however commonplace, figurative, poet- 
ical, is set forth as simply and with as strict a rendering of the 
original as the matter and thought contained in it permit. It is no 
ready task to embody in the language of enlightenment the thought of 
barbarism. The viewpoint of the one plane of thought differs much 
from that of the other. 

The idea that the bodies of man and of the animals were created 
directly out of specific portions of the earth by Tharonhiawakon" is 
a comparatively modern and erroneous interpretation of the original 

a " Ik- grasps the sky (by memory)." 



138 IROQUOIATN" COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

concept. The error is due largely to the influence of the declaration 
of like import in the Semitic mythology, found in the Hebrew Scrip- 
ture's. tin 1 figurative character of which is usually not apprehended. 
The thought originally expressed by the ancient teachers of the Iro- 
quoian and other barbaric peoples was that the earth through the life, 
or life power, innate and immanent in its substance — the life person- 
ated by Tharonhiawakon a — by feeding itself to them produces plants 
and fruits and vegetables which serve as food for birds and animals, 
all which in their turn become food for men, a process whereb} r the 
life of the earth is transmuted into that of man and of all living things. 
Hence, the Iroquois consistently say, in addressing the earth, u Eithi- 
noha," "our Mother." Thus in 1896 the author's late friend, Mr 
David Stephens, a grave Seneca priest and philosopher, declared to 
him that the earth or ground is living matter, and that the tender 
plantlet of the bean and the sprouting germ of the corn nestling 
therein receive through their delicate rootlets the life substance from 
the earth; that, thus, the earth indeed feeds itself to them; that, since 
what is supplied to them is living matter, life in them is produced and 
conserved, and that as food the ripened corn and bean and their kinds, 
thus produced, create and develop the life of man and of all living 
things. Hence it is seen that only in this metaphorical manner 
Tharonhiawakon, the personified life immanent in the matter of the 
earth, creates daily, and did in the beginning of time create man and 
all living things out of the earth. But the fiat creation of man and 
things from nothing or from definite portions of clay or earth, as the 
potter makes pottery, never is involved in the earliest known concep- 
tions of the beginning of things. In the quaint protology, or science 
of first things, of the Iroquois things are derived from things through 
transformation and evolution. The manner in which the earth or dry 
land itself was formed, as detailed in the Onondaga and the Mohawk 
texts, is an apt example of this statement. 

Another misapprehended figure of speech is expressed in the popu- 
lar dogma of the virgin, or parthenogenetic, conception, which in this, 
as in other cosmologies, affects one of the chief persons. This is, how- 
ever, a metaphor as old as the earliest philosophies of man. And 
some of the most beautiful and touching thoughts and activities of 
both barbaric and enlightened man rest on the too literal acceptation 
of the figurative statement of a great fact of life, attested by all 
human experience, namely, that breath (spirit, air, wind, atmos, 
atman) is the principle of life and feeling, and that without it there 
can be no manifestation of life. This is the key to the riddle of the 
virgin, or parthenogenetic, conception. It is made very clear in the 

a He is also called Odendonnia, Sprout, or Sapling, and Ioskaha, having apparently the same 
meaning. 



hewitt] INTRODUCTION 139 

Onondaga version. The fact and the idea are matters of experience 
in all times and in all lands. 

While in general outlines and in the sum of incidents comprised in 
them the several versions of the cosmologic story of the Iroquois sub- 
stantially accord, there are nevertheless marked divergences in both 
structure and matter, which in time, by further development from 
accultural and other potent causes, would necessarily cause them to be 
regarded as quite different legends in source and meaning; and this 
emphasizes the great and fundamental fact that all legends are the 
gradual result of combination from many sources by many minds in 
many generations. 

Most of the characteristic incidents related in these leg-ends are 
widely prevalent over the American continent, occurring among peoples 
speaking tongues of widely different linguistic stocks and dwelling in 
widely separated habitats. It should not be assumed that these coin- 
cidences are indubitably due to accultural influences, but rather that 
the} T indicate universality of the natural phenomena from which the 
incidents embodied are drawn. Among these coincidences may be 
mentioned that of the seclusion of the members of the animal world 
in a vast cavern by one of the chief characters of the legends, Winter, 
the man-being of frosts and snow and ice. This episode evidently 
portrays the annual hibernation of the animals and insects and the 
migration of the birds caused by the winter power, which is called 
Tawiskaron by the Mohawks, a Ohaa by the Onondagas, and Otha'k- 
wenda' by the Senecas. 

The author desires to acknowledge his many obligations to the 
officers and staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology for most 
kindly advice, wise counsel, and many valuable suggestions, especially 
to the late Director, Major John Wesley Powell; to Professor W J 
McGee, formerly Ethnologist in Charge; to Professor William Henry 
Holmes, the present Chief of the Bureau, and to Herbert Spencer 
Wood, editor, who has also kindly performed the irksome task of cor- 
recting the proof s of the texts and translations while they were passing 
through the press. 

Alphabet and abbreviations 

a as in far, father; Gm. haben; Sp. ramo. 

a the same sound prolonged. 

a as in what; Gm. man. 

a as in hat, man. 

a the same sound prolonged. 

«The Mohawk epithet is commonly interpreted "flint," but its literal and original meaning is 
"crystal-clad" or "ice-clad," the two significations being normal, as crystal, Mint and ice have a sim- 
ilar aspect and fracture. The original denotation is singularly appropriate for Winter. The last two 
names do not connote Ice, hut simply denote flint. 



140 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth.ann.21 

a as in law, all; Fr. o in or. 

ai as in aisle, as i in pine, find; Gm. Hain. 

au . as on in out, as ow in how; Gm. haus; Sp. auto. 

c as sh in shall; Gin. sch in schellen; Fr. ch in charmer. 

c as th in health. 

d pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the upper teeth 

as in enunciating the English th; this is the only sound of d 

in this language, 
e as in they; Gm. Dehnung; Fr. ne; Sp. que. 
e as in then, met; Gm. denn; Fr. sienne; Sp. comen. 
f as in waif. 

g as in gig; Gm. geben; Fr. gout; Sp. gozar. 
h as in has, he; Gm. haben. 
i as in pique, machine. 
I the same sound prolonged. 
I • as in pick, pit. 
k as in kick. 
n as in nun, run. 
ii as ng in sing, ring, 
o as in note, rote, 
q as ch in Gm. ich. 
r slightly trilled; but in Mohawk it closely approximates an 1 

sound. 
s as in sop, see. 
t pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the upper teeth 

as in enunciating the English th; this is the only sound of t 

in this language, 
u ' as in rule; Gm. du; Fr. ou in doux; Sp. uno. 
ii as in rut, shut, 
w as in wit, witch, 
y as in yes, yet. 
dj as j in judge, 
hw as wh in what, 
tc as ch in church. 

n marks nasalized vowels, thus, e n , o n , ai 11 , e n , a n . 
' indicates {in aspiration or soft emission of breath, which is initial 

or final, thus, 'h, e uC , o'. 
marks a sudden closure of the glottis, preceding or following a 

sound, thus, 'a, o', a', & n \ : 
marks the accented syllable of every word, 
th in this combination t and h are always pronounced separately. 

In the literal (interlinear) translation the following abbreviations 
denoting gender have been used: z.=zoic; anthr. = anthropic; m. = 
masculine; fern. = feminine; indef. ^indefinite. 



AN ONONDAGA VERSION 



The Manner in Which it Established Itself, in Which it 
Formed Itself, in Which, in Ancient Time, it Came about 
that the earth became extant 

He who was my grandfather was wont to relate that, verily, he had 
heard the legend as it was customarily told by five generations of 
grandsires, and this is what he himself was in the habit of telling. 
He customarily said: Man -beings dwell in the sky, on the farther side 
of the visible sky [the ground separating this from the world above it]. 

Tca" Dediodiea'da^gwi 4 Tca" Deio'denda"i c Tca" Wa'wadon'nia' 

The Therefrom it it employed The It was The It itself formed 1 

where therefor where established where 

Tca" Io^hwendjia'de 1 wa'wa'do n ' ne" oi 4 hwaga'io n '. 



The It earth extant is It came The It matter (is) 

where to be ancient. 



2 



Ksodama*-ge n ' k ha\ hwi'ks nwa'hondiaWsa' tca" hodikstenYr- 

My grand- was, five so many they matured the they ancient 

father in body where 

ge^'ha' na'ie' ne" honthoia c ha"gwa' ne" hi'ia' ge n 's hothoii'de' 

were that ' the they it tell did the verily custom- he it heard 

(it is) habitually arily 

tea" nimadii 4 ho"de n \ na'ie' ne v hao n 'mwa o n "ke n ' hathoia- 

the such their relation that the he himself next in he it tell 

where lis) kind of, litis) order 

'hiV'gwa". Pha'do n k ge"'s: Ena'gee' ne" oii'gwe'" gao 11 hi; gon'wiV ^ 

did. He it said custom- They abide the man- it sky in 

habitually arily: being 

«The classitic conceptual term ong\ve\ having no discernable grammatic affix, is what gramma- 
rians call a primitive word, and lias both a singular and a collective denotation. It signifies "man- 
kind, man, human beings; a human being, a person." But its original meaning was "man-being" or 
"primal being," which signified collectively those beings who preceded man in existence ami 
exceeded him in wisdom and effective power, the personified bodies and elements of nature, the gods 
and demigods of later myth and legend, who were endowed by an imputative mode of reasoning 
with anthropic form and attributes additional to those normally characteristic of the particular 
bodies or elements that they represented. But, after the recognition of man as a species different from 
all others, consequent upon wider human experience and more exact knowledge, and after these had 
pushed back from the immediate fireside and community most of the reified fictions of savage men- 
tation, a time came when it became needful to distinguish between the man-being, a human being, 
and the man-being, a reified personification of a body or element of nature; in short, to distinguish 
between what human experience bad found to be "real, genuine, native," and what was the con- 
verse. Hence, the limiting term oiiwe', signifying "native, real, genuine, original," was combined 
with ongwe, thus forming oflgwe'-onwe', which signifies "native, real, or genuine man-being," 
hence, "man, human being." But alter the advent of trans-Atlantic peoples the antithesis was 
transferred unconsciously from the "primal being," or "man-being," the reified concepts of myth 
and legend, to "white human being." denotive of any trans-Atlantic person. So, in this legend, 
When applied to times previous to the advent of man the word ofigwe' usually denotes a man-being 

that is a personification, one of the gods of the myths, one <>f that vague class of primal beings of 
which man was regarded by [roquoiaii and other Bages as a characteristic type. 

141 



142 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



TKTH. ANN. 21 



The lodges they severally possess are customarily long. In the end of 
the lodges there are spread out strips of rough bark whereon lie the 
several mats (beds). There it is that, verily, all pass the night. 

Early in the morning the warriors are in the habit of going to 
hunt and, as is their custom, they return every evening. 

In that place there lived two persons, both down-fended, and both 
persons of worth. Verily, one of these persons was a woman-being, 
a person of worth, and down-fended; besides her there was a man- 
being, a person of worth, and down-fended. 

In the end of the lodge there was a doorwa}^. On the one side of it the 
woman-being abode, and on the other side of it the man-being abode. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



si" hagwa'di' 

far side of it 

yonder 

hodino n 'saien'do n '. 

they lodge have 
plurally. 

tea" ne"tho 4 



tea" gae ni hia'de'. Gano n4 se'djfs 



the 
where 



it sky is 
extant. 



It lodge long 
plurally (are) 



ge n 's 

custom- 
arily 



tea" 

the 
where 



Tea" heiotno n4 so"kda' ne"tho' £e n 'sowaienda'die' 



The 
where 



there it lodge ends 



xA^nl 



the 
where 



there 



ganakdage"heiido 

it mat lay plurally 



there 

Ne"tho' 

There 



it rough bark is 
spread along 



hi'ia 1 

verily, 



gagwe'gi' 

it all 
(entire) 



honno nC hwe'stha\ 



they (m.) stay over 
night. 

Na'ie' ne" 

That the 

(it is) 

hondowa/tha' 

they go to hunt 
habitually 

Na'ie' —" 



he n, ge"djik ho ni dendion'gwas ne" 

early in the hence they depart the 

morning repeatedly 



hodi ' sge n 'age "da ' , 

they (are) warriors 
(mat-bearers), 



,ii' 



ge 

custom- 
arily. 



s. Shadi'io n k 



:n/ 



S. 



They returned 
home habituallv 



ge 

custom- 
arily. 



That 
(it is) 



ne 

the 



o'ga"ho n k 

evening after 
evening 

ne"tho' de 4 hni"deii', dehiia'dage", de'hninoa'do n ', a 

there they (m.) two they (m.) two they (m.) two are 

abode, are persons, down-fended, 



de'hiia'dano'we 11 '. Na'ie' 



they (m.) two are per- 
sons of worth. 



That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



hi'ia' 

verily 



tcieia'dada' 



e"deii', eia'dano'we 11 ', deienoa'do" 



j. 



she 
abides, 



she is a person of 
worth, 



she (is) 
down-fended; 



Vso 

still, 



she is one 
person 

n4 



ne 

the 



,xn) 



hon'gwe' he n "deii', haia'dano'we r 

he man- he abides, he is a person of 

being (is) worth. 

Tea" heiotno ni so"kda' ne"tho' 

there it lodge ends there 



The 
where 



de'hanoa'do' 1 '. 

he (is) 
down-fended. 

ga'nhoga'hen'cla'. 

it is doorway. 



hagwa'di 4 ne"tho 4 

side of it there 



"den' 



ne"tho 4 

there 



ne 

the 
that 



na 

that one 



e 

she 
abides 



ne 

the 



v 



agon'gwe 4 ; 



she man- 
being (is); 

ne" hon'gwe' he n "den'. 

the he man- he abides, 

that being (is) 



sgaga'di' 

one side 
on 



agon'gwe' 

she man- 
being (is) 

shaia'dada, 

he one person 

(is) 



Sgaga'di' 

One side 
on 

hagwa'di' 

side of it 



« Down-fended. This compound approximately describes a feature characteristic of a primitive 
Iroquoian custom, which required that certain children should be strictly hidden from the sight of 
all persons save a trustee until they reached the age of puberty. The better to guard the ward 
from access the down of the cat-tail flag was carefully scattered about the place of concealment, so 
that no person could pass into the forbidden place without first disturbing the down and so indicat- 
ing invasion of the guarded precinct; hence, it is proposed to apply a literal rendering of the Iro- 
quoian term "down-fended " to a person so concealed. Persons so hidden were regarded as uncanny 
and us endowed with an unusual measure of orenda, or magic potence. 



HKWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



143 



Sometime afterward, then, this came to pass. As soon as all the 
man- beings had severally departed this woman-being came forth 
and went thither and, moreover, arrived at the place where the man- 
being abode, and she carried a comb Avith her. She said: " Do thou 
arise; let me disentangle thy hair." Now, verily, he arose, and then, 
moreover, she disentangled his hair, and straightened it out. It con- 
tinued in this manner da} T after day. 

Sometime afterward her kindred were surprised. It seems that the 
life of the maiden was now changed. Day after day it became more 
and more manifest that now she would give birth to a child. Now, 
moreover, her mother, the ancient one, became aware of it. Then, 
verily, she questioned her, saying to the maiden: " Moreover, what 
manner of person is to be joint parent with thee?" The maiden said 



Gain'gwa' nwa'oimi'she' o'ne 11 ' tho'ne' 1 ' nwa'awe n "ha\ Ganio" 

Some (time) so (long) it lasted now thus (here) so it came to pass. So soon as 



gagwe'gi' wa'hoiVdendioii'gwa' o'ne 11 ' 

it all (entire) they departed plurally now 



dagaiage n "nha' nen'ge"' 

thence she (z.) came this (it is) 
forth 



v 



ne 

the 

tea" 

the 
where 



agon'gwe' 



ne"tho' 

there 



ne"tho' 

there 



di v hwa'ga'io 11 ' 

besides 



there she (z.] 
arrived 



nhwa"we', 

she man- 
being (is) 

non' we' he n "den' ne" hen'gwe', na'ie' ne" e'ha'wf ne" 

the place he is the he man- that the she it bear- the 

(abides) being (is) (it is) ing is 

gana"da'. Wa'ge n "hen": " Satge n "ha'. Dagonio'dai"sia'." O'ne 114 

it comb (is). She (z.) said: " Do thou arise. Let me dress thy hair." Now, 

hi'ia' da'hatge n "ha/, tho'ge' o'ne 11 ' di" hi'ia' wa'thoio'dai"sia', 



of course, 



wa'tgaga"tcia' 

she (z.) it untangled 

ni'io't. 

so it con- 
tinued to be. 

Gain'gwa' 

Some (time) 

agaongwe"da' 

her people 



thence he did 
arise, 

ne" 

the 



at that 
(time) 

hoge"a'. 

his hair 

(it is). 



now, besides, of 

course, 

ne" o'he n "senk 

the day after day 



Na'ie: 

That 
(it is) 



she his hair did dress, 

ne"tho' 

there 



nwa'onni'she' 

so (long) t lasted 

tea o la 

the (it is) 

where other 



one 

now 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



S5/ 

gwa 



wa 1 hondien"ha 1 

they were surprised seemingly 

ni'io't tea" ago'n'he' 

so it is the she lives 

where (is alive) 



ne 

the 

ne" 

the 



eksa'go'na'. Tea" o'he n "senk heiotgonda"gwi' daiotge n 'i w ha'die' 

she maid The day after day it is unceasing 

(large child). 



The 
where 



thence it becomes man- 
ifest more and more 



tea" oien'det 



the 

w here 



it is know- 
able 



one 

now 



tea" 

the 
where 



6 n iowiai6nda v nha'. 

she (z.) child will have. 



O'ne 11 ' di" 

Now, besides, 



2 
3 

5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



wfi'ontdo'ka' ne" 

she it noticed the 



gok'sten'a'. Tho"ge k o'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa'ondadei'- 

she elder one At that now, of she her 

(is). (time) course. questioned 

ne" eksa'go'na^, wa'a/'hen': "Son" di" nonwa'- 

the she maid she it said: "Who besides kind of 
(large child) 

ho"de n ' djiade'do nw 'ne'?" Hiia" st& n " de'aga'wfc"' ne" eksa'go'n;V. 

thing ye two are going to Not anything she it said the she maid 

* have offspring?" (it is) (large child). 



hwanen'do 1 " 
repeatedly 



14 
15 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



144 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [Era. ann. 21 

nothing in reply. So, now, at that time, the man-being noticed that 
he began to be ill. For some time it continued thus, when, verily, his 
mother came to the place where he lay. She said: " Where is the 
place wherein thou art ill?" Then the man-being said in reply: " Oh, 
my mother! I will now tell thee that 1, alas, am about to die." And 
his mother replied, saying: "What manner of thing is meant by thy 
saying 'I shall dieT " 

It is said that they who dwelt there did not know what it is 
for one to say "I shall die." And the reason of it was that no 
one living there on the sky had ever theretofore died. At that 
time he said: "And, verily, this will come to pass when 1 die: M\ T 
life will go forth. Moreover, my body will become cold. Oh, my 



now 



Da', tho"ge 4 o'ne 11 ' ne" hen'gwe 4 wa'hatdo'ka' tea" o'ne 

1 So at that now the he man- he it noticed the 

(time) being (is) where 

o wa 14 hono n4 hwak'de n '. Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' ne"tho 4 ni'io't 

he became ill. Some (time) so (long) it lasted there so it is 

o'ne 114 hi'ia' ne" hono' 4 ]ha' ne"tho 4 wa'e'io"' tea" nofi'we' 

<3 now, of course, the his mother there she arrived the the place 

verily where 

a henda'ga\ Wa'a/'hen': "Gain" nofi'we' nisano n 'hwak'dani 4 ?" 

he lay. She it said: "Where (is) the place so it thee pain (illness) causes?" 

O'ne 11 ' ne" heii'gwe 4 ni 4 ha'wen 4 : 44 Ageno' 4 ha', o'ne 114 e n gonia- 

5 Now the he man- so he replied: " Oh, my mother, now I thee it 

being (is) will tell 

tho'ie 11 ' na'ie' ne" ni"a 4 gi 4 heio n4 'se'." Na'ie' ne" ga'wen 4 

h that the I per- I am going to die." That the she it has 

(it is) sonally (it is) said 

ne" hono' 4 ha, wa'a' 4 heii': 44 Ho't nonwa 4 ho"de n ' gen'da' tea" 

the his mother, she it said: "What kind of thing it signifies the 

(is it) where 

i'sa'do n k: 4 E n gi'he'ia'?'" 

thou it art 'I will die?'" 

saying: 

Na'ie' ne", ia'ke 11 ', tea" hadina'gee' hiia 4 ' de'hadiiende'i 4 

That the, it is said, the they (m.) dwell not they it know 

(it is) where 

ne" son 4 ' nonwa'ho"de n '' aia"hen': 44 E n gi 4 he'ia\" Na'ie' gai 4 - 

the what kind of thing one it should "I will die." That it 

(who) (it is) say: (it is) 

honnia' 4 ha' ne" hiia 4 ' hweii'do 114 de'agawe n4 he'io n4 tea" hadina'gee' 

it causes the not ever one has died the they (m.) dwell 

(makes matter) (it is) where 

ne" ne"tho 4 gao n4 hia"ge 4 . O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' tho 4 'ge 4 wa'he n "hen': 

the there it sky on. Now, of at that he it said: 

course, time, 

44 Na'ie' ne" tho'ne" 4 ne n iawe n "ha' ne" o'ne 114 e n gi'he'ia'. 

±o "That the here so it will come to the now I will die. 

(it is) (this way) pass (when) 

Na'ie' ne" e n gaiage n "nha" ne" agadon 4 he"sa. E n ganano'sda' 

14 That the it will go out the ray life It will become cold 

(it is) (lifehood). 

di" ne" gia'df'ge 4 . Ageno' 4 ha\ tho'ne" 4 ne n \siea" ne" kga 4 - 

15 be- the my body on. My mother, this way so thou it wilt the my 
sides do 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 145 

mother! thus shalt thou do on my eyes: Thou must lay both thy 
hands on both sides. And, moreover, thou must keep thy eyes fixed 
thereon when thou thinkest that now he is [I am] nearly dead. So 
soon as thou seest that my breathing is being made to become less, 
then, and not till then, must thou think that now it is that he is about 
to die. And then, moreover, thou wilt place thy two hands on both 
my eyes. Now, I shall tell thee another thing. Ye must make a 
burial-case. When ye finish the task of making it, then, moreover, 
ye must place my body therein, and, moreover, ye must lay it up in a 
high place." , 

Now, verily, she, the ancient one, had her eyes fixed on him. So 
soon as she believed that now he was about to die, she placed both her 
hands on his eyes. Just so soon as she did this she began to weep. 
Moreover, all those who abode in the lodge were also affected in 
the same way; they all wept. Sometime after he had died they set 



hi v ge\ De n4 se n, nia' 4 hefr dedjao n "gwi\ Ne"tho' di" ne n ska 4 ha"k 

eyes on. Thou thy two hands on both sides. There besides there it thy eyes 

on (them) wilt lay will be on 

ne" o'ne ,u e ni se'a' o'ne ,u tho' t ha i e n gi 4 he'ia'. Ganio" e n satgat'- 

the now thou wilt now almost I will die. So soon as thou it wilt 

deeide 

hwa' tea" gadon'ie's de n diosthwa'di'ha'die' o'ne n ' ha^'sa' e nt se'a' 

see the I am breath- it will continue to grow less now just then thou wilt 

where ing decide 

o'ne nc -khe ni ' tho"ha c e n 'he n 'he'ia\ 0'ne n; di" kga 4 hi v ge c de n; - 

now is it nearly he will die. Now besides my eyes on thou 



se n 'nia'*heif dedjao n "gwi\ O'ne 11 ' o'ia' e n goniatho'ie n \ Na'ie' 

thy two hands on .on both sides. Now it is will I thee tell it. That 

(them) wilt lay other (it is) 

ne" e n swa'son'nia' ne" ga'ho n "sa\ Ne v o'ne 114 e n 'swadienno"kde n, 

the will ye it make the it case The now will ye task finish 

(burial-case). 

ne"tho c df e n 'sgwaia'don'dak, he'tke"" df' e n swa' 4 hen'." 

there be- ye my body will incase, up high be- ye it will up-lay." 

sides sides 

0'ne n ' ne'' gok'sten'a' ne"tho' hi'ia' de'hoga'4ia'. Ganio" 

Now the she elder there, verily, she(z.) had her So soon 

one (is) eyes on him. as 

wa'ena" o'ne 11 ' hi'a' tho' w ha' a'he n4 he'ia', tho^'ge' o'ne n; 

she de- now, verily, nearly he would die, at that now 

cided (time) 

\vffdio n *nifi' < 'hen' ne" haga'hf'ge 4 . Agwa's ganio" ne"tho' 

she laid her two hands the his eyes on. Very so soon thus 

on them as 

nwa'eie'a' o'ne n4 wa'dio n4 shent'hwa'. Gagwe'gi 4 di" tea" niio 114 ' 

so she it did now she wept. It all be- the so it (is) 

sides where many 

gano"soofi'w;r e"den' ne'^ho' o" nwa'awe n "ha', wa'dio n 'shenthw- 

it lodge in they (in- there too so it came to pass, they (indef.) plurally 

def.) ahode 

^k^ gagwe'gr. Gain'gwa' owa'onni'she' hawe n4 he'io n ' o'ne 114 

wept it all. Some so it lasted he is dead now 

(time) 

21 eth— (m 10 



6 

T 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



146 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



themselves to work, making a burial-case. Moreover, so soon as they 
had finished their task they placed his body therein, and also laid it 
up in a high place. 

Sometime after they had laid the burial-case in the high place, 
the maiden, now a woman-being, gave birth to a child, which was 
a female, a woman-being. Then the ancient one [elder one, the 
mother of the maiden] said: "Moreover, what manner of person is 
the father of the child?" The maiden said nothing in reply. 

The girl child grew rapidly in size. It was not long after this 
that the girl child was running about. Suddenl}\ it seems, the girl 
child began to weep. It was impossible to stop her. Five are the 
number of days, it is said, that the girl child continued to weep. 
Then the elder one [her grandmother] said: "Do } T e show her the 
burial-case lying there in the high place." Now, verily, they carried 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



wfvhodiio'de^'ha'. 

they (m.) worked, 



wa'hadi'son'nia' 

they (m.) it made 



one 

now 



o ne 

now 



he"tke n 

up high 



wa , hondiienno v kde 11 ' 

they (their) task finished 

wa'hadi"hen'. 

they (m.) it up-laid. 

nwa'onni'she' ne 

so (long) it lasted the 



ne" ga'ho""sa'. Ganio" di" 

the it case So soon be- 

( burial-case). as sides 

ne"tho' wa'honwanVdoii'dak, 

there 



they his body incased, 



o"nf 

also 



Gain'gwa' 

Some 
(time) 

tho"ge' ne 

at that the 

(time) 

daienda"nha' 

of an infant 



he"tke nt 

up high 



he'hodi"ha 



one 

now 



eksa'go'na', ne" 

she maiden, the 



ne 

the 



gok'steii'a 

she elder one 



e"he ,u , agofi'gwe' 

she (is 
female 



she (is) man- 
being 

wa'a'hen": u Son" 

she it said: 



agofi'gwe' 

she man- 
being (is) 

ne" 

the 



they it had 
up-laid 

o'ne n ', wfi'agoksa' 

then, she became 

possessed 

eksa"a'. 

she infant At that 

(is). (time) 

di" nonwa'ho"de n ' ne' 

kind of person the 



Tho"ge o'ne 11 ' 



now 



be- 
sides 



eksa"a' ago'ni' w ha'?" 

she infant her father (it 

(is) is)?" 

Godi'sno'we' tea" 

She grew rap- 
idly 

de'aonnishe"i' o'ne 114 

it lasted (long) now 



the 
where 



"Who 

(is it) 

Hiia" ste 11 " de'aga'wen' ne" eksa'go'na'. 

Not any- she it has said the 

(it is) thing 

gododi'ha'die' ne' 

she continued to the 



grow in size 

ne"tho' eda'khe's 



at that 
place 



she ran 
about 



ne 

the 



she maiden. 

(is) 

eksa"a\ Hiia" 

she infant (is.). Not 

(it is) 

eksa"a'. Dien"ha' 

she infant. Suddenly 



gwa" o'ne"' ne" eksa"a' wa'o n 'sa'we n ' wa'dio n 'shent'hwa\ Hiia" 

it now the she child she began she wept. Not 

seems (it is) 

de'a'wet aionni'qhe 11 '. Hwi'ks niwendage", ia'ge 11 ', deio n 'shent- 

she it would Five so many it day it is she goes about 

stop. in number (is), said, 

Tho"ge' o'ne 114 wa'a'hen" ne" 

At that now she it said the 

(time) 

tea" tga'ho n 'sa"ha'." O'ne'" hi'ia' 

the there it case Now, of course 

where up-lies." (verily), 



it is pos- 
sible 

hwa"he's 

weeping 

gok'steii'a* 

she elder one: 



ne 

the 



eks/i"a 4 . 

she child, 
(is) 

" Etchina"do n s 

" Do ye it show 
to her 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



147 



her person, and caused her to stand up high there. Then the girl 
child looked at it [the corpse], and then she ceased her weeping, and 
also she was pleased. It was a long time before they withdrew her; 
and it was not a long time before she again began to weep. Now, 
verily, they again carried her person, and, moreover, they caused her 
to stand there again. So, it continued thus, that, day after da} r , they 
were in the habit of carrying her, and causing her to stand there on 
the high' place. It was not long before she by her own efforts was 
able to climb up to the place where lay the dead man-being. Thus it 
continued to be that she at all times went to view it. 

Some time afterward it thus came to pass that she came down again 
bringing with her what was called an armlet, that being the 
kind of thing that the dead man-being had clasped about his arms, 
and, being of the wampum variety, it was, it is said, fine-looking. 



wa'hodiia'de n ''hawa' ne"tho' he"tke nS wa'diondatde n 'sda'. O'ne' 1 ' 



they her person carried 



there 



up high 



they (indef.) her caused 
to stand. 



Now 

(it is) 



wa'ontgat'hwa' ne" eksa"a'; tho*'ge 4 o'ne n ' wa'onni'qhe 111 tea" 

she it looked at the she child at that now she it ceased the 

(is); (time) 

deio ,u shent'hwas, wa'ontcennon'nia' 

she is weeping, she was pleased 



o c 'ni\ 

also. 



Aonni'she'i" 

It lasted (long) 



where 

o'ne ,u 



again they her person 
withdrew. 



saiondadia'do^'tka'. Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

he v donsaio ,u shent'hwa'. 

again again she wept. 

ne"tho ; 

there 



ne 

the 



0'ne ni 

Now, 



hiia" 

not 

hi'ia' 



de'aonni'she'i' 

it lasted (long) 



now 



o'ne nt 

now 



di" 

be- 
sides 



he v tke ,u 

up high 



sashagodiia'de n "hawa', 

of course, 
verily, 

washao-odide n 'sda\ 0'ne nt ne"tho' 



again they her person 
carried, 



they her caused to stand. 



Now 



there 



ni'io't o"he n "senk shagodiia'de n,< hawas he v tke lU o tr nf shagodi- 

so it is day after they her person carried up high also 



day after 
day 



they her person carried 
customarily 



they her 
caused 



de n 'stha\ Hiia" de'aonni'she'i' o'ne 11 ' ga'o n 'hwa' wa'ondadie'na- 



to stand. 



Not 



it lasted (long) 



now 



she herself 



wa'a wa'eia"the n ' tea" noil' we" tga"ha' 

her- she climbed the the place there it 

self up where up-lay 

Ne"tho' ni'io't ekdo n "ne's diiot'gont. 



ne 

the 



she herself helped 
to do it 

hawe n 'he'io nC . 

he is dead. 



There 



so it is she it customarily 
went to see 



at all times. 



Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne ni ne"tho b 



Some (time) 

io n 'kwe'ne n "da' 

again she descended 

nofiwa t ho"d< vP 

kind of thing, 



so it lasted 



thus 



nwa'aw6 n "ha' donda- 

so it came to pass thence 



tcie'ha'wi' ie^n&ntcha'nhas'tha' gaia'dji\ na" 

she it brought one it uses for armlet it is called, that 

again one 

hi'ia' hotnentcha w nha' k ho n, ne" hawe n 'he'io n ', 

verily, he his arm has wrapped around the he is dead, 



he his arm has wrapped around 
plural ly 



otko"a' nonwa'ho"de n ', oia'ne', ia'k< v '\ 



Wa'a'hSn" 



ir 



it wampum kind of thing, it (is) fine, it is said. She it said the 



6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



148 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. ann. 21 

The elder one said: " What manner of thing caused thee to remove it? " 
The girl child replied, saying: " My father said: 'Do thou remove it. 
It will belong to thee. 1, verily, am thy parent/ ' The elder one said 
nothing more. It continued thus that customarily, as soon as another 
day came, she would again climb to the place where the burial-case 
lay. So, now, verily, all those who were in the lodge paid no more 
attention to her, merely watching her grow in size. Thus it contin- 
ued that da} T after day, at all times, she continued to go to see it [the 
corpse]. They heard them conversing, it is said, and they also heard, 
it is told, what the two said. After a while she again came down 
bringing with her a necklace which the dead man-being had had around 
his neck, and which she had removed. She, it is reported, said: "Oh, 
my grandmother! My father gave this to me; that is the reason 1 

gok'steffa': "Ho't nonwa'ho v de n ' daioi'hwa"khe' tea" waska"- 

1 she elder one: "What kind of thing it is reason of it the thou 

(is it) where didst 

tcia'?" Daiei'hwa'sa'gwa' ne" eksa"a' wa'a/'hen': "Gr'ni'ha" 

2 remove She it replied the she child sheitsaid: " My father 

it?" 

wa'he ni heii", 'Sga/'tcia 4 . I's e n sa'we n k. I" hi'ia' gon'ha'wa'." 

3 he it said, 'Do thou Thou thou it wilt I verily, I thy parent am.'" 

it remove. own. (it is), 

Hiia" ste n " de'tciaga'we'" ne" gok'sten'a 4 . Ne"tho' ni'io't 

4 Not any- again she it said the she elder one. Thus so it is 
(it is) thing 

ge n 's ganio" wa'o'he n "nha' o'ne" 4 he" saiea"the n ' tea" non'we' 

5 custom- so soon it day became now again again she the the place 

arily as climbed up where 

tga'ho n4 sa"ha'. Da". o'ne n< hi'ia' tea" ni'hen'nadi' ne" 

6 there it case up-lay. So, now, verily, the so they (m.) are the 

where many in number 

gano nt sgoii'wa' henni"deif hiia" de'shonnasdei'sdi', ne"tho 4 

7 it lodge in they (m.) abide not they (m.) again pay there 

attention to it, 

gen'gwa' demadiga'ma' tea" gododi'ha'die'. Ne"tho' ni'io't 

8 only they (m.) their eyes the she continued to There so it is 

had on it where grow. 

diiot'gont heioiitgat'hw T as o'he n "senk. Honnathon'de', ia'ke 11 ', 

9 at all times thither she went to day after day. They (m.) it heard, it is said, 

see it 

de'hodi'tha', honnathon'de' o"nf, ia'ke 11 ', ne" ste 11 " gwa" 

10 they (m.) con- they (m.) it heard also, it is said, the any- seem- 

versed, thing ingly 

nonwa'ho"de n ' de'hia'do n k. Dien"ha' gwa" o'ne 114 he" 

11 kind of thing they two (m.) Suddenly, seem- now again 

kept saying. ingly, 

dondaio ,u kwe'ne n "da' tcie'ha'wf ne" ion'ni'dias'tha' ne" 

12 thence she again descended she it brought the one uses it as a the 

again necklace 

ho'dien"na' ne" hawe ni he'io nC , na'ie' o n; 'k& n ' goga'tcien'ha'die'. 

13 he hail had it the he is dead, that this time, she came, having 
around his neck (it is) removed it. 

Wa'a'hen", ia'ke 11 ': "Gso'da'ha 4 , g'ni'ha" wa'ha'gwe"' nen'ge 11 '; 

Sheitsaid, it is said: "My grandmother, my father he it gave to me this (it is); 

na'ie' gai 4 honnia"ha' wa'kga"tcia'." O'ne'V ia'ke 11 ', tea" 

15 that it it causes I it removed." Now, it is said, the 

(it is) where 



14 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



149 



removed it." So, it is reported, until the time she was full-grown, 
she was in the habit of going to view the place where lay the burial- 
case. 

At that time, it is reported, her father said: "Now, my child, verily, 
thou hast grown to maturity. Moreover, I will decide upon the time 
when thou shalt marry." Some time afterward he said: "Thou must 
tell thy mother, saying: 'My father said to me, u Now thou must 
marry." Now, moreover, verily, thy mother must make loaves of 
bread, and it must fill a large forehead-strap-borne basket. Now, 
moreover, thou must make the bread, and thou must have it ready by 
the time it becomes night." 

Truly, it thus came to pass. It became night, and, verily, the elder 
one had it all ready. She said: "I have now made it ready. The 
basket is even now full of bread." Now, the maiden again climbed 



nwa'onni'she' heiagodo'di' 

so (long) it lasted thither she grew 

to full size 

tga"ha' ne" ga 4 ho nC \sa'. 

the 



ne"tho c ekdo n4 'ne's 

there she it went habit- 

ually to see 



tea" 

the 
where 



it case (burial- 
case). 



wa'he nC hen" ne" ago'ni"ha' 

he it said the her father: 



there it 
up-lay 

Tho^ge 4 , ia'ke' 1 ', o'ne nt 

At that it is said, now 

(time), 

hi'itV gon'ha'wa 4 wa'sadodia'ga'. I" di" 

verily, I thy parent am thou hast grown up. I more- 

(it is) over 

niga'ha'wi' tea" e n sania'khe'." Gain'gwa' 

there it bears it the thou wilt marry." 

(the time) where 

wahe ni hen": "E n 'sheiatho'ie n ' 

he it said: "Thou her wilt tell 



Some (time) 



e n tgenno n "do n1 

I it shall will 
(decide it), 

nwa'onni'she' 

so (long) it lasted 



non'we' 

the place 



u O'ne n < 

"Now 

(it is) 

gain" 

where 



o ne 

now 



ne" sano"ha' e ,u si 4 hen v , 'Wa'ha 

the thy mother wilt thou it say, 



e n sania'kheV" 0'ne nc 

wilt thou marry.' " Now, 



di" 



more- 
over, 



' He ad- 
dressed 

hi'ia' 

verily, 



gon'has g'ni'ha 4 '. 0'ne n4 

me, my father. Now 

saying, 

e n ie4ia'gonnia''hen' ne" sano"ha\ 

she bread will make the thy mother, 

repeatedly 

ontge c da'stha' gaVsa'. O'ne 114 di" e n sha'gon'nia' e^saiennenda"ik 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



ne" 

the 



e n ga'a c 'seik 

it will rill a 
bask e t 



one bears it by the it basket, 
forehead-strap 

tea" niga'ha'wf ne" 



Now, 



more- 
over, 



thou bread wilt 
make 



thou it wilt have 
ready 



the there it it bears 
where (time) 

Do'ge"s ne"tho' 

It is true thus 



e n io"gak." 

the it will be dark." 



nwa'awe n "ha' 

so it came to pass. 



o'ne u ' 



gagwc'gi' 

it all 



gaiennefida"! 4 

she it had ready 



wa*gadadcicnnenda^'nha\ 

I my preparations have finished. 



O'ne 114 


ne" 


na" 


ne' 


Now 


that 
one 


the 
that 


that 
one 



WaVgak 

It became now, 

night 

ne" gok'sten'a\ W^'a'hen": 

the she elder She it said: 

one (is). 

0'ne nt gaYi"sei ; ne" 

Now it basket the 

(is) full 

eksa'go'na' saiea"the n ' tea" 

she maiden again she up- the 

climbed where 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



hi'ia' 

verily, 11 



"0'ne n < 

" Now 



12 
13 

the place 1 4 



o'ha"gwa\" 

it bread." 



non'we 4 



150 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

up to the place where la} T the burial-case. At that time they heard 
her say: "My mother has now made everything" ready." He then 
replied: "To-morrow thou must depart; early in the morning thou 
must depart. The distance from here to the place where lives the 
one whom thou wilt marry is such that thou wilt spend one night on 
th} T way thither. And he is a chief whom thou art to marry, and his 
name, by repute, is He-holds-the-earth." 

Now the next day she dressed herself. As soon as she was ready 
she then again ran, going again to the place where lay the dead 
man-being. Then she told him, saying: "The time for me to depart 
has arrived." Now, at that time he told her, saying: "Do thou 
have courage. Tlry pathway throughout its course is terrifying, and 
the reason that it is so is that many man-beings are traveling to 
and fro along this pathway. Do not, moreover, speak in reply if 

tga i ho ni sa"ha'. 0'ne ni hoiinathon'de- tea" wa'a'heii": "0'ne ,u , 

1 there it burial-case Now they (m.) it heard the she it said: "Now 

up-lies. where 

wa'eiennenda v nha' ne" agno'"ha\" Tho"ge' o'ne nC ni'ha'wen" 

2 she her preparations the ray mother." At that now thence he replied: 

has finished (time) 

"E n io'he n "nha' o'ne nC e n sa c den r dia\ He n, ge"djik o'ne n< . e n sa'- 

3 "It will become day now thou wilt depart. Early in the now thou 

(tomorrow) morning wilt 

den'dia'. Sga'da' e n senno n 'hwe'tcia' tca v niio'we' tganada'ie n ' 

4: depart. One it is thou wilt stay over night the so it is dis- there it village 

where taut lies 

tea" non'we' thana'gee 1 ne" e n djinia'khe\ Ha'sennowa'ne"' 

5 the the place there he the ye two will marry. He is a chief 

where dwells 

na'ie' ne" e n djinia'khe', Hao nc hwendjiawa"gi i ni c ha i seii'no"de n '." 

(3 that the ye two will marry, He-it-earth-holds such his name (is) 

(it is) kind of." 

Wa'o'he n "nha' tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne n4 wa'onde'sen'nia'. Ganio" wa'on- 

7 It became day at that now she herself dressed. So soon as she 

(time) made 

de 4 'sa' o'ne nt tbo 4 'ge' donsaiona"dat ne"tho' nhonsa/ie n1 tea' 

8 herself now at that thither again she there thither again the 
ready (time) ran she went where 

non'we' tga'ho n4 sa"ha' ne" hawe ni he'io n \ Tho"ge c wa'hoiiwa- 

9 the place there it burial-case the he is dead. At that she told 

up-lies (time) 

tho'ie n ' wa'a'hen": "O'ne 114 hwa'ga ; he"g tea" o'ne n ' e n ga w - 

10 him she it said: "Now it has arrived the now I shall 

where 

den'dia." Tho"ge 4 o'ne nC washagotho'ie" 1 wa'he iu hen": "Djia'ke 114 . 

11 depart." At that now he her told she it said: "Do thou have 

(time) courage. 

Deiodeno n 'hiani"dr tea" non'we- nheiotha'hi'nofi 4 na'ie' ne" 

12 It is terrifying the the place thither it path has its that the 

where course (it is) 

na'ic' gai'honnia ,; ha' tea" ne"tho' ni'io't tca v deiagonnada- 

13 that it it causes the there so it is the they (anthr.) travel 
(it is) where where 

wen'ie' tea" non'we 4 nheiotha'hi'non' hofinatgii"de' ne" on'gwe'. 

14 in the the place thither it path has its they are numerous the man-being, 
numbers where course 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 151 

some person, whoever he may be, addresses words to thee. And when 
thou hast gone one half of thy journey, thou wilt come to a river 
there, and, moreover, the floating log whereon persons cross is maple. 
When thou dost arrive there, then thou wilt know that thou art half- 
way on thy journey. Then thou wilt cross the river, and also pass on. 
Thou must continue to travel without interruption. And thou wilt 
have traveled some time before thou arrivest at the place where 
thou wilt see a large field. Thou wilt see there, moreover, a lodge 
standing not far away. And there beside the lodge stands the tree 
that is called Tooths Moreover, the blossoms this standing tree 
bears cause that world to be light, making it light for the man-beings 
dwelling there. 

'A l 'gwi* di" de n tcada'dnr do'ga't hi'ia' e n iesawenna"nha' ne" 

Do it not, more- thou wilt speak if it be so, verily, one thee words the 

over, in reply will address to 

son*' gwa" noiiwa'ho"de n \ Na'ie' ne" tea" dewa.sen'no 11 ' tea" 

who seem- kind of person. That the the it half is the 

ingly (it is) where where 

niio'we' nhe n4 'se' ne"tho 4 tge^'hio'^hwada'die 1 , na'ie' di" ne v 

soitisdis- thither thou there there it river extends itself that more- the 

tant wilt be going along, (it is) over 

o'hwa"'da ne" gaeii'do' tea" non'we' deieia'hia"ktha\ Ne" 

it maple the it log floats the the place one uses it j-tream The 

where to cross. 

o'ne nw ne"tho 4 he n "sio n ' o'ne ,K e ,u sea" o'ne n < tea" dewa'sen'no nw 

now there there thou now thou wilt now the it middle is 

wilt arrive conclude where 

nhwa"ge'. Tho"ge c o'ne nt de n4 siia K hia'k, e^sadongo'Uv o"nf. 

there I am At that now thou stream wilt thou wilt pass on also, 

going. (time) cross, 

Heiotgonda"gwi c e^sa'dendion'ha'die'. Na'ie' ne" gain'gwa' 

Without interruption thou wilt continue to That the some (time) 

travel on. (it is) 

ne n ionni'she' tea" he n satha ; hi'ne , o'ne ,u ha"sa' ne"tho y he^'sio^ 

so it will last the thither thou wilt be now just then there there thou 

where traveling wilt arrive 

tea" nofi'we' e n satgat'hwa, e"shendage n "nha' na'ie' ne" tga- 

the the place thou it wilt see, thou a clearing (field) that the there " 

where wilt see (it is) 

'hendaie n gowa'ne nt . E n sge n "nha di" ne"tho' gwa"tho< tgano ni - 

it field lies great. Thou it wilt see, more- there nearby there it 1'' 

over, 

sale 11 '. Na'ie 1 ne" gano n 'sak'da' ne"tho' gii"he' na'ie' ne" 

lodge That the it lodge beside there it tree that the *■ ^ 

Hes. -it is) stands (it is) 

Ono"dja' a gaendiiia'dji'. Na'ie' ne" di" tea" awe ,u ha 4 ha'gf c 

It Tooth it tree (is) called. That the more- the it is full of flowers 12 

(it is) over where 

nen'ge n; ga"he' tea" ne"tho i diio n 'hwendjia'de' deio'hathe"di', 

this (it is) it tree the there there it world (earth) is it it causes to be 1^ 

stands where present light, 

na'ie' ne" na'ie' de t hodi'hatbe"dani' tea" ne"tho' ena'gee' 

that the that it it them chums to be light the there thev dwell l 1 * 

(it is) (it is i for where 

ne" on'gwe'. 

the man- 15 

being. 



3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



"Probably the yellow dog-tooth violet, Erythroniuni ainerieanuin. 



152 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



" Such, in kind, is the tree that stands beside the lodge. Just there 
is the lodge of the chief whom thou art to marry, and whom his people 
call He-holds -the-earth. When thou enterest the lodge, thou wilt 
look and see there in the middle of the lodge a mat spread, and there, 
on the mat, the chief lying down. Now, at that time, thou shalt lay 
thy basket down at his feet, and, moreover, thou shalt say: 'Thou and 
I many.' He will say nothing. When it becomes night, he who 
is lying down will spread for thee a skin robe at the foot of his mat. 
There thou wilt stay over night. As soon as it is day again, he 
will say: 'Do thou arise; do thou work. Customarily one who lives 
in the lodge of her spouse works.' Then, verily, thou must work. 
He will lay down a string of corn ears and, moreover, he will say: 
fc Thou must soak the corn and thou must make mush.' At that time 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



44 Ne"tho 4 nigaendo"de n4 tea" gano n4 sak'da' ga' 4 he\ Ne"tho 4 

Thus so it tree (is) the it lodge be- it tree There 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



so it tree (is) 
kind of 

ni 4 hono n4 sa'ie n ' 



the 
where 



it lodge be- 
side 



it tree 
stands. 



ha 4 sennowa'ne n4 



there his lodge 
stands 



ne" na'sennowa'ne' 1 * ne" e n djinia'khe', 

the , he chief the ye two will 

(is) marry, 

Hao n4 hwendjiawa"gi 4 honwana'do n4 'khwa' ne" haongwe v da'. Ne" 



they him designate the his people, 

thereby 

he n4 'sio n ' ne" gano n sgon'wa 4 e n satgat'hwa' 

the it lodge in thou it wilt see 



He-it-earth-holds 

o'ne 114 ne"tho 4 

now there 

ha'deganoV he 11 ' 

just it lodge in 
middle of 

ne"tho 4 ganakda"ge 4 heMa'ga/ ne" 

there it mat on he lies the 

o'ne 114 ne"tho 4 e n sat'a 4 'sa'ien' tea" 

now there 



there thou 
wilt arrive 

e n sge n "nha 

thou it wilt 

see 



ne"tho 4 

there 



na'ie' 



The 

tea" 

the 
where 

v 



ne 

the 



thou thy basket 
wilt lay 

i 



' Thou I marry 
now.' 



ganak'do 11 ', 

it mat (bed) that 

is spread, (it is) 

ha'sennowa'ne ni . Tho 4 'ge 4 

he chief. At that 

time 

non'we' ha'de 4 ha 4 srdage' 4 hen', 

the just (where) his two feet 

place are lying, 

Hiia 4 ' ste nv tha'he n ' 4 hen". 

he it will say. 



the 
where 

e n4 si'hen" di": ' Wa'onginia'kheV 

thou it wilt more- 
say, ■ over: 

Ne" o'ne 114 e n io"gak na/ie' ne" tea" he n da'ga' ne"tho 4 e n4 hie nt so'was 

The now it will be- that the the he lies there he will spread for 

come night (it is) where thee a mat (bark) 

tea" non'we' ha'de'ha'si'dade'nio 11 '. Ne"tho ; di" e n senno n "hwet. 



Not 
(it is) 



any- 
thing 



the the 

where place 

Ganio" e n io 4 he n "nha' 

So soon it will be day 

as 

Saio'de nU ha 4 . Goio v de' 

Do thou work. She works 



just where his two feet 
end. 



o'ne 11 ' 



se 



V 



ge n 's 



it is a mat- 
ter of fact 

tea" 



There, more- 
over, 

e n 'he n 'hen": 

he it will sav: 



thou wilt stay 
over night. 

4 Satge n4 'ha 4 . 

' Do thou arise. 



o'ne" 4 



e 4 hnS n4 hwas'he n Y Tho 4 'ge 4 

she abides with her At that 

husband's family.' (time) 

hi'ia' ^saio'de^ha'. One n4 'ha' e n4 ha 4 ste n 'sa'ieiT, e n4 he n4 hen", 



cus- the 

tomarily where 



now, verily 



thou wilt work. 



It corn 



he a string of it will 
lay down, 



he it will say, 



di": 4 E n sene n4 hanaw(V 14 'da', c n sdjisgon'niaV Tho 4 'ge 4 odjisda'ge 4 

more- ' Thou it corn wilt soak, thou mush wilt At that it fire on 



over: 



make.' 



(time) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



153 



there will be a kettle of water set on the fire. As soon as it boils 
so that it is terrifying, thou must dissolve the meal therein. It must 
be boiling when thou makest the mush. He himself will speak, 
saying: "Do thou undress thyself.' Moreover, thou must there 
undress thyself. Thou must be in thy bare skin. Nowhere wilt thou 
have any garment on thy body. Now, the mush will be boiling, and 
the mush will be hot. Verily, on thy body will fall in places the 
spattering mush. He will say: 'Thou must not shrink back from 
it;' moreover, he will have his eyes fixed on thee there. Do not 
shrink back from it. So soon as it is cooked, thou shalt speak, 
saying: "Now, verily, it is cooked; the mush is done.' He will arise, 
and, moreover, he will remove the kettle, and set it aside. Then, 
he will say: 'Do thou seat thyself on this side.' Now then, he 
will say: 'My slaves, ye dogs, do ye two come hither.' They two are 



o'hne'ganos e n ganadjio'dak. 

it water it kettle will sit. 

(fresh) 

tea" deiodeno n4 hiani"di 4 

the it is terrifying 

where 

he n "sok. De n diowiia'he n "sek 

there thou it It will be up-boiling 

wilt immerse. 

hwa' e n thada'dia' 

he will speak 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 

o'ne 114 



e n diowiia'he n ' ma' 

it will up-boil 



ne"tho c 

there 



ne 

the 



v 



ne"tho' 

there 

othe"tcha' 



6 n me n 'hefi": 

he it will say: 



now there the it meal 

(flour) 

o'ne 11 ' e n sdjisgoii'nia'. Ha'o n '- 

now thou mush wilt 

make. 

■ Sadadia'dawi'da^sia'.' 

' Do thou thyself disrobe.' 



ne 

the 



He him- 
self 

Ne"tho 4 

There 



di" e n sadadia , dawi'da"sia'. Sa'nesda'go n ks e n geii'k. Hiia" gat'ka 

thou thyself wilt disrobe. Thou thy bare skin it will be. Not 



more- 
over, 



Thou thy bare skin 
wilt be in 



any- 
where 



da'de n djisadia'dawi"dik. O'ne 11 ' ne" odjis'gwa' e n diowiiame n "sek, 

thou wilt be robed. Now the it mush it will be up-boiling, 



o'dai'men 4 

it is hot 



e n ge n 'ks ne" odjis'gwa'. Sia'di"ge' hi'ia' he n gaa" 

it will be the it mush. Thy body on of course 



it will be- 
come at- 



tca 



V 



sen' 



tached the 
to it where 

do n "tka'.' 

flinch from 
it.' 

Ganio" 

So soon 

MS 



e n watdjisgwadofi'gwa'. E n4 he n 'heii" : 

it itself mush will splatter. He it will say: 



Hiia 4 ' thoiidasa- 



l Not 
[it is) 



thon 
shouldst 



Ne"tho 4 di" de n iesaga"ha'k. 'A 4 'gwi' thonda'sado n "tka c . 

There 



he his two eyes will 
have on thee. 

de n tcada'dia' 



Do not 
do it 



thou shouldst flinch 
from it. 

ni hi'ia' 



it will be 
cooked 



now 



O'ne- 

' Now, 



verily, 



djioda'gwa', si" 

the set kettle, yonder 
far 

liT'iT': " Sadi&ii" 

say: " Do thou sit 

' Agetchene n "sho n ', 

'My slaves several, 



side of it 



ne 

here 



more- 
over, 

e n ga'ik o'ne n4 de n tcada'dia' e a si"hen": 

thou wilt speak thou wilt 

say: 

wa'ga'ik, wagadjis'gwaik.' De n thatge n "ha', o'ne 114 di" e nt hana'- 

it is cooked, it mush is cooked.' Thence he will now more- he will 

up-rise, over remove 

Imgwa'di' e n4 ha'ie n '. Tho"ge' o'ne n ' e n< he n '- 

he it will set At that now he it will 

down. (time) 

hagwa'di'." Tho"ge' o'ne n4 o ni hc n4 hen": 

side of it." At that now he it will say: 

(time) 

dji'ma", ga'e' donde'sne'.' Agwa's degni- 

dogs, hither do ye two Very they (z.) 14 



10 

11 

12 



13 



come.' 



two 



8 



10 



12 



14 



154 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [etii. ann. 21 

very large. As soon as they two arrive he will sa}^: 'Do ye two lick 
her body where the mush has fallen on it.' And their tongues are 
like rough bark. They will lick thee, going over thy whole body, 
all along thy body. Blood will drop from the places where they will 
lick. Do not allow thy body to flinch therefrom. As soon as the}' 
two finish this task he will sa\ T : 'Now, do thou again put on thy 
raiment.' Now, moreover, thou must again dress thyself completely. 
At that time he will take the basket and set it down, saying, more- 
over: ' Now, thou and I marry.' So now, so far as they are concerned, 
the dogs, his slaves, they two will eat." That is what the dead man- 
being told her. 

It became night. Now, at that time, they verily laid their bodies 
down, and they slept. It became day, and the sun was present yon- 
der when the maiden departed. She bore on her back by the forehead 
strap her basket of bread. Now, verily, she traveled with a rapid 



gowa'ne 114 . Ganio" de n gni'io n ' o'ne ni e n4 he n 'hen": 4 Etehika'nent 

are large. So soon they two , now he it will say: ' Do ye two lick 

as will arrive * her 

na'ie' ne" iagodjisgwa/hi"so n V Na'ie' ne" tea" awe n 'na 4 'sa' 

that the it mush has fallen on her That the the (their) tongues 

(it is) in places.' (it is) where 

gaen'wa' ni'io't. E n saka'nent e n gni 4 'sa' ne" sia'dagwe'gi 4 , 

it rough so it is. They thee will they (z.) it two the thy body entire, 

bark (file) lick will finish 

sia'da'ge' , sho n \ De n tgatkwe n 'sa t hi"nha' tea" noii'we 4 e n gnika'nent. 

thy body on along. Thence it blood will drop the the they (z.) two 

where place will lick (it). 

'A"gwi 4 di" de n tcadadia'do n "tka 4 . Ganio" e n gni 4 'sa o'ne 11 ' 

Do it not, more- thou wilt flinch from it So soon they (z.) two now 

over, with thy body. as will finish it 

e n4 he n4 hen": '0'ne n ' sasadia'dawi"da'.' 0'ne n ' di" e n tca ; sei"sa' 

^ he it will say: 'Now again do thou dress Now more- thou thyself wilt 

thyself.' over, re-dress 

7 gagwe'gi'. Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 11 ' de n4 ha'a'sa"gwa' si" hagwa'df 

' it all. At that now he it basket will yonder side of it 

(time) take up far 

e n4 ha'ie n ', e n 'he n4 hen" di": * O'ne" 4 wa'onginia'khe'.' Da', o'ne 114 

he it will set, he it will say more- 'Now thou I marry.' So, now 



q ne" na" ne" dji"ha' ne" hotchene n "sho 11, de n giadekhon'nia'." 

the that one the dogs the his slaves several they (z.) two will eat." 



that 

Na" wa'he n4 hefi" ne" hawe n 'he'io n '. 

That he it said the he is dead. 

(it is, i 



WaVgak. Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa , hondiia'dage"hen\ o'ne 11 , 

It became At that now verily they their bodies laid now 

night. (time) down, 

wa'honna"gak. WaVhe n "nha si" tgaa"gwtT tho"ge 4 o'ne 114 



they (in.) went to It became day yon- there it orb at that now 

sleep. der of light rested (time) 

go'den'dion' ne" eksago'na 4 . Wa'ontgc 4 'dat hi'ia' ne" go'a"sa' 

she departed the she maiden. She bore it by the verily, the her basket 

forehead-strap, 

ne" o ; ha"gwa\ O'ne"* hi'ia 1 oiitha'hi'ne' eianoa'die'. Hiia" 

the it bread. Now, verily, she traveled her gait was Not 

onward rapid. (it is) 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VEKSION 155 

gait. It was not long" before she was surprised to find a river. There 
beside the river she stood, thinking, verily, •' I have lost my way." At 
that time she started back. Not long afterward those who abode in the 
home lodge were surprised that the maiden returned. She said: u I be- 
lieve 1 have lost my way." Now she laid her basket on the mat, and, 
moreover, she again ran thither and again climbed up to the place 
where lay the burial-case. So soon as she reached it she said: " Oh, 
father! I believe that I lost 1113^ way." He said: "What is the 
character of the land where thou believest that thou lost thy way?" 
"Where people habitually cross the river, thence I returned," said the 
maiden. She told him everything. She said: " A maple log floats at 
the place where they habitually cross the river." He said: "Thou hast 
not lost thy way." She replied: " I think the distance to the place 
where the river is seems too short, and that is the reason that I think 



3 



de'aonni'she'i' o'ne nt wa'ondien"ha' gwa" ne"tho c ge n *hio llc hwa- 

it lasted now she was surprised seem- there it river had its 

(long) ingly course 

da'die'. O'ne 114 ne"tho' ge n 'hio n 'hwak'da' wa'dieda^nha 1 ne" 

along Now there it river beside she stopped the 

(there). 

wa'eii'a' o'ne 11 " hi'ia' wa'gadia'da"do n '. Tho"ge' o'ne nt saio n k'da'. 

she did now, verily, I my way (my per- At that now she turned 

believe son) have lost. (time) back. 

Hiia" de'aonnis'he'i' o'ne nc ne" tea" tgano n4 sa'ie n, thenni"deif . 

Not it lasted (long) now the the there it lodge there they (m.) 

(it is) where lies abide 

wa'hondien"ha' gwa" saie'io 11 ' ne" eksa'go'na'. Wa'a'hen": ~ 

they (m.) were seem- again she the she She it said : 

surprised • ingly returned maiden (Is). 

44 Ge"he' wa'gadia'da"do n \" One 11 ' .ganakda"ge c wa'ont'a'sa/ien', „ 

" I it think I lost my way (my person)." Now it mat on she her basket 

laid, 

ne"tho' di" tciedaVhe', saiea"the 11 ' tea" noii'we 4 tga i ho Ili sa"ha'. ,_ 

there more- again she ran, again she the the place there it case 

over climbed up where up-lies. 

Ganio" ne"tho' hwaVio n1 o'ne nt wa'a'hen": "G'ni'ha", ge' c he' g 

So soon there there she now she it said : "My father, I it think 

as arrived 

wfigadiaWdb 11 '." Wa'he n 'hen": " Ho't niio n 'hwendjio"de nt tea" 9 

I lost my way He it said : "What so it earth is kind of the 

(my person)." (it is) where 

noiT'we' tea" se"he\ Wa'gadiaWdo 11 ' ? " " Didieia'hiak'tha' tea" 

the place the thou it I lost my way " There where they use the 

where thinkest, (my person)?" it to cross river where 

tge n 'hio n 'hwada'die' ne"tho' dondagak'da'," wa'a'hen" ne" eksa'- w, 

there it river has its there thence I turned she it said, the she 

course back again," 

go'na\ Gagwe'gi' wa'ontho'ia. WaYrhciT': "0'hwa"da' ne" 1Q 

maiden It all fisj she it told. She it said : "Itmaple the 

(is). 

gaSfi'do' tea" noiTwe" deieia'hiak'tha ." Wa'he n 'hen" : "Hiia" 

it log the the place one it uses to cross lie it said: "Not 

floats win re river." (it is) 

de'saia'da"do n6 ." AYa'a'hen": "Ge"he' swa'dji'k dosge n "hfr nigS n " u 

thou hast lost thy She it said: "I it think too much near (it is) so it is 

way (thy person)." far 



10 



13 



156 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



that I lost my way." At that time he said: " The place that I had indi- 
cated is far. But thy person is so endowed with magic potence, thou 
hast immanent in thee so much orenda that it causes thy pace to be 
swift. Verily, so soon as thou arrivest at the river, thou shalt cross 
it and also shalt pass on." At that time the maiden said: "Oh, my 
father, now I depart." " So be it. Moreover, do thou take courage," 
said the dead man-being in reply. Now she again descended and 
again went into the lodge. 

There then she placed her basket of bread on her back by means of 
the forehead strap. It was earty in the morning when she departed. 
She had been traveling some time when she was surprised to hear a 
man-being speak to her, saying: "Do thou stand, verily." She did 
not stop. Aurora Borealis it was who was talking. She had passed 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



nno we 

so it is 
distant 

ge"he' 

I it think 



non'we' 



tea" 

the 
where 



tge n4 hio nc hwada'die', na'ie' gai'honnia' 4 ha' tea" 

there it river has its that it it causes 

course, (it is) 

wa'gadia'da"do n '." Tho"ge' wa'he n 'hen v : 

I lost my way ' At that he it said : "Far the 

(my person)." (time) (it is) where 



the 
where 

u I'no n ' tea" 



hewagna"do n '. 



the place 

disaennoii'de', 

so thou art magical 
(hast orenda), 

he n "sio n ' tea' 



there I it 
indicated. 



Ne"tho ; 

There 



gwa" tea" nisaia'dat'go"', 



seem- 
ingly 



the 
where 



so thy body (is) 
magically potent 



na'ie' gai'honnia"ha' ne" siano'we'. Ganio" hi'ia' 

it it causes the thy gait is So soon verily 



there thou 
arrivest 



the 
where 



that 
(it is) 

noil' we 4 

the place 



thy gait is 
rapid. 



So soon 
as 



tge^'hio^hwada'die' 

there it river has it course 



de n sia"hia'k 

thou wilt cross 
river 



e sa- 

thou 



dongo"da' o"ni'." Tho 4 'ge 4 ne" eksa'go'na' wa'a'hen": "G'ni'ha", 

wilt pass on also." At that the she she it said : "My father, 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



wa'ga'den'dia'. 

I depart." 



At that 

(time) 



hawe n 'he'io n ' 

he is dead. ' 

nho n sa'ie n \ 

thither again 
she went. 

O'ne 114 

Now 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



she 
maiden 

"Nio". Djia'ke 114 di"," 

"So be it. Do thou more- 

take courage, over," 

dondaio ui kwe (, ne n "da', 

thence she descended, 



ni'ha'wen 1 

so he said 
in reply 



ne" 

the 



ne"tho ; 

there 



go a sa 

her 
basket 



ne 

the 



o 4 ha"gwfr 

it bread 



gano n sgon'wa c 

it lodge in 



wa , ontge"dat. 

she bore it by the fore- 
head-strap on her back. 



He n, ge"djik o'ne n4 go'den'dion'. Gain'gwa' nwa , onnis'he , ofitba' 

Early in the now she departed. Some so (long) it lasted she is 

morning (time) 



o'ne 11 ' 



hi'ne' 

travel- now 

ing 

da'hada'dia', 

thence he spoke, 

Hodonni"a', 

He Aurora 
Borealis 



wa'ondien"ha , gwa" 

she was seemingly 

surprised 



ongwe 



man- 
being 



gothon'de' 

she it heard 



v 



tea 

the 
where 



i'ha'do n k: "Desda"nha' hi'ia'." Hiia" da'deiagoda' T. 



she did stop. 



he kept "Do thou stand verily." Not 

saying: (it is) 

tkot'ha'. Gain'gwa' niio'we' godongo"di t 

Somewhat so it is she passed on 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



thence he is 
talking. 



so It is 
distant 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



157 



on some distance when she heard another man-being talking to her, 
saying: " I am thankful that thou hast now again returned home, my 
child. I am hungry, desiring to eat food." She did not stop. It 
was Fire Dragon of the Storm who was speaking to her. Sometime 
after she was again at the place where people customarily crossed the 
river. Now, at that place, he, the chief himself, stood, desiring to try 
her mind, saying: " Verily, thou shouldst stop here; verily, thou 
shouldst rest thyself." She did not stop. She only kept right on, 
and, moreover, she at once crossed the river there. 

She traveled on for some time, and when the sun was at yonder 
height she was surprised that there was spread out there a large 
field. At that time, verily, she stopped beside the field. Now she 
looked, and there in the distance she saw a lodge — the lodge of the 



o'ne 114 



now 



he" 

again 



o ia 



gothon'de' 



"Niiawe n "mV 

"I am thankful 
(so let it come) 



it is 
other one 

t v n 

one 

now 



she it heard 



sa"sio n ', 

again thou 
hast returned, 



on'gwe* 

man- 
being 



tho'tha', 

thence he is 
talking 

gon'ha'wa'. Aksi's 

I am thy I am 

parent. hungry, 

agadekhoii'nia'." Hiia 1 ' da'deiagoda"i\ Hadawine'tha' 

I should eat." Not (it is) she did stop. 



i 4 ha'do n k: 

he kept 
saying : 

ge'me' 

I it desire 



ne 



V 



tho'tha'. Gain'wa' nwa'onni'she' 

Somewhat so long it lasted 



thence he is 
talking. 

tea" 

the the place 

where 



noii' we' 



ne 

the 



deieia4iia'ktha\ 

one it uses to 
ford stream. 

ha'sennowa'ne 114 ne"tho' 

there 



one 

now 

0'ne n4 

Now 



He Fire-Dragon 
of Storm 

ne"tho' 

there 



na 

that 
one 

donsaieda"nha' 



the 
that 



ne"tho' 

there 



ne 

the 



there again she 
stood 

ha'o nt hwa' 

he himself 



he chief (is) 



he'ha'da", 

there he 
stands, 



he c 'he' 



he 

desires 



da/shago'ni- 

he trouble should 
give 

go nC ha'eif ne" eksa'go'na 4 , i 4 ha'do n k: u Tho'ne ni hi'ia' dasda"nha'; 

to her mind the she maiden he kept "Here (it is) verily, thou shouldst 

(is). saying: stand; 

a'sadoiiwi'shen' hi'ia'." Hiia 4 ' da'deiagodaT. Na'ie' gen'gwa' 

thou thyself shouldst verily." Not she did stop. That only 

rest (it is) (it is) 

go'dendion'ha'die 1 , iogonda'die' di" wa'dieia"hia'k tea" ne"tho' 

she walked right on, without 

stopping 

tge n 'hio n(, hweda'die'. 

there it river has its 
course 

Gain'gwa' nwa'onnis'he' 

Somewhat so long it lasted 



more- 
over 



she river crossed 



the 
where 



there 



ofitha'hi'ne' 

she travels on 



hegaa'gwa/'ha' 

there it orb of light 
(sun) rots 

ga c he ndade n "da' 

it plain is spread out 



one 

now 



nC 



wa'ondien ,fc ha' 

she was surprised 



one 

now 

gwa" 

seem- 
ingly 



di v 

more- 
over 

ne"tho i 

there 



Sl w ' 

yon- 
der 



hendak'da' 

plain beside 

hwa' si" 

yon- 
der 



there it lodge 
lies 



ga'hendowa'ne n; . Tho"ge' o'ne 1 

it plain large f is i. At that now 

(time) 

wa'dieda"nha\ 0'ne ,,; 

she stood, Now 

hono n 'sa'i& n ' ne' 

his lodge lies the 



hi'ia 

verily 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 
~ v 

gwa 

seem 

ingly 

ga<- 

it 



ne"tho 4 

then' 

tgano nt s;Vif'"' tea 



ne"tho' 

there 



wa'ontgat' 



the 
wliere 



she looked 
haSsenno\va'nr'\ 

he chief (is). 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 

15 



158 



IKOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



chief. Verily, she went thither. When she arrived there, she looked, 
and saw that it was true that beside the lodge stood the tree Tooth, 
whose flowers were the source of the light of the earth there present, 
and also of the man-beings dwelling there. Verily, she then entered 
the lodge. Then she looked, and saw that in the middle of the lodge a 
mat was spread, and that thereon, moreover, lay the chief. Now, at 
that time, she removed her pack-strap burden, and then she also set the 
basket before him, and then, moreover, she said: "Thou and I marry," 
and then, moreover, she handed the basket to him. He said nothing. 
When it became night, he spread a mat for her at the foot of his mat, 
and then, moreover, he said: "Verily, here thou wilt stay overnight." 
Moreover, it thus came to pass. Now, verily, they laid their bodies 
down and they slept. 



Ne"tho b hi'ia' heiagawe'noii'. Ne" o'ne 11 ' ne"tho' hwa'e'io 11 ' 

There verily thither she went. The now there there she 

arrived 

o'ne 11 ' w T a , ontgat'hwa , ne"tho' do'ge n s ga/'he' tea" gano n 'sak'da' 

now she looked there it is true it tree the it lodge beside 



it tree 
stands 



the 
where 



One"' 

Now 



hi'ia' 

verily 



ne" Ono"dja' nwagaendo"de n ', na'ie' ne" tea" deiawe'^ha'ha'gi' 

the It Tooth such it tree kind of is, that the the it full-blown flowers has 

(it is) where 

na'ie 1 deio'hathe 1 da"gwi' tea" ne v tho' diio nk hwendjia'de', ne"tho' 

that it uses it to cause it to be the there there it earth is present, there 

(it is) light where 

o" ne" ne"tho' ena'gee' ne" 

seem- too the there they (indef.) the 

ingly, dwell 

hwaVio 11 ' ne" gano n 'sgoii'wa'. O'ne 11 ' 

there she the it lodge in Now 

entered 

tea" degano n "she n ' ne"tho' ganak'do 11 ' 

the it lodge center of there it mat (bed) 

where is spread 

ne" ba'sennowa'ne 11 '. Tho"ge' o'ne"' 

the he chief (is). At that now 

(he great-named). (time) 

o"ni' wahonwa'a'saien'mas, o'ne 11 ' di" wa'a'hen": "Wa'orlginiak'- 

also she him set basket for, now more- she it said: " We two marry," 

he'," 



3 

K gwa 



6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

L3 

14 



ofi'gwe" 

man- 
being. 

ne"tho' 

there 

ne"tho' 

there 



wa'oiitga'thwa' 

she it saw 

di" henda'ga' 

more- he lay 

over 

wa'ontge'da"sia, o'ne 11 ' 



she removed her fore- 
head-band 



now 



more- 
over 



one 

now 



o'ne nk di" wa'honwa'a'set'has. Hiia" ste 11 " de'ha'wen'. Ne" 

now more- she him handed basket. Not any- he it said. The 

over (it is) thing 

wYiV'gak o'ne 11 ' wa'shago\so"has tea" noii'we' htvde'ha'- 

it became now he for her a mat spread the the place just his 

nignt where (where) 

di v wahe n men": "Tho'ne 11 ' hi'ia' 



si'dag-e^herY, 

feet lie, 

c"sf>nno n ' w hwet." 



one 

now 



more- 
over 



he it said: 



Ne"tho* 

Thus 



di" 



thou wilt stay over THUS more- 

night." over, 

wa'hofidifiMage' 'hen', wa honna"gak. 

they their bodies laid down they went to sleep. 

(to sleep), 



nwaawe n ' k ha'. 

so it came to pass. 



" Here (it is) 

O'ne' 1 - 

Now 



verily 

hi'ia' 

verily 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 159 

When day came to them, the chief then said: "Do thou arise. Do 
thou work, moreover. It is customary for one to work who is living 
in the family of her spouse. Thou must soak corn. Thou must set a 
pot on the tire. And when it boils, then thou must put the corn 
therein. Moreover, when it boils, then thou must again remove the 
pot, and thou must wash the corn. As soon as thou tinishest the 
task thou must then, moreover, pound it so that it will become meal. 
Now, moreover, thou must make mush. And during the time that it 
is boiling thou must continue to stir it; thou must do so without inter- 
ruption after thou hast begun it. Moreover, do not allow thy 
bod\ T to shrink back when the mush spatters. That, moreover, 
w 7 ill come to pass. Thou must undress thyself when thou workest. 
I, as to the rest, will say: 4 Now it is cooked.' " 

At that time he laid down there a string of corn ears, and the corn 
was white. So now, verily, she began her work. She undressed her- 

Ne" o'ne"* wa'hodi 4 he n "nha o'ne' 14 wa'he nt hen" ne" ha 4 - 

The now it them became day for now he it said the he- 

sennowa'ne" 4 : " Satge n/t ha'. Saio\le u ' 4 ha' di". Goio"de' ge n 's 

chief (is): " Do thou arise. Do thou labor more- She labors custom- 

over. w arily 

ne" tea" e 4 hne n4 hwas'he n \ E n sne n4 hanawe n4 'da\ E n sna'dja' 4 hen' 

the the she family of her spouse Thou wilt soak corn. Thou wilt set a 

where abides with. kettle 

odjisda"ge\ Ne" o'ne nk e n diowiia 4 he n ''ha' o'ne 114 ne"tho 4 

itrireon. The now it will up-boil then there 

he n sne n ' w hok. Ne" o'ne n4 di" eAliowiia 4 he n ' 4 ha' o'ne 114 e n tcna'dja- 

there. thou corn The now more- it will up-boil now thou wilt again 

wilt immerse. over 



v 



6 



8 



'ha/gwa', e n sne n4 ho 4 ha'e\ Ganio" e n seiennenda"nha' o'ne 114 di 

remove the thou corn wilt So soon thou task wilt finish now more- 

kettle, wash. as over 

e n sethe"da', othe'Tcha' e n wa'do n \ O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' e n sdjisgon'nia'. „ 

thou it wilt it meal it will be- Now verily thou mush wilt ' 

pound, come. make. 

Na'ie' ne" tea" niga'ha'wf ne" e n diowiia 4 he n4 'sek diiot'gont 

That the the there it bears the it will be up-boiling without stop- 

(itis) where it (time) ping 

de n 8awen'iek, heiotgonda"gwi' ne" na'ie' ne" o'ne" 4 de"tca*- 

thou wilt keep hence it will be with- the that the now there thou '' 

stirring it, out interruption (it is) it 

sii'we"'. 'A w 'gwi 4 df donda 4 sado n "tk'V ne" o'ne' 14 e n wasdjisgwa- 

wilt begin Do it not more- thence thou shouldst the now it mush will 

over flinch 

don'gwa. Na'ie' di" tea" ne n iawe n,fc ha\ E n sa'sennia 4, sia' tea" 



lo 
11 

V2 



spatter. That more- the so it will come to Thou thyself wilt the 

(it is) over where pass. undress where 

o'ne nk e n saioW'ha\ I" ne" na" e n gi 4 hen", 4 0'ne ,u wa'ga'ik."' 

time thou wilt work. I the that 1 it will say, 'Now it is cooked.' " 

that one 

Tho-'ge* o'ne uw ne/'tho" wa 4 ha w ste n, sa'ien' ne" one n ' 4 ha na'ie' 

At that now there he laid corn-string the it corn that *■" 

(time) (it is) 

ne" gane" 4 hagen'ada 4 . Da', o'ne" 4 hi'ia' wa'o n 'sa'\\ •e"\ Wa'ondia'- 

the it corn white (is). So now verily she it began. She undressed -*-'* 

hersell. 



160 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH, ANN. 21 



self, and now, verily, she was naked. She soaked the corn, and she 
also washed the corn, and also pounded it, and she also made meal of 
it, and, now, moreover, in the pot she had set on the fire she made 
mush. She stirred it without interruption. But, nevertheless, it was 
so that she was suffering, for, verily, now there was nothing any where 
on her body. And now, moreover, it was evident that it was hot, as 
the mush spattered repeatedly. Some time after she was surprised 
that the chief said: " Now, verily, the mush which thou art making is 
cooked." At that time he arose to a standing position, and also 
removed the pot, and also set it on yonder side. At that time he 
said: " Do thou sit here." Now he went forward, and, taking up the 
basket, he took the bread therefrom, out of her basket. At that time 



2 
3 

5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 



dawi'da 4 'sia', o'ne 114 hi'ia' go'nesda'go"'. Wa'ene n< hanawe n4 'da', 

now verily she is fully naked. She the corn soaked, 

wa'ene n4 ho 4 ha'e' o"nf, wa'ethe"da' o 4 'nr, wa'ethe'tchi"sa , o 4 'ni', 



she the corn washed 



o'ne n4 



ni"di 4 



also she it pounded also 

tea" oc 



she meal finished 



also 



di" tea" gona'dja' 4 ha' 

more- . the she had set kettle 

over where up 

diiowiia"he n s, o'ne n4 

it is up-boiling, now 



"ge 4 deiodeno Il4 hia- 



the 
where 

hi'ia' 

verily 



it fire on 



it is terrifying 



ne"tho 4 wa'edjisgon'nia'. 

there she mush made. 



Heiotgonda"gwi 4 deiagoweii'ie 4 . Ne"tho' ne" na'ie' ni'io 4 t tea" 

Hence it is without she it stirred. There the that so it is the 

interruption (it is) 

goe n4 hia'ge n4 , o'ne n4 hi'ia' hiia" gat'ka' da'detga'de" 

she is suffering, now verily not anywhere it it is shielding 

(it is) 

eia'di"ge 4 . O'ne 11 ' di" ne"tho' ni'io't otge n "i 4 o'dai' 4 he 114 

her body on. Now more- thus so it is it is plain it is hot 



where 

• ne" 

the 

tea" 

the 
where 



wasdjisgwadon'gwas. Gain'gwa' nwa'onnis'he' o'ne 11 ' wa'ondien' c ha' 

it mush is spattering. Some (time) so it lasted now she was surprised 



n. 



he chief is 



gwa one ne 

seem- now the 

ingly 

wa'gadjis'gwaik tea" sadjisgoii'ni'." 

it mush is cooked the thou mush art 

where making." 

da"nha', wa'hana'dja'ha'gwa' o"nf, 

arose, he kettle removed also, 



ha'seiinowa'ne nt wa'he ni heii": " O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' 

he it said: "Now verily 



Tho"ge' o'ne ni donda'ha- 

thence he 



At that 
(time) 

si 4 ' 

yon- 
der 



now 



hagwa'di' 

side of it 



waha'ie 11 ' 

he it set 



o"nf. Tho"ge' 

also. At that 

(time) 

wa'ha'den'dia', 

he departed, 



go'a's&gon'wa' 

her basket in 



o'ne 114 wa'he n 'heii": 

now he it said: 

wa thaa sa gwa , 

he basket took up 

wada"gwa\ Tho"ge c 

it had been At that 

contained. (time) 



"Tho'ne ni sadien 4 '." O'ne" 4 

Here do thou seat Now 



do thou seat 
thyself." 



wa'h a 4 ha ' gwada 4 'gwa' 

he bread took out of it 



o ne 

now 



rr' 



ha' wen 

he it has 
said : 



"O' 



ne" 

the 

ne ,u 

Now 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



161 



he said: ; 'Now, thou and 1 many. Verily, so it seems, thou wert 
able to do it. Hitherto, no one from anywhere has been able to do it." 
Now, at that time he shouted, saying: "My slaves, ye two dogs, do 
ye two come hither. It is necessary for me that ye two should lick 
this person abiding here clean of the mush that has fallen on her." 
Verily, she now looked and saw come forth two dogs, pure white in 
color and terrifying in size. So now, they two arrived at the place 
where she was. Now, verily, they two licked her entire body. 
The tongues of these two were like rough bark. So now, moreover, 
in whatsoever places they two licked over and along her body blood 
exuded therefrom. And the maiden did fortify her mind against it, 
and so she did not flinch from it. As soon as they two completed the 
task, then he himself took up sunflower oil, and with that, moreover, 



wa'onginia'khe'. Wa'sgwe'nia' hi'ia' nige'-khe n ". Hiia" gat'ka' 



thou and I marrv. 



Thou wast able to 
do it 



verily 



de'agogwe'nioii 4 tea" nwa'oimis'he'." 

so long it has lasted." 



one has been able to 
do it 



Tho"ge' 

At that time 



ne n "sho n ' 



one 

now 



the 
where 
nc 



wa'tho'hene"da' 

he called aloud 



forsooth is it. 



wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



Not 
(it is) 



any- 
where 



"Agetche- 

" My several 



slaves, 



dji'ma 4 , 

dogs, 



ga e 

hither 



donde'sne'. 

thence do ye 
two come. 



Dewagado n 'hwendjio'niks 

It is necessary to me 



aetchika'nent tho'ne n; 

ye two her should here 

lick 



e"den' 

she 
abides 



godjisgwa'hi"so n '. " O'ne 114 

it mush on her has fallen Now 

iteratively." 



hi'ia' 

verily 



wtfontgat'hwa' dagniiage n "nha' owa'he'sdo'go 

she it saw thence they (z.) two it white pure (is) 



dji"ha' 

dogs 

ne"tho 4 

there 



thence they (z.) two 
came forth 

deiodeno lU hiani"di 4 

it is terrifying 

*>*—•'-»' tea" 



tha'tgniia'do"de ni 

such their (z.) two bod- 
ies are in kind 



wa tgni 10 

thev two arrived 



the 
where 



wa'tgnika'nent gagwe'gi' eia'di'ge/'sho 11 ', 

they (z.) it two licked it all her body on along. 

Da', 



degnigowa'ne 11 '. 

they (z.) two (are) large. 

e"den'. 

she abides. 

Na'ie' 



non'we 4 

the place 



Da', 

So 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



o'ne nC 

now 

hi'ia' 

verily 



ne" gni'na'si"ge', 



ne"tho ; 

there 

don'nion' 

plurally 



ni'io't 

so it is 

tea" 

the 
where 



it all 

tea" 



That 

(it is) 



the 



their (z.) two 
tongues on 



ga'en'wa' 



o'ne ni 



the 
where 



di" dagatkwe n 'so- 



So 



now 



more- 
over 



it rough bark 

(is). 

non'we' wa'tgnika'nent eia'di'ge^sho 11 '. 

the place they (z.) two licked her body on along. 



thence it blood 
oozed out 

Na'ie' 



ne" eksa'go'na 4 godat'nigo n 'ha'ni"di', hiia" 

the she maiden (is) she has fortified her mind, not 

(it is) 

Ganio" wa'tgni"sfi' o'ne n ' ne" ha'o n 'hwa 

So soon as they (z.) two it now the he himself 

finished 



That 
(it is) 

da'dfiiondo n "tkff. 

thence she should 
flinch. 

wa'tha"gwa' ne' y 

he it took up the 



oa we sa 



it sunflower 

21 ETII 



o"hna' 

it oil 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 

-11 



dr 



more- 
over 



ne" wiVhas'da' wa'shago'hno ,, 'gff k. 

the he it used he her skin smeared. 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

11 



162 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

he anointed her bod}\ As soon as he had finished this task he said: 
"Now, verily, do thou again dress th} T self." Now she redressed her- 
self entirely, and she was again elothed with raiment. 

When it became night, he spread a mat for her at the foot of his 
mat. There they two passed two more nights. And the third da\ r that 
came to them the chief said to her: " Now thou must again depart. 
Thou must go again to the place whence thou didst start." Then he 
took up the basket of the maiden and went then to the place where 
he kept meat of all kinds hanging in quarters. N9W, verily, he took 
up the dried meat of the spotted fawn and put it into her basket. 
All the various kinds of meat he placed therein. As soon as the 
basket was full, he shook the basket to cause its contents to settle 
down. When he did shake it, there was seemingly just a little room left 
in it. Seven times, it is said, he shook the basket before he completely 

-j Ganio" wa'haiennenda'mha' wahe Il 'hen": "O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' 

So soon as he task completed he it said: "Now verily 

sasadia'dawi"da'." O'ne"' s^io n sen'nia' gagwe'gi', saio n 'sei"sa\ 

£ again do thou thyself Now again she herself it all again she herself 

dress." • dressed rearranged. 

Ne" o'ne 11 ' waVgak tea" de'ha'si , dage"heiv ne"tho' 

The time it became the two his feet lie there 

dark where 

wa'shago'so"has. Ne"tho' de'gni' wa , dienno n 'hwe't. Na'ie' ne" 

he for her a mat spread. There two they two stayed over That the 

(it is) night. (it is) 

'a"se n ' wado n "tha' tea" wa'hodi'he^'nha' o'ne 11 ' wa'he n 'hen" 



8 

9 

10 



three it became the it day became for them now he it said 

where 

ne" ha'sennowa'ne 11 ': " O'ne 11 ' e n tca'den'dia'. Ne"tho' he n tche" 

the he chief is: "Now again thou wilt There there again 

depart. thou wilt go 

tea" non'we' nidisa'den'dion'." O'ne 11 ' wa'tha , a'sa"gwa' ne" 

7 the the place there whence thou hast Now he (the) basket took up the 

where departed." 

go'a"sa' ne" eksa'go'na' ne"tho' nhwa'he" tea" non'we' 



her basket the she (is) maiden there thither he the the place 

went where 

ni'ha'wa'haiendak'hwa', na'ie' ne" ha'diio'wa/mage 4 ne"tho 6 

there he uses it to keep meat, that the every it meat is in there 

(it is) number (in kind) 

ga'wa'haniion'do 11 '. O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' ne"tho' wa , tha"gwa/ ne" 

it meat hangs plurally. Now verily there he it took up the 

-.^ tcisda , thien"ha' o'wa'hathe"", o'ne 11 ' o c/ ni' go'a'sagon'wa' 

spotted fawn it meat dry (is), now also her basket in 

wa'hon'dak. Gagwe'gi' InVdiio'wa'hage" ne"tho' wa'hon'dak. 

12 he it placed. It all every it meat is in there ho it placed in. 

number (in kind) 

Ganio" wa'ga'a"seik o'ne"' wa'howak'da 1 ne" gaYr'sa". Tea" 

13 So soon as it basket was now he it shook the it basket. The 

filled where 

niga'ha'wf wa'how&'kda' ne n " gwa" na'detga'a,'. Tcia'dak, 

14 there it bears he it shook this, seem- just there it is Seven (it is), 

it (time) here ingly contained. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



163 



filled it. At that time he said: " Now thou must again depart. Do 
not, moreover, stand an} T where in the course of th} r path homeward. 
And, moreover, when thou dost arrive there, thou must tell the people 
dwelling* there that they, one and all, must remove the roofs from 
their several lodges. By and by it will become night and 1 will send 
that which is called corn. In so far as that thing is concerned, that is 
what man-beings will next in time live upon. This kind of thing 
will continue to be in existence for all time.-' At that time he took 
up the basket and also said: "Now, verily, thou shouldst bear it on 
thy back by means of the forehead strap." Now, at that time she 
departed. 

Now again, as she traveled, she heard a man-being talking, saying: 
"Come, do thou stand/' She did not stand. It was Aurora Borealis 
who was talking to her. She traveled on for some time, when she again 



ia'ke"', 

it is said, 



nwa'howak'da 

so many he it shook 



wa'he nk hen": 

he it said: 



o'ne 114 ha"sa' wa'ha'a"seik. Tho"ge c 

now not before he basket filled. At that 

(time) 

'A''gwi c di" de n sda"nha' 

Do it not more- thou wilt stand 



"O'ne 114 e n tca'den'dia. 

"Now 



again thou wilt 
depart. 



tea" 

the 
where 

tea" 

the 
where 



nno we 

there it is 
distant 

ne"tho' 

there 



heiotha'hi'noiV. Na'ie' di" 

thither it path has 
course. 

thadina'gee 1 ne" 



That 

(it is) 

o'ne"' 



more- 
over 



there they (m.) 
dwell 



ne"tho" 

the now there 



ne" e n sheiatho'ie n ' 

the thou them wilt tell 

he n "sio n \ tea" 



there thou 
wilt arrive. 



gagwe'gi" e n iega'tciongwa"ho n ' 

it all they will undo them 

severally 

e'^honsgwa'hen'gwa/ho 11 ' tea" 



they (m.) will remove the bark 
roofs severally 

e n io"gak e^gadennie/'da' 

it will be- I it will send 

come night 



the 
where 

ne" 

the 



ne" gano ,u sa"ge c 

the it lodge on 

hodino n \saien'do n \ 

they (m.) have lodges 
severally. 

one'^'ha' gaia'dji'. 

it corn it is called. 



na'ie* 



the 
where 

ne" 

the 



that 

(it is) 

Ge n 'dji'k 

By and by 

Na'ie 1 ne" 



That 

(it is) 



the 
that 



ne 



na 

that 
one 

e n gaien'dak 

it will remain 



the 
that 



o ni 'ke n ' e n iagon'he*'gwik ne" on'gwe'. E n ioi t hwada'die' 

they it will use to live the man-being. It matter will be con- 
tinuing 



next in 
time 



ne 

the 



nefi'ge"" 

this one 



nonwa'ho"de n '." 

kind of thing." 

wa'tha^a'sa/'gwa' wa'he n4 hen" o 4 'nf: '*0'ne nfc 

he (the) basket took up he it said also: "Now 



Tho"ge' 

At that (time) 



o ne 

now 



0'ne ,u tho"g( 

Now at that 

(time) 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



go'den'dion'. 



hi'ia' 



venlv 



;Vsatge"dat." 

thou shouldst bear it 

on thy back by the 

forehead strap.'' 



he" 



she departed. 

tea" ontha'hi'ne' 



again 



the 
where 



she travels 
onward 



ne"tho* 

there 



desda"nha'." 

do thou stand." 



gothofi'de' on'gwe', 

she it heard a man- 

being 

Hiia" da'deiagoda"!'. 

she did stop. 



i'ha'do n k: " Hau", o'ne" 

he kept "Come, now do thou stand." Not 

saying: (it is) 

Hodonni , 'a 4 na'ie' thot'ha'. Gain'gwS' nwaonni'she' ontha'hi'ne' 

He Aurora that thence he is Some (time) so (long) it she travels 

Borealis (it is) speaking. lasted onward 



6 

7 

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12 
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14 



164 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



hoard a man-being talking, saying: "Verily, do thou .stand. Now, 
verily, thou hast returned home. I am hungry. My child, I desire to 
eat food." She did not stop. In so far as he is concerned, it was 
White Fire Dragon who was talking to her. Now, she again arrived 
where she had crossed the river, and there again, beside the river, she 
stood. Now, moreover, she heard again a man -being saying: "Do 
thou stand. 1 desire that thou and I should converse together." She 
did not stop. It was the chief who was, standing here seeking to 
tempt her mind. At once she crossed the river on the floating maple 
log. It was just midday when she again arrived at the place whence 
she departed, and she went directly into the lodge. As soon as she 
laid her burden down, she said: u Oh, my mother, now, hither 1 have 
returned." She, the elder one, spoke, saying: "I am thankful that 



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2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 



o'ne ni he" gothoii'de', i'ha'do n k: " Desda"nha 4 hi'ia'. O'ne 11 ' 

again she it heard he kept " Do thou stand, verily. Now, 

saying: 

AgsiV ge'he" agadekhoii'nia', goii'ha'wa'." 

I am hun- I it I food should eat, I am thy parent." 



now 

hi'ia' 

verily, 



sa"sio n \ 

again thou 
hast returned. 



gry, 



Hiia" da'deiagoda"! 4 . 



Not 

(it is) 

de n ' 



she did stand. 



lit 
desire 

Ga'ha'sendie'tha' owa'he"sda' ni'haia'do"- 

it white (is) 



na'ie' 



ne 



?/ 



in 
kind 

non' we 



na 

that 



that the 

(it is) that one 

' deiagoia'hia"gi 4 , 

the place she river crossed, 

ge n4 hio n 'hwak'da'. O'ne 11 ' 

it river beside. Now, 



Fire-Dragon 
(it casts fire) 

tho'tha'. O'ne 

thence he Now 

is talking. 

ne"tho' 

there 



ne"tho' saie'io' 1 ' 



thus his body 
(is) 

tea" 



he" 

again 



there again she the 

arrived where 

donsaieda"nha' 



there again she 
stood 



ne 

the 



di" 



more- 
over, 



he" 

again 



i'ha'do n k: 

he kept 
saying: 

Hiia 4 ' 

Not 

(it is) 

he'ha'da*, 

there he 
stands, 

dieia"hia'k 

river crossed 



"Desda"hha'. 

"Do thou stand. 

da'deiagoda'T. 

she did stand. 

he"he' hi'ia' 



gothoii'de' ne" on'gwe', 

she it heard the man-be- 

ing 

Dewagado n<, hwendjion'niks daeditha'en'. " 

It me is necessary to thou should con- 

verse." 

Ha'sennowa'ne 11 ' ne" na" ne"tho' 

He chief is the that there 



ne 

the 



o'ne 114 



he it verily, 
desires, 

tea" o'hwa-'da' 

the it maple 

where 

hoiisaie'io 11 ' tea" 

the 

where 



there again she 
arrived 



gofida'die' ne" gano n sgon'wa 

right on the it lodge in 



de n shago nigo n 'ha'en\ Gondadie" wa'- 

he her mind will At once she 

give trouble to. 

gaen'do'. Agwa's gae ni hia"he nC 

it log Just it sky center (is) 

floats. (noontide) 

non'we' diiago'deii'dio 11 ', eia'da- 

the place thence she de- herbody 

parted, went 

Ganio" wiTonthe'- 



hoiisaie'io n \ 

there again she 
reentered. 



na le wa alien . 

down she it said: 

goksteiTYi" o'ne n4 

she elder one now 



Agno"ha/, o'ne 

" My mother, 



XnC 



ne 

the 



ne 

this 
(is) 



So soon 
as 



sagio 

again I have 
returned." 



she her 
burden laid 
nJ 55 



Ne" 

The 



daiewennitge n "nha' wa'a'hen": " Niiawe nA 'ha* 

thence she word spoke she it said: " I am thankful 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEESION 



165 



thou hast arrived in peace." Then the maiden again spoke and said: 
"Ye severally must make preparations by severally removing- the 
roofs from your lodges. There is an abundance of meat and corn 
also coming, as animals do come, when it becomes night, by and by." 
And at that time she at once went to the place where lay the burial- 
case of her dead father, and now, moreover, she again climbed up 
there. As soon as she reached the place, she said: "Oh, my father, I 
have now returned home." He said, in replying: "How fared it? 
Was he willing to do it? " She said: "He was willing." Now, again, 
he spoke, saying: "I am thankful that thou wast able to do it, as it 
seems. Thou art fortunate in this matter. And it seems, moreover, 
good, that thou shouldst, perhaps, at once return home, for the reason, 
verily, that the chief is immune to magic potence, that nothing can 
affect the orenda of Chief -who-has-the-standing-tree-called-Tooth, and 
whom some call He-holds-the-earth." 



tca v sken'no n ' 

the well (it is) 

where 

wa'a/hen": 

she it said: 



wa/sio 11 '." 

thou hast 
arrived." 



O'ne 1 

Now 



.. 



E n swadoge n s'da' 



" Ye it will prepare 
well 

Odo'hen'do 11 ' 

It is abundant 



tcieda'dia' ne' 

again she the 

spoke 

e n swasgwa 4 heii'gwa' 'ho 

ye bark roof will take off 
plurally 

OVa^ha 1 , 

it meat, 



eksa'go'na/ 

she maiden 

(is) 

tea" 



o'ne n "ha , 



the 
where 

o c 'nf, 



it corn 



also, 



swano ni saien'do n \ 

ye lodges have plurally. 

dagon'ne' ne" o'ne n; ge n, dji'k e n io"gak." Tho"ge' o'ne lU goilda- 

thence they • the now by and by will it become At that now at once 

(z.) arecoming night." (time) 

tea" non'we' tga c ho n 'sa"ha' ne' 

there thither she the the place there it case the 



die" ne"tho ; nhwa"e n ' 



thither she the 
went where 



go'ni'ha'- 

her father 



hwaVio 11 ' 



there it case 
up-lies 

ge n "ha', o'ne n ' di" ne"tho' honsaiea"the n \ Ganio" 

it was, now more- there thither again she So soon 

over climbed. as 

wa'a'hen": " G'ni'ha" o'ne nt sagio 11 "." Ni'ha'wen 

she it said: "My father, now again I have Thence he it the 

where 

"Hatc'gwi', wa'hokaie^'ha'-khe 11 ''?" Wa'a'hen": 

" How is it, he was willing, was he?" She it said: 

O'ne 114 he" damawemiit£e n "nha' wa'he^'hen": 



o'ne ni 

now 



waeio 

there she 
arrived 

tea" 

Thence he it 
said 



damai'hwa'sa'gwa' : 

he answered: 

"Wa'hokaie n ''ha'." 

" He was willing." 

"Xiiawe^'ha' tea" 

" I am thankful 



Now 



again 



thence he word spoke 



he it said: 



da'. 



wa'sgwe'nia' nige"khe ni/ . We'swadaa'shwiios'- 

the thou wast able it would seem, It prospers your (pi.) 

where to do it does it not (forsooth). fortune. 

Na'ie' di" oia'ne' on" ne" gondadie" honsa'sa'den'dia', 

That more- it is proba- the at once hence again thou 



(it is) 

swa'djik' hi'ia 

because verily, 

(too much) 

nenge 

this one 



more- 
over 



good 

ia/ 



proba- 
bly 



hiia," ste 11 " 



shouldst depart, 

nonwa'ho"de n ' de'hona'go'was ne" 



not any- 

(it is) thing 

ne" Ha 4 ---— '- xu4 



the 



sennowa ne 

He chief (is) 



dja' nwa'ga&ndo"de n '; na'ie' 

tooth such it tree kind of Unit 

(is); (it is) 

hofiwan{rdo r,b 'kh\vaY' 

they it use to designate him." 



ne 

the 

ne" 

Un- 



kind of thing 



it affects him (lie is the 
immune to orenda) 

' Ono"- 



Hoda/'he' na'ie' ne 

He has a that the It 

standing tree (it is) 

o'dia'k Hao n4 hwendjia\vfi v gi 

some He-earth-holds 



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3 
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6 

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9 

10 
11 

12 
13 

14 
15 



166 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



At that time all those who dwelt there undid their lodges by 
removing the roofs from all severally. Then, verily, when it became 
night, as soon as the darkness became settled, they heard the sounds 
made by the raining of corn, which fell in the lodges. Then they 
went to sleep. When it became day, they looked and saw that in the 
lodges corn lay piled up, quite tilling them. Now, moreover, their 
chief said: bi I)o ye severally repair your lodges. And, moreover, ye 
must care for it and greatly esteem it; the thing has visited our village 
which He-who-has-the-standing-tree-called-Tooth has given you to 
share with him." 

In a short time they were surprised, seemingly, that the maiden 
was nowhere to be found. She had again departed. The} r knew that 
she had again gone to the place where stood the lodge of the chief 



3 

4: 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 114 ne" hadina'gee' gagwe'gi' wa'hadiga/teia' 4 ho n ' 

1 At that now the they (m.) are it all they (m.) them undid 

time dwelling plural! y 

tea" hodino n4 saien'do n1 , wa 1 honsgwamengwa' 4 ho n ' gagwe'gi 4 . 

2 the they (m.) plurally lodges ' they (m.) bark roofs removed it all. 
where have, plurally 

O'ne 11 * hi'ia' ne" o'ne 114 waVgak, ganio v wa'dwa 4 sondaienda"nha' 



Now 

o'ne 11 

now 

ne" 

the 



verily the nov 

honnathon'de , 

they (m.) it heard 



it became so soon 

night, as 

o'ne 114 wa'o'ka'e'ha 1 

now it noise made 



it night became settled 



tea" 

the 
where 



wa'o'staiii'df 

it showered 



one n ' 4 ha' ne" 

it corn the 



tea" 

the 
where 



gano n sgonwa"sho n< 

it lodge in along 



e n 'se n "nha. 

it fell. 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



wa'honna"gak. Ne" o'ne 114 wao 4 he n "nha' wa'hontgat'hwa', waha- 

they (m.) slept. The now it day became 



they (m.) it looked 
at 



thev 
(m.) 



di'ge 11 ' tca v gano n sgonwa"sho n ' dega' 4 hen' gage'me 11 ' ne" one n ' 4 ha'. 

saw it the it lodge in along it is full it is heaped the it corn, 

where 

O'ne 114 di" ne" honwa'seiTno 11 ' wa'he n4 hen": " O'ne 114 sasni'son- 

Now more- the their (m.) chief he it said: "Now again do ye them 

. over repair 

nia'-hen' (saswa c sonnia"hen c ) tea" swano n4 saien'do n -. Na'ie' di" 

(again do ye them the ye (pi.) lodges have That more- 

plurally plurally repair) where plurally (it is) over 



ne" e n swadeiennon'nia, e n swano n sdek', hi'ia' tea" nonwa i ho"de 11 ' 

the ye it good care ye will continue to verily, 



ye it good care ye will continue to 

will give, esteem it greatly, 

wa'ongwanadowe^'nha' ne" tea" 



the 
where 



wa , etchinon'da v 



one it has shared 
with vou 



ne 

the 



kind of thing 



Ono"dja' 

It tooth 



it has found (visited) our the the 

village where 

Hocla"heV 

He has stand- 
ing tree." 

Niioiinvagwama 4 ' o'ne 114 wa'hondien'ha gwa" hiia 4 ' ga'tkiV 

.lust it is short matter now they (m.) were seem- not anywhere 

(time) surprised ingly (it is) 

de"tcie n "s ne" eksa'go'na 4 . Tciago'den'dion 4 . Honnenno ll4 'do n ', 

she goes the she (is) maiden. Again she had They (m.) it knew, 

about departed. 

ia'ke n ', tea" ne"tho 4 hetciagawe'non 4 tea" non'we' thono n4 sa'ie n ' 

it is the there thither again she the the place there his lodge 

said, where has gone where lies 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



167 



who was her consort. Now, verily, in reference to him he himself in 
turn was surprised to see her return home. When it became day 
again, the chief noticed that seemingly it appeared that the life of the 
maiden, his spouse, had changed. a Thus it was that, day after day and 
night after night, he still considered the matter. The conditions were 
such that he did not know what thing was the cause that it [his 
spouse's condition] was thus, so he merely marveled that it had thus 
come to pass. 

It is certain, it is said, that it formed itself there where they two 
conversed, where they two breathed together; that, verily, his breath 
is what the maiden caught, and it is that which was the cause of the 
change in the life of the maiden. And, moreover, that is the child 
to which she gave birth. And since then, from the time that he [her 



ne' 

the 
v 

ne 

the 
that 

Ne" 

The 

wa'ne 1 

chief is 



ha'sennowa'ne n4 ne 

he chief is the 



v 



gado'ge 114 de'hia'di'. O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' 

Now verily 



it is certain 
(place) 

na" ha'o^hwa 1 o n "ke n ' wa'hadien' c ha , gwa" o'ne 11 ' saie'io 11 '. 

that he himself next in he was surprised seem- now again she 

one 



they (m.) two 
are one. 



one 

now 



turn 

wa'o'he^'nha' 

it dav became 



o'ne 11 " 



ingly returned. 

wa'hatdo'ga' ne" ha'senno- 

he it noticed the he 



tea" 

the 
where 

ni'io't tea" 



so it is 



the 
where 



ne"tho' 

there 

ago'n'he' 

she is 
living 



ni'io't 

so it is 

ne" 

the 



tea" 

the 
where 



aieii'a' 

one would 
think 



tea" 

the 
where 



eksa'go'mV 

she 
maiden 



ne 

the 



v 



he'na'. 

his 
spouse. 



o'ne 114 o'ia' 



it is 
other 

Ne"tho c 



There 



ni'io't tea" wendade'nio"' wa'soiidade'nio' 1 ' o"ni' de ; hoia'dowe b 'di\ 



so it is 



the 
where 



day after day 



night after night 



also 



he it is considering. 



Ne"tho k ni'io't hiia" de'hono ,w do n ' ho't nonwa'ho v de ^, daioi' 



There 



so it is 



not 

(it is) 



he it knows 



what 



kind of thing 



thence it is 



hwa"khe' tea" ne"tho' ni'io't, na'ie' geii'gwa' hoi'hwane'ha'gwas 

reason the there so it is, that only he matter marvels at 

where (it is) 

tea" nwa'awe n,i ha'. 

so it came to 
pass. 

Ne"tho* gai ; hwado'ge n; , ia'ke' 1 ', 

There 



the 

where 



it is definite 
matter, 

hiiadon'ie's 



they two (m.) 
breathed 



tea" 

the 
where 

eksa'go'na 4 , na'ie' 

she 
maiden (is), 



ne 

the 



it is 
said, 

aonwi t 'sa' 

it breath (isi 



wa'wadon'nia' tea" de'hodi'tha' 

it itself formed 



the 
where 



they conversed 
together 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



hi'ia' 



verilv 



wa eie na 

she it caught 



ne 

the 



hi'ia 1 dagai'hofi'nia 1 tea" 



o'ia' 



nwa awe ha 



verily 



that 
(it is) 

tea" ago' n* he' 

the -lie is living 

where 

ksa'daienda"nha\ Na'ie' ne 

possessed of a child That the 

(gave birth to it). (it is) 



thence it matter 
caused 



the it is 

where other one 



so it came to 

pass 

ne" eksa'go'na\ Na'ie' ne" na" di" wa'ago- 

the she maiden. That the that more- she 

(is) (it is) that one over became 



if 



v 



tea 

the 
where 



ga'e' 

hither 



daga'hawi"da' 

thence it it bore 
(the time | 



V 



tea 

the 

where 



a Tlie expression " life has changed " is employe d usually as a euphemism for " is pregnant." 



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2 
3 

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10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



1(58 



IR0QU0IA1S COSMOLOGY 



[ETII. ANN. 21 



spouse] let man-beings go here on the earth, the manner in which man- 
beings are paired has transformed itself. This is the manner in which 
it will continue to be; this will be its manner of being done, whereby 
it will be possible for the man-beings dwelling on the earth to pro- 
duce ohwachiras of posterity. Thus, too, it seems, it came to pass in 
regard to the beast- world, their bodies all shared in the change of the 
manner in which they would be able to produce ohwachiras of off- 
spring here on the earth. ' 

Thus it was that, without interruption, it became more and more 
evident that the maiden would give birth to a child. At that time the 
chief became convinced of it, and he said: "What is the matter that 
thy life has changed ? Verily, thou art about to have a child. Never, 
moreover, have thou and I shared the same mat. I believe that it is 
not I who is the cause that thy life has changed. Dost thou thyself 



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2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
U 



niga'ha'wf o ni hwendjia"ge' wa'shagot'ga'k ne" oii'gwe' o'ne 11 

there it it bore it earth on he them let go the 

(the time) 

deiotde'nion 4 tea" nigaienno"de n; 



tea' 



now 



it itself changed 

on'gwe' 

man- 
being. 

na'ie' 



the 
where 

Tho'ne 11 ' 

Here 



there its kind of doing 
(its method of action) 

hi'ia' 

verily 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



e n gagwe'nia' 



it will be able 
to do it 



that 

(it is) 

o ni hwendjia v ge c ena'gee'. 

it earth on they dwell. 



man- 
being 

wa'shagoane'ge 11 

the he them places 

where together 

o n "ke n ' ne n io"dik, ne n gaienno''de n k, 

so it will con- such its method of 

tinue to be, being done will be, 

e n ionthwadjien'nf ne" on'gwe' tea" 

the man- the 

being where 

Ne"tho' gwa" o" nwa'awe n "ha' ne" 

There seem- too so it came to the 



next in 
time 



they will produce 
ohwachiras (families) 



gondi'io', 

they (z.) 
animals, 

ne" tea" 

the the 
where 

Ne"tho< 

There ' 



gagwe'gi' 

it all 



so it came to 
pass 

tea" nwa'gaienno"de n< 

the such its manner of 

where being done became 

de n gonthwadji'ia'k ne" tho'ne 11 ' o n< hwendjia'de'. 

they (z.) will produce the here it earth is present, 

ohwachiras 



seem- 
ingly 

wa'odiiadadiio'as 

their bodies shared 
its fate 



ni'io't heiotgoncWgwi' daiotge n, i'ha'die' tea" 

hence it is unceasing 



gowiiiienda" nha 

will have a child 



so it is 



hatdo'ka' 

it noticed 



ne" 

the 



it became more and 
more manifest 

ne" eksa'go'na'. Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 11 ' 

the she maiden. At that now 

(is) (time) 

ha'seiinowa'ne 11 ', 

he chief (is), 



the 
where 



e ia- 

she 



do'ge n s wa'- 

it is true he 



wa'he n meii" 

he it said, 



nonwa'ho , 'de 11 ' 

kind of thing 



Saksa'daienda"se 

ut to ha 
ild 

hiia" 



Thou art about to have 
a child 

Ge'he" 

I it think 



ni'io't 

so it is 

hi'ia'. 

verily. 



tea" 

the 
where 



o'ia' 

it is 
other 



ni'io't 

so it is 



di": 

more- 
over: 

v 



Hiia" 

Not 

(it is) 



hwen'do 11 ' 

ever 



i" 



not I 

(it is) (am) 

Senno n4 'do n '-khe n " 

Thou it knowest, dost 
thou 



de'geii" ne" tea" o'ia" ni'io't 

it is the the it is so it is 



son 



^ 



who 
(it is), 



ne 

the 



the 
Avhere 

i's?" 

thou?" 



it is 
other 



Hiia" ste r 



Not 

(it is) 



any- 
thing 



"Ho't 

"What 

tea" so'n'he"? 

thou art 
living? 

de'onefiaa'di'. 

thou I have lain 
together. 

tea" so'n'he*. 

the thou art 

where living. 

de'ago'nigo"'- 

she it under- 



the 
where 

di" 

more- 
over 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEKSION 



169 



know who it is.?" She did not understand the meaning of what he 
said. 

Now, at that time, the chief began to be ill. Suddenly, it seems, 
she herself now became aware that her life had changed. Then she 
said, addressing the chief: "I believe that there is, perhaps, something 
the matter, as my life at the present time is not at all pleasant." He 
did not make any reply. Not long thereafter she again said: "My 
thoughts are not at all pleasant." Again he said nothing. So it con- 
tinued thus that she did nothing but consider the matter, believing 
that something must be the matter, perhaps, that the condition of her 
body was such as it was. It became more and more evident that she 
was pregnant. Now it was evident that she was big with child. 

Sometime afterward she again resolved to ask him still once more. 
She said: " As a matter of fact, there must be something the matter, 



haienda"!' 

stood 



ho't 

what 

(it is) 



nonwa'ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



gen'da' tea" 

it means the 

where 



noiiwa'ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



wahada'dia'. 

he it spoke. 

Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' wa'wa'sa'we 1 

At that now it began 

(time) 

sennowa'ne 

chief [is] 



m 



Dieii"ha' gwa' 



After a 
while 



seem- 
ingly 



wa'liono n 'hwak'de n ' 

he became ill 

o'ne 11 ' wa'ontdo'ga' 

now she it noticed 



ne 

the 



ha 4 . 

he 



ga'o n 'hwa' 

she herself 



tea" 



o'ia" ni'io't tea' ago'n'he'. O'ne 11 ' tho"ge w wa'a'hen", 

the it is so it is the she is living. Now at that she it said, 

where other where (time) 

wa'hawe n "has ne" ha'seiinowa'ne 11 ': "Ge"he' ste 11 " 

she him addressed the he chief [is]: "I it think some- 

thing 

noiiwa'ho v de n ' on" ni'io't, tea" hiia" de'awentga'de' 

kind of thing perhaps so it is, the not it is pleasant 

where 

go'nie' ne" o n "ke n '?" Hiia" ste 11 " de'ha'wen'. Hiia" 

I am living the at present?" Not any- he it has said. Not 

(it is) thing (it is) 



gwa" 

seem- 
ingly 

tca y 

the 
where 

de'- 

it 



aonni'she'i' 

lasted (long) 

don'nio n k." 

ing repeatedly." 



o'ne 11 ' he" wa'a'hen": 



now 



again 



she it said : 



Hiia*' 



he" 

again 



ste 1 



any- 
thing 



' ' Hiia" sken'no 11 ' de'geiino 11 '- 

"Not peaceful I am thin k- 

(it is) (it is) 

de'ha'wen'. One"-' ne"tho' 

he it has said. Now there 



Not 

(it is) 

ni'io't deiagoia'dowe"di' geii'gwa', en"he' ste n " gwa" nonwa'- 

so it is she it is considering only, she it thinks some- seem- kind of 

thing ingly 

ho"de n ' on" ni'io't, tea" tho'ne 11 ' ni'io't tea" gia'di"geV 

thing prob- so it is, the here, this so it is the mv body on." 

ably where way where 

Daiotge n, i'ha'die' tea" ene'io 114 . O'ne 11 ' otge n "i' egowa'ne 11 '. 

It became more and the she is Now it is evi- she large 

more manifest where pregnant. dent (is). 

Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne 11 ' he" wa'en'a' e n sheia'hen'do n ' 

Some so long it lasted now again she it again I him will ask 

(time) thought 

Yi*'so"\ Wa'a'hen": "Ho't notiwa*ho"de n ' on" so" ni'io't tea" 

once more. She it said: "What kind of thing prob- itismat- soit-is the 

ably terof fact where 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

. 7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

V2 

13 
14 

15 



10 

11 



170 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

perhaps, that my body is in this condition. And the thoughts of 
my mind are not at all pleasant. One would think that there can be 
no doubt that, seemingly, something is about to happen, because my 
life is so exceedingly unpleasant." Again he said nothing. When it 
became night, then, verily, they laid their bodies down and they slept. 
So now, verily, he there repeatedly considered the matter. Now, in 
so far as the maiden was concerned' she still did not understand what 
was about to take place from the changed condition of her body. Some- 
time afterward the chief spoke to her, saying: "As a matter of fact, 
a man-being (or rather woman -being) will arrive, and she is a man- 
being child, and thou must care for her. She will grow in size 
rapidly, and her name is Zephyrs. " a The maiden said nothing, for 
the reason that she did not understand what her spouse told her. 



tho'ne" 4 ni'io't ne v gia'di"ge 4 , na'ie' ne" g'nigo nw ha"ge 4 hi'ia 4 ' 

here so it is the my body on, that the my mind on not 

(it is) (it is) 

sken'no 11 ' de'genno n4 doii'nio n k? Gai 4 hwado'ge n4 aien'a' ste 11 " gwa" 

peaceful I am thinking repeatedly?, It matter certain (is) it seems some- seem- 

(it is) thing ingly 

niiawe n4/ se', . swa'djik' de n 'gi" hiia 4 ' de'awentga'de' tea" 

so it is going to because exceed- not it is pleasant the 

happen, ingly (it is) where 

goVhe'." Hiia 4 ' he 1 ' ste 11 " de'ha'wen 4 . Ne" o'ne 11 ' waV'gak 

I am living." Not again any- he it has said. The now it became 

(it is) thing night 

o'ne 114 hi'ia' wa'hondia'dage' 4 hefi', wa'honna"gak. Da', o'ne 114 

now verily they (m.) laid their several they (m.) went to So, now 

bodies down, sleep. 

hi'ia' ne"tho 4 henno ll4 don'nio n k. O'ne 114 ne" na" eksago'na 4 hiia 4 ' 

verily there he is thinking repeatedly. Now the that she maiden not 

that one (is) 

'a 4 'so n4 de'aiago'nigo n 'haienda"nha' ho't nonwa 4 ho"de n ' niiawe n4 'se' 

still she it comes to understand what kind of thing so it is about to 

(it is) happen 

q tea" o'ia' ni'io't eia'di"ge 4 . Gain'gwtv nwa'onni'she' ne"tho 4 

the it is so it is her body on. Some so it lasted there 

where other (time) 

o ni'io't o'ne 114 ne" ha'serinowa'ne"' da'hada'dia 1 , wa'he n 'hen": 

so it is now the he chief (is) thence he spoke, he it said: 



4 'E n ie'io n ' se" on'gwe*, eksa'a", na'ie' ne" na'ie' de n she'- 

" She will it is mat- a man- she child that the that wilt thou 

arrive ter of fact being, (is), (it is) (it is) 

snie"nha. Gode'sno'we' di", Gaende 4 'so n4 k eia'dji 4 ." Hiia" 

care well for She grows rapidly more It-wind-goes-plurally she is Not 

her. over, (Gusts-of-wind) named." (it is) 

ste 11 " de'aga'wefi 4 ne" eksa'go'na 4 na'ie' ne" daioi 4 hwa"khe' 

J-^ any- she it said the she maiden that the thence it is 

thing (is) (it is) reason 

tea" hiia" de'ago'nigo ll4 haienda'T ne" nonwa 4 ho"de n ' gen'da' 

J-O the not she it understood the kind of thing it means 

where (it is) 

«This Dame Zephyrs merely approximates the meaning of the original, which signifies the warm 
springtide zephyrs that sometimes take the form of small whirlwinds or eddies of warm air. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



171 



Not long afterward, then, verily, she gave birth to a child. She paid 
no attention to it. The only thing she did was to lay it on the place 
where the chief customarily passed the night. After ten days' time 
she again took it up therefrom. 

Sometime afterward the chief became aware that he began to be 
ill. His suffering became more and more severe. All the persons 
dwelling in the village came to visit him. There he lay, and sang, 
saying: "Ye must pull up this standing tree that is called Tooth. 
The earth will be torn open, and there beside the abyss ye must lay 
me down. And, moreover, there where my head lies, there must sit 
my spouse." That is what he, the Ancient One, sang. Then the man- 
beings dwelling there became aware that their chief was ill. 



tea" 

the 
where 

o'ne nw 



wa'shagotho'ie 

he her told 



n' 



ne 

the 



de'hia'dr. Hiia" de'oi'hwishe'T 



they (m.) two 
are one. 



Not 
(it is) 



it long matter 
became 



hi'ia' wti'agoksa daienda'nha'. Hiia" de'agosde'isdi\ 

now verily she became possessed of a child. Not she it paid attention 

(it is) to. 

Na'ie' gen'gwa ne"tho k hwaV'herf tca v non'we' nimenno 11 '- 

That only there there she it laid the the place there he it uses 

(it is) where 

hwes'tha' ne" ha'sennowa'ne n \ Washe 11 " niwendage" nwa'oii- 



to sleep on 



the 



he chief (is). 



ni'she' o'ne 11 ' ha/donsaie^gwa'. 



lasted 



thence again she it 
took. 



Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she 1 o'ne 11 ' 

Some (time) 



so it lasted 
(long) 



Ten so it day (is) in so it 

(it is) number 



ne" ha'sennowa'ne 11 ' wa'hat- 

the he chief (is) heit noticed 



do'ga' ne" tea" o'ne 11 ' wa'wa'sa'we 11 ' o'ne 11 ' wa , hono n 'hwak'de n '. 



the the 
that where 



it began 



he became ill. 



Daiotge n 'i'ha'die' tea" ni'hoe nb hia'ge n \ 

It became more and the so he is suffering, 

more manifest (severe) where 

da'ie 11 ' ena'gee' hadik'do n k. Ne"tho' 

lies they dwell they (m.) come There 

to see (him). 

i'ha'do n k: " E n swaendoda'gwa' neii'ge 11 " ga"he', ono"dja' gaia'djT. 

he kept " Ye standing tree this one it tree it tooth it is called. 

saying: will pull up (it is) stands, 

E n wado n 'hw&adjiadet'ha', ne"tho' o'sadage n mia'da' he n sgwen- 



Gagwe'gi* tea" gana- 

It all the it vil- 

where lage 

henda'ga', hodenno'da', 

he lay, he is singing, 



Will it earth open, 



there 



it abyss edge of 



there will ve 



ill 



da'gan'. Na'ie' di' 



That 
tit is) 



e^ietgo'dak 
she will sit 

hoksten"a'. 

he elder one. 



more- 
over 



ne 

the 

O'ne"' 

Now 



tea" non'we' hadegno I1 ma'ie n ' ne"tho' 

the theplace just my head (scalp) there 

where lies 

Na'ie' 



ne 

the 

where 

d^agin^'df'Tr." 

one I abide 
together." 

.it 



ne 

the 



oil 'g we' 

man-beings 

i 



wa'hontdo'ga' tea" hono n 'hwak / dani 

they it noticed the he is ill 



the 

where 



That 
(it is) 

v 

ne 

the 



lie 
the 



hodenno'da' ne 

he is singing the 



V 



ne"tho 4 hadina'gee' 

there they I in. I dwell 

ha'sennowa'ne 11 '. 

lie chief (is). 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 



172 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Now, verily, all came to visit him. They questioned him repeat- 
edly, seeking- to divine his Word, what thing, seemingly, was needful 
for him, what kind of thing, seemingly, he expected through a dream. 
Thus, day after day, it continued that they sought to find his Word. 
After a time the female man-being child was of fair size. She was 
then able to run about from place to place. But it thus continued that 
they kept on seeking to divine his Word. After a while, seemingly, 
one of the persons succeeded in finding his Word, and he said: "Now, 
perhaps, I myself have divined the Word of him, the ordure, our 
chief." He who is called Aurora Borealis said this. And when he 
told the chief what manner of thing his soul craved, the chief was 
very pleased. And when he divined his Word, he said: "Is it not this 
that thy dream is saying, namely, that it is direful, if it so be that no 
person should divine thy Word, and that it will become still more 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
V2 



13 



14 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



hi'ia' 

verilv 



gagwe'gi' 



it all 



honwawenni (, 'saks ste 1 



XnV 



ste 

any- 
thing 



they his Word seek to 
divine 

jioii'niks, 

for him, 

ni'io't 

so it is 

gain'gwa' 

somewhat 

edak'he's. 

she runs 
about. 

Dien"ha' 

After a while 



any- 
thing 

gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



hadigwa'thwas. 

they (m.) visit 
severally. 

nonwa t ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



Honwamen'do n k 

They him question 

demodo n4 hwend- 

it is necessary 



nonwa w ho"de n ' hotgaie n "di*. 

kind of thing 



he desires through 
a dream. 



Ne"tho 4 

There 



honwawenni c 'saks 



they seek his Word 
repeatedly 



o c he n "seiik. 

day after day. 



Dien'ma' 

After a while, 



one 

now 



n; 



niia'ga' 

so she is 
large 

Ne"tho 4 

There 



ne 

the 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly, 

eksa'a". 0'ne nC ha'degaie'i' 

she child. Now 

(is) 

ni'io't hegagoiida/'gwi' hoiiwawenni"saks. 

so it is hence it is unceasing 



just it is suf- 
ficient 



ne"tho' 

there 



gwa 



o'ne lU 



they his word seek 
to divine. 

shaia'dat o'ne ,u wa'honwawennowe nV nha', 



seem- 
ingly, 



wa'he'^hen": 

he it said: 



"0'ne n4 

"Now 



he person 
one is 

hoi! 4 ' ni"a' 



now 



he his word divined, 



prob- 
ablv 



wa ; he'dawennowe n ''nha 5 

I his, ordure's, Word have found 



I person 
ally 

shedwa'sen'no 11 '." HodonnP'a 4 hoiiwana'do^'khwa' 

he our chief (is)." He Aurora Borealis 



ne 

the 



Na'ie' ne' 

That the 

(it is) 

nonwa'ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



o'ne 114 



hen". 

said. 

tea" 

the 
where 

noii'nia'. Na'ie' ne' 

pleased. That the now 

(it is) 

' Xa'ie'-khe lU ' iwa'do ni ne" 

is it it it says the 



they (m.) designate him 
thereby 

v 

ne 



w^a'honwatho'ie 11 ' 

he him told 



the 



na" wa'he 11 '- 

that he it 

one 

ha'sennowa'ne"' 

he chief (is) 



wadadjis'tha' ne" 

it it craves the 



hothwa'i' 

his soul 



wa' hatcen- 

he was 



o'ne lU 



wa , honwawennowe ,,v nh;V wa'he n 'hen": 

he his Word divined he it said: 



That 
it is, 



sada'&'shwa' na'ie' 

thy dream (luck) 



gano'we 11 ', 

it direful (is), 



na'ie' 



that it direful (is), that 

(it is) (it is) 

e n ganowe n "khe', na'ie' gi"she n * ne" hiia" thfiiesawennowe n "nha'. 

it direful will become that it may be the not they thy Word should divine 

it isj (that) (it is) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEESION 



173 



direful \ And }^et, moreover, it is not certain that this is what thy 
soul craves; that its eyes may have seen thy standing tree, Tooth as 
to kind, pulled up, in order that the earth be torn open, and that 
there be an abyss that pierces the earth, and, moreover, that there 
beside the abyss one shall lay thee, and at thy head thy spouse shall 
be seated with her legs hanging down into the abyss." At that time 
the chief said: u Ku". ft I am thankful! Now, verily, the whole matter 
has been fulfilled by thy divining my Word." 

During this time [the duration of the dream feast], a large body of 
man-beings, 6 paid a visit there. He, the Deer, paid a visit there. He, 
the Great-horned Deer [the Buck], paid a visit there. He, the Spotted 
Fawn, paid a visit, and was there seeking to divine the Word of the 



Na'ie 5 di" ne" hiia" de'oi'hwado'ge 114 na'ie' wadadjis'tha' ne" 

That more- the not it matter certain (is) that it it craves the 

(it is) over (it is) (it is) 

sathwa'i\ na'ie' daioga'ha'ik ne" tea" agaeiidoda'gwe n k ne" 

thy soul, that its two eyes should the the one should uproot the 

(it is) have fallen on it where standing tree 

sadendo'da' ne" ono"dja nwa'gaendo"de n ', na'ie' diioi' i hwa' 

thou thyself tree the it tooth such it tree (is) kind of, that thence it is 

hast* set for (it is) reason 

awado n< hwendjiadet'hff aio\sade n ' c ha' ha'daiao n 'hwendjiongo"da'. 

it itself earth should cause to gape it cave should just it earth should transpierce. 

come to be 

Na'ie' ne" ne"tho < di" o'sadage n 'hia'da' he n iesenda'gan' ne"tho c 

That the there more- it cave edge of there they thee will there 

over lay 

hesno ,u ha'ie n ' ne"tho' o'sadagoii'wa 4 ha'de^iago'si'de 11 '- 

there it cave in just her two feet will 



(it is) 

di" tea" 

more- the 
over where 

don'nio n k 



there thy scalp 
lies 



severally 
hang 



ne ' 

the 



dedjia'di'." Tho^'ge 4 ne" ha 4 sennowa'ne ,u 



one thou are 
one." 



the 



he chief (is) 



At that 
(time) 

wa'he^hen": "Ku". Niiawe n "ha". O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa'gai'hwaiei"khe' 

he it said: "Ku". I am thankful. Now verily it matter is fulfilled 



hegagwe'gi* ne" tea" wa'sgwawennowe n "nha'." 

entirely (it all) the the ye my Word have divined." 



the 
where 



Na'ie' 

That 
it is 



ne" 

the 



Skennondo 11 " 

Deer 



gendio'gowa'ne 1 *' 

it body of persons 
large (is) 

wa'hagwat'hwa'. 



hodigwat'hwi' tea" nwaonni'she'. 



they (m.) visited 



the 
where 



so long it lasted. 



he visited 
(there;. 



Ona'gaendo n 'go'nfi t Skennondo 11 " 

It has great horns Deer 



wa'hagwat'hwa' . 

he visited 
I there i. 

honwawe n n r'saks 

he sought to divine 
hi- Word 



Tcisda'th ien' c ha ' 



wa'hagwat'hwa', 



Spotted Fawn 



the 



he visited 
(there) 

ha'sennowa'ne n '. O'gwfii" o"ni' 

He chief Bear also 

(is). 



ne"tho' 

there 

WoTha- 

he 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



aThis is an exclamation expressing gratification at having one's dream or vision divined and 
satisfied. 

?>The relator of this version stated that there was a reputed connection between the visits of these 
different personages ami the presence of their kinds in the new world beneath the sky land, but he 
had forgotten it. 



174 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



chief. He, the Bear, also paid a visit. Now, he also, the Beaver, paid 
a visit. And he, the Wind-who-moves-about-from-place-to-place, paid 
a visit also. And now, also, he, the Daylight, paid a visit. Now she 
also, the Night, the Thick Night, paid a visit. Now also she, the 
Star, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Light-orb [the sun] paid a 
visit. And, too, the Water-of-springs, she paid a visit. Now, also, 
she, the Corn, paid a visit. Now, also, she, the Bean, paid a visit. 
Now, also, she, the Squash, paid a visit. Now, also, she, the Sun- 
flower, paid a visit. Now, also, the Fire Dragon with the body of 
pure white color, he paid a visit. Now, also, the Rattle paid a visit. 
Now, also, he, the Red Meteor, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the 
Spring Wind, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Great Turtle, paid a visit. 
Now, also, he, the Otter, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Wolf, paid 



gwa'thwa'. 

• visited 
(there). 

Gaeil'de's 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



o 4 'nf 



Tea" 



also 



The 
where 



It Wind 
Goes About 



o ni 

also 



Nagaia"gf wa'hagwat'hwa'. 

Beaver he visited 

(there). 

wa'hagwat'hwa 1 . O'ne 114 o 4 'nf ne v Ha'deio'- 

he visited Now also the It 

(there). 

hat'hek wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne 11 ' o 4 'nf ne" A 4 son"he 4 , Deioda 4 - 

Light he visited Now also the It Night, It 

of Day (there). 

sonda'igi 4 wa'egwat'hwa. O'ne 11 ' 



o"m' 



Black 
Darkness 



she visited 
(there). 



wa'egwat'hwa'. O'ne 11 ' o 4 'nr 



she visited 
(there). 



Now 



also 



Now 

tea" 

the 
where 



also 



ne 

the 



Odjisdano 4 'gwa' 

It Star (spot) 



Na'ie 



.V 



O 

too 



tea" Ga'hi 



me go 

That too the It Embedded 

(it is) where Water 

One n "ha' wa'egwat'hwa'. O'ne 114 o"ni 

she visited Now 

( there) . 

,v 



Gaa 4 'gwa' 

It Orb of 
Light (Sun) 

wa'egwat'hwa'. O'ne 11 



wa' hag wat'h w a' . 



he visited 
(there). 

o"ni' ne" 



It Corn 

hwa'. 



she visited 
(there). 

ne 

the 



Now 



also 



the 



0'sa'he"da' wa'egwat'- 



also 



It Bean 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



o 4 'ni' 

also 



ne 

the 



0*hnio n4 'sa' 

It Squash 



she visited 

(there). 

One 114 



11 
12 

L3 
14 



also 



o c 'nr 

also 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



wa'egwat'hwa 1 . 

She visited Now 

(there). 

O'ne 11 ' o 4 'nf Ga'ha'sen 

Now also It 



Oa'we n "sa' wa'egwat'hwa' 

It Sunflower she visited 

(there). 

die'tha' owa'he'sdo'go"' ni'haia'do"de n4 wa'hagwat'hwa'. 

10 Fire-dragon it white pure such his body kind he visited 

(is) of (is)' (there). 

Ga'stawe n "sa' wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne 114 

It Rattle he visited Now 

(there). 

Hadawine'tha' wa'hagwat'hwa'. 

He (Red) Meteor he visited 

(there). 

ne 4 'da' wa nag wat'h wa'. 

he visited 
(there). 

wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne' 1 * 

lie visited Now 

(there ). 



O'ne 1 

Now 



o"ni' ne" 



also 



the 



O'ne 

Now 



O'ne*' 

Now 



o"nr 

also 



o 4 'nf 

also 



o"ni' 

also 



ne' 

the 



ne 

the 



ne" 

the 



Skwa'ie n ' 

otter 



Daga'shwi- 

It Spring 
Wind 

Hania 4 de n 'go'na' 

He Great Turtle 

wffhagwat'hwa'. 



he visited 
(there). 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 175 

a visit. Now, also, he, the Duck, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the 
Fresh Water, paid a visit. Now, also, he, the Yellowhammer, paid 
a visit. Now, also, he, the Medicine, paid a visit. Moreover, all 
things that are produced by themselves, that produce themselves, 
that is, the animals, and, next to them, the small animals, the flying 
things, of every species, all paid a visit. Now, sometime afterward, 
he, the Aurora Borealis, paid a visit. And, verily, he it was who 
divined the Word of the chief. Verily, he said: " The great standing 
tree, the Tooth, must be uprooted. And wherever it has a root 
there severally they must stand, and they must severally lay hold of 
each several root. And just then, and not before, shall they be able 
to uproot the standing tree. The earth will be torn open. Moreover, 
all persons must look therein. And there, beside the abyss, they 

O'ne 114 o k 'nf ne" Tha'hion'ni' wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne" 4 o"nf 

Now also the Wolf he visited Now also 

(there). 

ne v So'wek wa'hagwat'hwa'. 0'ne n4 o"nf ne" O'hne'ganos 

the Duck he visited Now also the It Fresh Water 2 

(there). 

wa'hagwat'hwa'. O'ne 11 ' o 4 'ni' ne" Gwe n4 'gwe n " wa'hagwat'hwa'. 

he visited Now also the Yellow- he visited 3 

(there). hammer (there). 

O'ne 114 o"ni' ne" Ono n4 gwa"tcha' wa'hagwat'hwa'. Gagwe'gi 4 

Now also the It Medicine he visited It all 4 

(there). 

dl" ne*' ste 11 " gwa" noiiwa 4 ho"de n ' ne" odadoii'ni 4 , wadon'ni- 

more- the any- seem- kind of thing the it has grown (it has it grows O 

over that thing ingly produced itself), (it pro- 

a' 4 ha', na'ie' ne" gondi'io', na'ie' gwa"tho k ne" gondiio'sho n "a 4 

duces that the they (z.) are that next in the they (z.) are small 6 

itself), (it is) animals, (it is) order animals (birds) 

ne" gondi'de 114 , nhwa'diiodrse'age', gagwe'gp wa'gondigwat'hwa'. 

the they (z.) fly every they (z.) are it all they (z.) visited 7 

habitually, species in number, (there). 

0'ne n4 gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne ,u wa'hagwat'hwa' ne" 

Now some so (long) it lasted now he visited the 8 

(time) (there), 

Hodonni'a'. Na'ie' hi'ia' wa'honwawennowe nV nha ne" Ha'- 

He Aurora That verily he his word divined the he 9 

Borealis. (it is) 

sennowa'ne"'. Na'ie' ne" hiia' wa'he ni hen": Ww E n gaendoda r - 

Chief(is). That the verily he it said: "It tree will be 10 

(it is) uprooted 

gwe n k ne" ga 4 he'gowa'ne nt ne" Ono"dja'. Na'ie' ne" tca v 

the it tree standing great the It Tooth. That the the 11 

(is) (it is i where 

noii' we' niiokde'hade'nio"' ne"tho' de n 'hadida"nha', de n 'hadiie- 

the there it roots project there thev (m.) will stand, they (m.) will 19 

place plurally plurally 

nau n "ho n ' ne" djokde'hat'sho 11 '. ()'ne M4 ha"sa e n 4iadigwe'ni;V 

lay hold of it the each it mot is one. Now just then, they (in.) will be 13 

(not before) able to do it 

e n *hadi<MKloda'gwfi'. £ n wado I1 'hwendjiadet / ha'. Gag^ve'gi 4 di" 

they Cm.) tree will It itself earth will open It all more- 1 4 

uproot. roughly. over 

ne"tho* iK^'iontgut/hwa'. 0\sadage n4 hia'da' ne"tho 4 h6 n ies6n- 

there hence will one look. It abyss edge of then' hence one 15 

thee will 



176 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



must lay thee. Now, moreover, there at thy head she with whom thou 
dost abide must sit with her legs hanging down into the abyss." 
Then, verily, the chief replied, saving: " Ku". I am thankful that 
ye have divined my word. Now all things have been fulfilled. v 

Verily, it did thus come to pass that they did uproot the standing 
tree, Tooth, that grew beside the lodge of the chief. And all the 
inhabitants of that place came thither with the intention of looking 
into the abyss. It did thus come to pass that everyone that dwelt 
there did look therein. At that time the chief then said, addressing 
his spouse: u Now, too, let us two look into the abyss. Thou must 
bear her, Zephyrs, on thy back. Thou must wrap thyself with 
care." Now, moreover, he gave to her three ears of corn, and, next in 



da'gan'. O'ne" 

lay. Now 



di" tea' 



more- 
over 



the 
where 



non' we 4 

the 
place 



nisno n 'ha/ie n ' 

there thy scalp 
lies 



ne"tho 4 e n iet 

there she 

will 



go' dak 

sit 



ne 

the 



desni"den', o'sadagoii'wa' ha'de n iago'si'de n, donnio n '- 

it abyss in 



'hek." 0'ne ni 

Now 



ye two abide 
together, 

hi'ia' 

verily 



ne 

the 



ha'seimowane 114 

he chief (is) 



we n "ha' 

thankful 



iei"khe'." 

fulfilled." 



wa'sgwennowe n "nha\ 

thou mv word hast divined. 



0'ne n < 

Now 



just her two feet will 
severally hang." 

ni'ha'weii': "Ku", 



thence he 
replied: 

gagwe'gf 

it all 



nua- 

" Ku", I am 

wa'gai'h wa- 
it matter 
has been 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Ne"tho< 

There 



hi'ia' 

verily 



• • w nV v 4 

nnawe i 

so it came 
to pass 



ne 

the 



tea" 

the 
where 



hodiendoda'gwe 114 * ne" 

they (m.) tree the 

uprooted 



Ono"dja' tea" ga"he' ne" hono n 'sa'kda' ne" ha'sefinowa'ne"'. 

it tooth the it tree the his lodge be- the he chief (is). 



0'ne n 

Now 



the 
where 

tea" 

the 
where 



it tree 
stands 

ena'gee' 

they dwell 



his lodge be- 
side it 



ne"tho' 

there 



gagwe'gi' 

it all 

tea" 



ne"tho c 

there 



da/ie 1 



hegatgat'hwa' 

thither let me 
look 

'ha' tea" hwa'hodi'he"g 



the 
where 



gawei'ha'die' 

hither one one came desiring it 
(they) came (for the purpose of it) 

o'sadagoii'wa'. Ne"tho 1 ' nwa'- 

it abyss in. There so it 



the 
where 



it exhausted their 
number 



awe 

came to 
pass 

hwfthontgat'hwa'. Tho"ge' 

thither they (m.) At that 

looked. (time) 

shagawe n "has ne" he'na' 

her addressed the 



tea" ni'io n ' ena'gee' 

the so it is much they(indef. ) 



ne"tho' 

there 



one 

now 



where 

ni 



ne 

the 



(many) dwell 

ha'sennowane 11 '. 



wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



his 

spouse 

h( v 'diatgat'hwa' tea' o'sa'de'. De n 'sadaksa'de 

the it abyss is Thou wilt bear on 

where present. thy back 

ne Gaende"so n k. 

the 



he chief (is) 

ccO'ng" 

" Now 



O' 

too 



wa - 

he 



ni" 

the 
we 



ii' 



thither we two will 
look 

'hawa' — " 



ne" e n sheia'de n '- 

the thou lier person 

wilt bear 

E n 'sa 4 'gwas e ,u satdoge n 'sda . " 0'ne ni 



di" dashaga'o n ' 

more- he it to her 
over, gave 



Gusts-of-wind. Thou thyself 

Zephyrs. wilt wrap 

ne". one n "ha', \r'se ni 

the it corn, three 



Now 



thou thyself wilt 
make ready." 

niiono n *kw( v,v iage c , na/'ie 

that 
(it is) 



so it ear is in num- 
ber. 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 1 77 

order, the dried meat of the spotted fawn, and now, moreover, he said: 
"This ye two will have for provision.'? Now he also broke off three 
fagots of wood, which, moreover, he gave to her. She put them into 
her bosom, under her garments. Then, verily, they went thither to tn*e 
place. They arrived at the spot where the earth was torn up, and then 
he said: " Do thou sit here." There, verily, she sat where the earth 
was broken off. There she hung both legs severally into the abyss. 
Now, in so far as he was concerned, he, the chief, was looking into the 
abyss, and there his spouse sat. Now, at that time he upraised him- 
self, and said: "Do thou look hence into the abyss." Then she did 
in this manner, holding with her teeth her robe with its burden. 
Moreover, there along the edge of the abyss she seized with her 
hands, and, now, moreover, she bent over to look. He said: " Do 

gwa"tho, teisda'thien' c a c o'wa'hat'he 11 ', o'ne nC di" wa'he n 'hen": 

next in or- spotted fawn it meat dry (is), now more- he it said: 

der, over 

"Na'ie' nen'ge 11 ' e n djadenna v da\" O'ne 11 ' o'ni' wa'thaia"kho n ' 

"That (it this one ye two will take for Now also he iteratively 

is) provisions." broke them 

Vse 116 niioko nt kho"nage 4 ne" oien'da/, na'ie' di" shago'wi'. Ena's- 

three so it wood sticks the it wood that more- he gave (them) o 

many are in number (fuel), it is over to her. 

gwagon'wa 4 heiago\se n4 'di\ O'ne 114 hi'ia' ne"tho' nhe'honne'non 4 . 

Her bosom in thither she them Now, verily, there thither they (m.) 4: 

slipped. went. 

Wa'hni'io 11 ' tea" noii'we' iodo n 'hwendjiadetha'en t , o'ne 114 wa'he 114 - 

Theytwo(m.) the the place it earth is roughly opened, now he it said: & 

arrived where 

hen": ;i Tho'ne nC sadien"." Ne"tho 4 hi'ia' wa'on'dien" tea" non'we' 

"Here do thou sit There, verily, she sat down the the place O 

down." where 

odo nw hweiidjiia v gi i . Ne v tho c wa'diondno n, de n 'do n; 'gwa' ne" o ; sa- 

it earth is sundered. There she hung her legs thereby the it 7 

dagon'wfi*. o'sadagon'wtV heiagono n1 de n1 don'nio n k. O'ne 11 ' ne" 

abyss in, it abyss in thither her leg is hanging Now the o 

severally. that 

na" o'sadagon'wa' ha'de'haga"ha' ne" ha'sennowa'ne 11 ', ne"tho' 

that it abyss in hence he his eyes the he chief (is), there o 

one has fixed on it 

ne" rra" etgo'da' ne" he'na'. O'ne"' tho c 'ge' wa'hatgete'gwa' 

the that she sat the his Now at that he himself raised 10 

that one wife. time up 

wa'he n4 hen": " Hwa\satgat'hwa' o'sadagon'wa'." O'ne 114 dondiiie'a' 

he it said: " Hence do thou look it abyss in." Now just she did 11 

it 

ne n " ne" goien"s;f wa'o n 'teo"hik tea" deiofida'kse'. Ne v tho' 

this the her robe she took it in the she bore it on There 12 

way her mouth where her back. 

di" o'sadag& n 'hiada"sho n ' wa'eienaun'gwn/, o'ne" 4 di" wa'dion- 

more- it abyss edge of it she it laid hold of now more- she bent 13 

over along severally, over 

tea k'da' hwa oiitgat'hwa'. W:i he nu hen": " Otge n 'T i"sowa' 

forward hence she looked. He it said: "Itisplain it (is > 14 



much 



21 ETH— 03 12 



178 



1R0QU0IAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



thou bend much and plainly over." So she did do thus. As soon 
as she bent forward very much he seized the nape of her neck and 
pushed her into the abyss. Verily, now at that time she fell down 
thence. Now, verily, the man-being child and the man-being mother 
of it became one again. When she arrived on earth, the child was 
again born. At that time the chief himself arose and said, moreover: 
"Now, verily, I have become myself again; I am well again. Now, 
moreover, do ye again set up the tree." 

And the chief was jealous, and that was the cause that he became 
ill. He was jealous of Aurora Borealis, and, in the next place, of the 
Fire Dragon with the pure white body. This latter gave him much 
mental trouble during the time that he, the chief, whom some call 
He-holds-the-earth, was married. 



1 

3 
4 
5 

6 

7 



hwa'desattca'k'da'." O'ne 11 ' ne"tho' 

hence do thou bend Now there 

forward." 

wa'dionttca v kda' 



nwa'eie'iL'. 



i"sowa' 



she bent forward 

tcia'e"' 



shoved 
her 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 

ono"ha'. 

its mother. 



o'sadagon'wa'. 

it abyss in. 

hi'ia' 

verily 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



ne 

the 

hi'ia' 

verily 

ne" 

the 



thus she it 
did. 

v 



it (is) 
much 



e'se'da"ge' hwa/shago'- 

hence he 



her nape of the 
neck on 



diiagoia'de n "i'. 

thence her body 
fell down. 



saionna'gat ne" 

again she is the 

, born 

ha'sennowa'ne 11 ' 

he chief (is) 



saga'do 11 ' 

8 again I am 

well, 

Na'ie' 



hi'ia'. 

verily. 

ne" 

the 



9 That 

(it is) 

tea" wa'hono n 'hwak'de n '. 

10 the he became ill. 

where 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 

o'ne 11 ' wa'haie'na' 

now he it took hold 

of 

Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 

ha'donsagiadies'da' ne" eksa'a" 

just again they two (z.) the she child 

became commingled 

tea" e'io"' ne" 

the she the 

where arrived 

eksa"a'. Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' ne" 

she child. At that now the 

(is) time 

sa'hatge n "ha' o'ne 11 ' di" 

again he arose now more- 

over 

O'ne 11 ' di" sadjiiendo'de 11 '." 

Now more- do ye reset tree." 
over 

ha'sennowa'ne 11 ' ho'ga"he n s na'ie' gai'honnia"ha 

he chief (is) he is jealous that it it causes 



o n 'hwendjia"ge' 

it earth on 



o ni 

also 



one 

now 



ha'o n 'hwa' 

he himself 



the 

he" 

again 

ne" 

the 



wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



"O'ne 11 ' 

' ' Now 



s> 



Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 



that 

(it is) 

ne" ho'ga'ha'sek' ne" Hodoii- 

the he him is jealous the He Aurora 

of 



11 

12 
13 



nr'a , 

Bore- 
alis, 



na'ie' gwii"tho' ne" Ga'ha'sendie'tha' owa'he"sdo'go n ' 

the It Fire-dragon it white pure (is) 



that 

(it is) 



ni'haia'do"de n ', 

so his body (is) 
kind of, 



next in 
order 

na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



gwa"tho' 

next in 
order 



ne" Hadawine'tha 1 . 

the He Red Meteor. 



Na'ie' 

That 
(it is) 



de'ha 1 nigo I1 'ha"ha' tea" nwa'onni'she' o'ne 11 ' tea" wathadane'ge 11 ' 



he gave trouble to the 
mind 



the 
Avhere 



so it lasted 
long 



now 



the 
where 



he was married 



ne" ha'sennowa'ne 11 '. Hao n 'hwendjiawa"gi' o'diak honwana'do n "khwa'. 

14 the he chief (is). He-it-earth-holds some they him designate 

(persons) thereby. 



HEWITT) 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



179 



So now, verily, her body continued to fall. Her bod\^ was falling 
some time before it emerged. Now, she was surprised, seemingly, 
that there was light below, of a blue color. She looked, and there 
seemed to be a lake at the spot toward which she was falling. There 
was nowhere any earth. There she saw many ducks on the lake [sea], 
whereon they, being waterfowl of all their kinds, floated severally 
about. Without interruption the body of the woman-being continued 
to fall. 

Now, at that time the waterfowl, called the Loon shouted, saying: 
,fc Do ye look, a woman-being is coming in the depths of the water, 
her body is floating up hither." They said: u Verily, it is even so. 1 ' 
Now, verily, in a short time the waterfowl [duck] called Bittern 
[Whose eyes-are-ever-gazing-upward], said: "It is true that ye believe 
that her body is floating up from the depths of the water. Do ye, 



Da', 

So, 



one 

now, 



hi'ia' 

verily, 



hwa'eia'don'die' 



nwa'onni'she' 



thither her body 
falls onward 

eia'don'die' 



ne 

the 



agoii'gwe 4 , 



o'ne 114 



so it long 
lasted 



she man- 
being. 

hwa'gaiage nv nha'. 

thence it emerged. 



Gain'gwa' 

Somewhat 

O'ne 114 

Now 



wa'ondien' 4 ha' 

she was surprised 



her body was now 

falling 

gwa" deio'ha'thek ne" e 4 da"ge 4 oe n ' 4 hia' ni'io't. 

seem- it is light the below it (sky) so it is. 

ingly blue (is) 

Wa'ontgat'hwa' na'ie' gwa" gania'dae' tea" hagwa" nhwaaga- 

She it looked at that seem- it lake is the direction whither she 

(it is) ingly present where 

wenofi'ha'die'. Hiia 4 ' gat'ka' de'o n4 hwendjia'de\ Ne"tho 4 waVge 11 ' 

was continuing Not any- it earth is present. There she it saw 

to go. (it is) where 

onnatga/'de' ne" so'wek ganiadae"ge 4 ne"tho 4 goiidi'sgo'ga/'ha' 

they (z.) are the duck(s) it lake is there they (z.) float about 

numerous present on 

nhwatga 4 sowa"tchage 4 . Heiotgofida w 'gwi 4 tea" eia'doii'die' ne" 

every it duck kind in number Hence it continues the her body is the 



is ( waterfowl) . 



where 



falling 



agon'gwe 4 . 

she man- 
being (is). 

Tho 4 'ge 4 

At that 

time 



o'ne"' 



wa'tho 4 hefie 4 'da' ne" so'wek, 

he shouted the duck, 



Ha'ho'we 11 ' 

Loon 



wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said : 



K. 



Tciatgat'hwa 4 ganoii wagon 'wa 4 on'gwe 4 , 

" Do ye look it depths of water in 



daieia'don'die'." 

thence her body is 
flying." 



Wa'hefini'hen 



en": 

They (m.) it said : 



haia'dji 4 , 

he is 
named, 

tda'io n , 

J hence she 
s coming, 

Niioi 4 hwagwa 4 ha 4 ' o'ne 114 

So it matter is short now, 

(in a short time) 

Go n 'ga 4 'hwa' haia'dji 4 

Bittern he is 

named 

wa'he n4 hen": 44 Swe"he' do'ge n s ganonwagon'wa' 

he it said : "Ye it do think it is true it water depths in 



4 Do'ge n s 

"It is true 



man- 
being, 

hi'ia'." 

verily." 



hi'ia 

verily, 



wa'tho'henV'da 

he shouted 



ne" 

the 



(diiotgofi't he'tge 114 ' 

(at all times up above 



so'wek, 

• luck (?), 
waterfowl, 

ha'de 4 haga' 4 ha') 

thither li is two eyes 
are fixed) 

daieia'don'die'. 

thence her body is 
approach in*/ 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



180 



1ROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



however, look upward/' All looked upward, and all, moreover, said: 
" Verily, it is true." They next said: " What manner of thing shall 
we do?" One of the persons said: "It seems, then, that there must 
be land in the depths of the water." At that time the Loon said: 
"Moreover, let us first seek to find someone who will be able to bear, 
the earth on his back by means of the forehead pack strap." All said, 
seemingly: " I shall be able to bear the earth by means of the fore- 
head pack strap." He replied: "Let us just try; it seems best." 
Otter, it seems, was the first to make the attempt. As soon, then, 
as a large bulk of them mounted on his back, verily, he sank. In 
so far as he was concerned, he was not able to do anything. And 
they said: "Thou canst do nothing." Now many of them made the 
attempt. All failed to do it. Then he, the Carapace, the Great Turtle, 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



13 



14 



He'tge 11 " 

Up high 



gag we gr 

it all 

gwa"tho': 

next in order: 

shaia v dada' 

he one person : 



hwa'tciatgat'hwa'." Gagwe'gi' 

thither do ve look." It all 



di" wa'henni'heif': 

they (m.) it said : 



hwa'hontgat'hwa' 

thither they (m.) 
looked, 

Do'ge n s hi'ia'." Wa'henni'heiT' 



more- 
over 



" It is true 



verily 



so will we it do?" 



' 4 Ho't non wa'ho v de n1 neMwaie'a' ? " 

"What kind of thing 

(is it) 

" Diio nC hwendjia / de' 

"There it earth is present 



They it said 

Wa'he ni hen" ne" 

He it said the 



gofi'wa'?" 



wa'he n 'hen v 

he it said 



nige"-khe n " ne" 

so it is it the 

must be, (not) 

ne" Ha'ho'we 11 ': 

the 



a 



Loon : 



ganon wa- 
it depths of 

Na'ie' di" 

'That 
it is 



more- 
over 



Tho"ge' 

water in?" At that 

(time) 

dwadiee n "da 4 dwe c 'sak son" nonwa'ho"de n, e n 'hagwe'nia' e n4 ha- 

let us it first do, let us it seek who kind of person he will be able he will 

do n 'hwendjiage"dat." Gwa" tbigagwe'gi' wa'henni'hen": "I" 



bear earth on his back by Seem- just it whole 

means of the forehead strap." ingly (is) 

e n kgwe'nia' e n gado nC hwendjiage"dat." 

I will b°ar the earth on my back 
(by means of the forehead strap)." 

dwade'nien'de 11 '." Skwa'ie ni 



I will be able 
to do it 



they it said : 

Wa'he nt hen": 

He it said : 



"Gwa" 

"Just, 



gi'she 114 ' 



let us it try. 



perhaps, 
(I think) 

tea" wa'hade'nien'de n \ 



Otter 



gi"she ni 

I think 



da'hadiee n "da' 

he first was 



he it attempted to do 

his back on 



the 

where 

ha'nowa^'ge 



o'ne n ' 



now 



de'hogwe'niofi 

he it was able to do 

thasgwe'niaV 

thou it art able 
to do." 

\vfi , hodino'w( v, \ 

they it failed to do. 



O' 

Now 



ne" 

the 

that 

ne 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 

hi'iiV 

verilv 



w v 

na . 

that 
one. 



iawe'dowa'ne nt hwa'hondawe n ' 4 hat 

it bulk large is 



wa'honowie"da. 

he sank into the 
water. 

Wa'henni'hen": 

Thev it said : 



thither they (m.) it got 
upon 



Hiifr 

Not 

(it is) 

"Hiia" 

"Not 
(it is) 



ste n " 

any- 
thing 

ste n " 



any- 
thing 



honnatgaMe' wa'honde'nien'de 11 '. Gagwe'gi* 



they (m.) are 
numerous 

Xii i 



they (m.) it attempted. 



It all 



Tho' r ge' o'ne 

At that now 

time 



ne" IIania'de ni go'na c , Ha'no'wa', 



the 



He Turtle Great, 
(is) 



He Cara- 
pace (is) 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 181 

said: " Next in turn, let me make the attempt." Then, verily, a large 
bulk of them mounted on his back. He was able to bear them all on his 
back. Then they said: " He it is who will be able to bear the earth on 
his back." Now, at that time, they said: k * Do ye go to seek earth in 
the depths of the water." There were many of them who were not 
able to obtain earth. After a while it seems that he, the Muskrat, also 
made the attempt. He was able to get the ground thence. Musk- 
rat is he who found earth. When he came up again, he rose dead, 
holding earth in his paws, and earth was also in his mouth. They 
placed all of it upon the carapace of the Turtle. Now their chief said: 
'*Do 3 T e hurry, and hasten yourselves in your work." Now a large 
number of musk rats continued to dive into the depths of the water. 
As fast as they floated to the surface they placed the earth on the 

wa'he nt hen": "I" o ni 'ke n ' agade'nien'de 11 '." O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' 

he it said: "I next in let me it attempt Now verily 

turn to do." 

hwa'hondawe^'hat' iawe'dowa'ne 114 . Wa'hagwe'nia' gagwe'gi' 

thither they (m.) got upon it bulk large (is). He it was able it all 

it (his back) to do 

wahatge"dat. O'ne 114 wa'henni'hen": "Na'ie' ne" e ni hagwe'nia' 

he it bore on the back Now they (m.) it said: "That the he it will be able 

by the forehead strap. (it is) to do 

e ni hado n 'hwendjiage''dat." Tho^ge 4 o'ne ni wa^henni ; hen": "Sne c - 

he will bear earth on the back by the At that now they it said: "Do ye 4- 

forehead strap." time two it 

sak'ha' a (swesak'ha 4 ?) ne" ganofiwagon'wa' ne" o^he^'da'." 

go to seek (do ye it go to the it water depths in the it earth 

seek?) (ground)." 

Onnatga"de' hiia" de'hodigwe'nion 1 a'hadihe'da'gwa'. Dien"ha' 

They (z.) are not they it were able to do could they earth get. After a 

numerous (it is) while, 

gwa" o'ne n ' ne" Hano'gie" o'ne 11 ' o"nf wa'hade'nien'de 11 '. 

seem- now the He Muskrat now also he it attempted to do. 

ingly, 

Na'ie' wa'hagwe'nia' hwa'ha'he'da'gwa'. Hano'gie" wa'ha 4 he 4 da- 

That he it was able thither he earth He Muskrat he found ground, 

(it is) to do (ground) fetched. 

tcen'nf. Sawenda'ga"gwa' hawe n; heio nt ha'die', ho'tciagwe'nonni'- 

Again it floated he came up dead, he came with his 

paws closed 

ha'die' ne" o'he"da', ha c sagon'wa c o"ni' wadak'he'. Gagwe'gP 

(on it) the it ground, his mouth in also it came con- It all 

tained in it. 

ga'nowa"ge' wa'hadi"hen'. O'ne 114 ne" honwa'scn'no 11 ' wa'hc^hen": 

it carapace on they (m.) laid it. Now the their chief he it said: 



it body of person^ muskrat they (m.) continued it depths of water in. 

large (is) to dive 

Ganio" swe n da'gaa"gwa' na'ie' niio'sno'we' ga'nowa"ge c hadi'he'- 

So soon as again it floated that so it is rapid it carapace on they (m.) are 

habitually (it is) laying the 



3 



5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



"Tciasno'we"'*, deswa'nowaia'he^ha 4 swaio'de n "ha'." O'ne 114 

"Do ye two make do ye hurry yourselves do ye work." Now 1 - 1 

haste, 

ge n dio 4 gowa'ne n ' hano'gie" honna 4 done"hwi' ganonwagofi'wa' 



13 
14 



«This is a dual form employed in the place of a plural, which follows it in parentheses. 
bThis is a dual form used for a plural. 



182 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



back of the Turtle. Sometime thereafter then, verily, they finished 
covering the carapace with earth. Now, at that time, the carapace 
began to grow, and the earth with which they had covered it became 
the Earth. 

Now, also, they said: "Now, moreover, do ye go to see and to 
meet this woman-being whose body is falling hither." At once a 
great number of the large waterfowl flew hence, joining their bodies 
together, and there on their joined bodies her person impinged. Then 
slowly the large waterfowl descended, and also they placed the 
woman-being there on the carapace. Moreover, the carapace had 
now grown much in size. Now, moreover, they said: "Now, verily, 
we are pleased that we have attended to the female man-being who 
has appeared in the same place with us." 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



da 4 ha' 4 ha'. Gaiii'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne 114 hi'ia' wa'hadi 4 'sa' 

earth on it. Some (time) so (long) it lasted now verily 



they (m.) it 
finished 



ga'nowa"ge 4 wa'hadi 4 he 4 do 4 'ga\ 

it carapace on 



they (m.) it with earth 
coated. 



Tho"ge 4 o'ne 114 wa'wadodia'ga' 

it grew in size 



At that 
time 



now 



ne ' 

the 



ga'no'wa' 

it carapace 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



ne" 

the 



o ll4 hwen'djia" 

it earth 



wa'wa'do 11 ' 

it it became 



v 



hodi 4 he 4 do"hwi 4 . 

4 they (m.) it with earth 

had covered. 

O'ne 11 ' di" wa'henni'hen": 

5 Now more- they it said: 

v 

this (it is) 



more- 
over 



"O'ne 114 

"Now 



tciia'diia 4 da 4 'na 4 

6 her body to meet go 



ne 

the 



nen'ge 114 



di" 

more- 
over 

4 



swakdo n4 'na 4 , 

do ye go to see it, 



ne 

the 



deie- 

doye 

Goii- 

At 



da'die' 

once 



o'ne 11 ' 



wa'tgoiidi'de 11 ' 

they (z.) flew 



agon'gwe* daieia'don'die'." 

she man- thence her body is 

being falling." 

na'ie' ne" goiidigo'wane n 's 

the they (z.) large ones 



that 
(it is) 

oimatga"de' na'ie' ne" wa'tgondidia'daik'ho 11 ', ne"tho' hi'ia' 

they (z.) are that the they (z.) their bodies there verily 

many (it is) conjoined severally, 

he"tge n4 daieia'da 4 ha"nha'. O'ne 114 skenno n "a 4 dagoiida'se n "da' ne" 



up high there her body 

alighted. 

so'wek goiidigo'wane n 's, 

dnck(s) they (z.) large ones, 



Now 



wa'shagoni"den' ne' 1 

they her placed the 



naie 

that 
(it is) 

agoii'gwe 4 . 



slowly 

di" 



she man- 
being. 

gowa'ne*' iodo'di'. O'ne 114 di" 

it much it has Now more- 

grown, over 



more- 
over 

O'ne 114 

Now 



ne"tho 4 

there 



thence they let them- the 
selves down 

ga'nowa"ge 4 

it turtle on 



di" 

more- 
over 

wa'henni'hen": 

they (m.) it said: 



ne 

the 



ga'no'wa' 

it turtle 



44 O'ne 114 ' hi'ia' 

"Now 



we'dwatcefinon'nia ne" 

we are glad the 



tea" 

the 
where 



wa'dionkhi 4 snie"nha' ne" 

we her have cared for • the 



verily, 

ofi'gwe 4 

man-being 



na'ie' ne 1 ' gado'ge' 1 ' wa , ongwago n4 so 4 'da\" 

14 that the in a certain we (and she) have appeared." 

(it is) place 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



183 



The next day came, and she looked and saw lying* there a deer, also 
fire and firebrands, and also a heap of wood, all of which had been 
brought thither. At that time she kindled a fire, using for this pur- 
pose the three fagots which she had slipt into the bosom of her gar- 
ment, and of which he [the chief] had said: u Ye two will have this 
for a provision." At that time she laid hands on the body of the 
deer. She broke up its bod} r , some of which she roasted for food. 
She passed three nights there, when she again gave birth, again becom- 
ing possessed of a child. The child was a female. That, verily, was 
the rebirth of Zephyrs. Now the elder woman-being erected a booth, 
thatching it with grasses. There the mother and daughter remained, 
one being the parent of the other. 

Now the earth was large and was continually increasing in size. It 
was now plain where the river courses would be. There they two 
remained, the mother attending to the child, who increased in size 



Wa'ome n "nha', wa'ontgat'hwa' ne"tho c genda'ga' ne" 



It became day, 

nofido 11 " odjis'da' 

it fire 



she it saw 



there 



it lay 



the 



sken- 

deer 



o"ni' 

also 



o'sotcio'da' 

it heap stands 



Lr "i 
O 111 

also 



ne"tho 4 

there 



ne"tho 4 

there 

ga' c ha. 

one it has 
brought. 



gago nt hetchage' 4 hen', oien'da' 

it brands lay heaped, it fuel 

Tho"ge o'ne nc wa'ondega"da' 

At that now she kindled (a fire), 

(time) 



na'ie' 



wa'oiitc'da' ne" ena'sgwagon'wa' 'a c 'se n( niioko n 'kho"nage t 

that she it used the her bosom in three so many it fagot in 

(it is) number (is) 

heiago'se n4 'di', na'ie' ne v ha'weii': " E n tciade n na"da'." Tho"ge 

there she them that the he it said: " Ye two will take At that 

had dropped, (it is) provision." (time) 

wa , dio n, nia' 4 hen' gaia'di"ge' ne" skennondo 11 ". Wa'dieia'- 

she her two hands its body on the deer. She its body 
to it put 

da c hi"da', na'ie' wa'oiide'skon'de 11 ' ne" e n iondekhon'nia\ 

broke up, that she it roasted for herself the she it will eat. 



o'ne ni 

now 



'A"se n4 

Three 



(it is) 



niiagono nC hwe'dr o'ne IlC he" saionde"doii', wa'agowiaienda"nha', 

she infant became possessed of, 



0'ne nw 

Now 



so many she remained now 

over night 

e' 4 he n * ne" eksa'a". 

she female the she child. 

(is) 

Gaende"so nC k. 

It-winds-go-about 
(Gusts-of-wind) 

sthonda'do n \ Ne"tho c 

thatched it with There 

grass. 

O'ne"* gowa'ne"' 

Now it much 

(is, 



again 

Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

it 



again she 
was confined 

hi'ia' 

verily 



ne" saionnaVat ne" 



the 



in' 

again she is 
born 



the 



wa'eno'she" 1 , 

she set up a bower 



wa'die'- 

she 



ne" goksten"a' 

the she ancient 

one 

degni"deff, ondat'hawa 4 . 

they (z.) abode, one parent of the ■ 
other (was). 

ododi'ha'die' ne" o n4 hwen'djia\ 

it continues to the it earth, 

grow 

oiefi'det tea" non'we' e n ge n4 hio n 'hwade'nionk. Ne"tho c degni"deff' 

the place it river will have its course There 

severally. 



it is cogni- 
zable 



the 

where 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



they (z.) two 
abode. 



deiondade i 'snie ; ne" eksa'a". 

she her cared for the she child. 



Agwa's 

E x (-ced- 
ing! y 



ne" 

the 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



godi'sno'we' 

she grew rapidly 14 



184 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



very rapidly. Some time afterward she then became a maiden. And 
they two continued to remain there. 

After a while, seemingly, the elder woman- being heard her offspring 
talking with someone. Now, verily, the elder woman-being was 
thinking about this matter, wondering: "Whence may it be that a 
man-being could come to talk with her." She addressed her, saying: 
u Who is it, moreover, who visits thee?" The maiden said nothing 
in reply. As soon as it became night and the darkness was complete, 
he, the man-being, again arrived. And just as the day dawned the 
elder woman-being heard him say: "I will not come again." Verily 
he then departed. 

Not long after this the life of the maiden was changed. Moreover, 
it became evident that she was about to give birth to a child. After 



nwa'onni'she' 



so it lasted 
long 



gododi'ha'die'. Gain'gwa' 

she continues to Some (time) 

grow. 

Ne"tho' ni'io't tea" degni"den'. 

There so it is the they (z.) two 

where abode. 

o'ne 11 ' gwa" othon'de' ne' 

now seem- she (z.) the 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



eksa'dase"a' 

she small 
maiden (is) 



wa'wa'do 11 '. 

it it became. 



Dien' 4 ha' 

After a 
while, 

deiagot'ha' 

she is talking 
with one 



gwa 



seem- 
ingly, 

ne" 

the 



seem- 
ingly 



she (z.) 
heard it 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



J/ 



gok'sten'a' 

she ancient 
one 

on'gwe' 



dat'hawa 4 . 

her offspring. 



wa'we'a' : 

she (z.) it 
thought: 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 

"Gain" 

"Where 



hi'ia' 

verily 

hon" 

prob- 
ably 



gok'sten'a 4 ne" 

she ancient the 

one 

wa'wenno ni don'nio n ' 

she (z.) it thought about 
repeatedly 

noii'we' 



the place 



nonda'ie 11 ' 

thence one 
should come 



man- 
being 

4 Qon'ha'wa', 

"I am thy parent, 



deiagot'ha'. 

king 
le, 

di" 



she is talking 
with one, 



son" 



more- 
over 



Hiia 4 ' ste 



xnV 



Not 
(it is) 

na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



who 
(is it) 

de'aga'wen 4 

she it said 



Wa'agowenna"nha', wa'ge 11 ' 'hen" : 

She addressed words to she (z.) it said: 

her, 

hiianada'heif'sek? " 

he thv mat visits?" 



nonwa 4 ho"de n ' 

kind of person 



ne 

the 



v 



ne 

the 



any- 
thing 

wa'dwa'sondaienda"nha' 



eksa'go'na 4 . 

she maiden. 



one 

now 

tea" 

the 

where 



ii. 



it thick night became 

daio 4 he n 'i k ha'die' 



there it is coming 
to be day 

wa'he n4 hen": "Hiia" 



one 

now 



one 

now 



ne 

the 



Ganio" wao"gak, 

So soon it became 

as night, 

sa'ha'io 11 '. Agwa's 

again he Just as 
arrived. 

gok'sten'a 4 gOthon'de' 

she ancient she it heard 



ne 

the 



he it said: 



"Not 
(it is) 



he" 

again 



da'donda'ge'. 

again I will 
come." 



J? 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



hi'ia' 

verily 



sho'den'dion'. 

!-« again he departed. 



Hiia" de'oi 4 hwishe"i 4 o'ne 114 o'ia 

it matter long (is) now 



13 Not 

(it is) 

eksa'go'na'. O'ne 114 di" 

14: 8 he maiden. Now more 

(is) over 



it other 

(is) 

oien'det 

it is recog- 
nizable 



ni'io't tea" ago'n'he' ne" 

so it is the she living the 

where (is) 

tea" e n iaofoksa'daienda"nha'. 



the 
where 



she will become pos- 
sessed of a child. 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 185 

a time, when, seemingly, the maiden had only a few more days to go, 
she was surprised, seemingly, to hear two male man -beings talking 
in her body. One of the persons said: ""There is no doubt that 
the time when man-beings will emerge to be born has now arrived." 
The other person replied: "Where, moreover, does it seem that 
thou and I should emerge?" He replied, saying: "This way, more- 
over, thou and I will go." Now, again, one of them spoke, saying: 
" It is too far. This way, right here, is near, and, seemingly, quite 
transparent." At that time he added, saying: "Do thou go then; 
so be it." Now, he started and was born. The child was a male. 
Then, so far as the other was concerned, he came out here through 
her armpit. And now, verily, he killed his mother. The grandmother 
saw that the child that was born first was unsurpassedly fine-looking. 

Dieii"ha' gwa" o'ne 11 ' gwa" doga"a' e n tciago'he n "sen' o'ne 11 ' 

After a seem- now seem- a few in will it her days now 1 

while ingly, ingly, number dawn on 

ne" eksa'go'na' wa'ondien''ha' gwa" o'ne 11 ' gothon'de' de'hodi'- 

the she maiden she was surprised seem- now she it heard they (two) £ 

ingly were con- 

tha' tea" eia'dagon'wa 4 . I'ha'do n k ne" shaia"dada': "O'ne 11 ' 

vers- the her body in. He said re- the he one per- "Now 3 

ing where peatedly son is: 

gai'hwado'ge 11 ' ne" tea" hwa'ga'he"g tea" non'we' e n ieia- 

it is a matter of the the it (time) has the the place one will 4 

certainty where arrived where 

ge n "nha' ne" on'gwe 4 na'ie' ne" e n ioiinagat'." Ni'ha'wen' 

emerge the man- that the will one be Thence he it said 5 

being (it is) born." 

ne" shaia'dada': "Gain" gwa" di" non'we" he n 'dene'?" Da'- 

the he one per- "Where, seem- more- the place hence we two He 6 

son is: ingly, over, will go?" 

hai'hwa'sa'gwa' wa'he n4 hen": " Tho'ne 11 ' di" he n 'dene\" O'ne 11 ' 

answered he it said: "Here (it is) more- hence we two Now ' 

over will go." 

he" ne" shaia"dada' wa'hawennitge n "nha', wa'he ni hen": 

again the he one per- he spoke (uttered word), he it said: 8 



son is 



"Swa'djik' i'no 11 '. Tho'ne nC gwa"tho' dosge n "ha\ gwa" 

"Excessively far This way just here (it is) near, seem- 9 

(it is). ingly, 

deio'hat'hek." Tho"ge' wa'he n4 hen": " Wa'se", nio"." 0'ne ,u 

it is light (i.e., At that he it said: "Thitherdo so be Now lo 

transparent)." (time) thou go, it." 

wa'ha'den'dia', wa'hennagat' ne" shaia"dada'. Hadji'na 4 ne" 

he started, he was born the he one per- He male the H 

son is. (is) 

haksa'a". Tho"ge' na" ne" shaia'dada" tho'ne 114 e'sio ni da"ge c 

he child. At that that the he one per- here her side at 12 

(time) one that son is 

da'haiage^'nha'. O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa'shago'iio' ne" hono"ha'. 

thence he came Now verily he her killed the his mother. 1" 

forth. 

Heiawengo"di' haksa'di'io ne" tea" wa'watgat'hwa' ne" ho'soda'hji"' 

Unsurpassedly he fine the the she (z.) it looked the his grand- 14: 

(thoroughly) child (is) where at mother 



186 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. ann. 21 

At that time she asked, saying: " Who, moreover, killed your mother, 
now dead?" Now, he who did it replied, saying: "This one here." 
Verily, he told a falsehood. Now, the elder woman-being seized the 
other one by the arm and east his body far beyond, where he fell 
among grasses. Now, she there attended to the other one. It is said 
that they grew rapidly in size. After a while, seemingly, he was in 
the habit of going out, and there running about from plaee to place. 
In like manner they two grew very rapidly. 

Now the child who lived out of doors kept saying: "Do thou 
tell thy grandmother, who, verily, is grandmother to us two, that 
she should make me a bow, and also an arrow." Now, verily, he 
told her what manner of thing the other person desired. The only 

ne" da'hadiee n "da' wa'hennagat'. Tho"ge 4 o'ne 114 wa'ei'hwa- 

the there he did it he was born. At that now she asked ques- 

1 (first) (time) , tions repeat- 
was the edly 

neii'do 11 ' wa'a'hen'': "Soil" nonwa 4 ho"de n ' di" wa'shago'io' ne" 

2 she it said: "Who kind of person, more- he her killed the 

over, 

etchino'*ha'-ge n ''ha'?" Da 4 he n4 hen" ne" ne"tho 4 ni'hoie'e 11 ': 

3 she your two mother — it Thence he it said the there so he it did: 



was 



r>>> 



"Neii'ge 114 ." Wa'hennoie n "da' hi'ia'. O'ne 114 ne" gok'steua' 

4 "This (one) He told a falsehood verily. Now the she ancient 

it is." one, 

da'honentcha" ne" shaia'dada 4 si 4 ' ia'hoia'don'df, awennu'ga- 

5 thence she his the he one per- yonder hence she cast his it grass (weeds) 

arm seized son is (far) body, 

gon'wa 4 hwa , hendaga"nha'. O'ne 114 ne"tho 4 de 4 ho'snie 4 ne" 

6 among there he fell on his Now there she him cared the 

back. for 



V 



sl}aia"dada\ Agwa's, ia'ke 11 ', de'hodisno'we'. Dien' 4 ha' gwa 

7 he one per- Very, it is said, they two grew rap- After a seem- 

son is. idly. while, ingly 

o'ne 114 he 4 haia'ge n 's, ne v tho' hadak'he's. Hiie n 'noie n ' 4 ha 4 ne" 

8 now hence he goes there he ran about They two played the 

out of doors, habitually. together 

deiade n 'hnon'da'. Sha'de'io't honnadisno'we'. 

9 they two are brothers. It two is they (m.) grew 

alike rapidly. 

O'ne" 4 i'ha'do n k ne" haksa'a" na'ie' ne" asde 4 '- hagwa" 

10 Now he it kept the he child that the out of toward, 

saying (it is) doors side of it 

hana'gee': 44 Sheiatho'ie n4 ne" sa 4 soda'ha 4 ' na'ie' ne" hi'ia 

11 he dwells: "Do thou her the thy grand- that the verily 

tell mother (it is) 

shedi^soda'ha 4 ne" f^ionge 4 sen'nie n, ne" a'en'na' ga 4 hes'ga' 

12 she our two grand- the she me should the it bow it arrow 

mother is it make for 

o 4 'ni'." O'ne 114 hi'ia' wffshagotho'ie"' tea" nonwa w ho"de n ' ne 

13 also." Now, verily, he her it told the kind of thing the 

where 

de 4 hodo n *hwefidjion'niks ne" shaia"dada\ Na'ie' ne" daiona' 

14 it him is necessary for the he one person is. That the there 

(it is) she 



V 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



187 



result was that she got angry, saying: "Never will I make him a 
bow and also an arrow. It is he, verily, who killed her who was the 
mother of you two." 

It continued thus that the two brothers played together. The}' 
were in the habit of making a circuit of the island a floating there. 
And, as rapidly as they made a circuit of it, so rapidly did the earth 
increase in size. When, it is said, the island had grown to a great 
size, then he who had been cast out of doors kept saying: t 'Man- 
beings 6 are about to dwell here." The other person kept saying: 
"What manner of thing is the reason that thou dost keep saying, 
'Man-beings are about to dwell here?' He said: "The reason that 
I say that is that it is a matter of fact that man-beings are about to 



khwe n '*ha geii'gwa', iion'do n k. 

became only. she it kept 

angry saying : 



ne 

the 



v 



a'en'na 5 



ga'hes'ga' o c 'nf 

it arrow also. 



it bow 

she 4 snino'*ha'." 

she (is) your two 
mother." 

Ne"tho 4 ni'io't hiie n 'noie n ''ha' 

There so it is they (m.) two played 

together 



"Hiia" hweii'do"' 

' ' Not ever 

(it is) 

Na'ie' hi'ia' 

That verily, 

(it is), 



thakhe'seii'nie 11 ' 

I him it will 
make for 

shago'io' ne" 

he her the 

killed 



de'hiade p 'hnon'da'. De'hiiathwa- 

The (m.) two made 
customarily a 



they (m.) two are 
brothers. 



da'ses tea' 



circuit 
of it 



the 
where 



ga"hwe"no\ 

it island floats. 



That 

(it is) 



niio c sno'we' 

so it is rapid 



wa'hiathwada'se' 

thev two made a circuit 
of it 



ge s 

custom- 
arily 



Na'ie' ne" tea" 

the the 

where 

he" niio'sno'we' wa' wadodia'ga' 

so so it is rapid it grew in size 



ne' 

the 



v 



o n 'hwendjia'de'. O'ne 114 , ia'ke 11 ', 

it earth is present. Now, it is said, 



wa'ododi'ha'die' 



tea 

the 
where 



tea*' ga"hwe"no' tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' 



hence it continued 
to grow in size 



ne 

the 



the 
where 



it island 
floats 



at that 
time 



now 



gowa ne 

it much 

(is) 

i'ha'do n k nen'ge 114 a'wet asde" 

he it kept this one it can out 

saying (it is) be of doors 

hoia'don'dio 114 : "Oii'gwe' onnagat'he' ne" tho'ne ni ." I'ha'do n k 

she his body cast: "Man-being they are about the here." He it kept 

to dwell saying 

no" shaia"dada': " Ho't nonwa t ho"de n ' diioi c 'hwa' tea" 

the he one person is: "What kind of thing there its matter (is) the 

(— is the reason) where 

L'sa'do n k: **Oii'gwe' onnagat'he' ne" tho'ne 11 '?" Wa'he uC hen v : 

thou art "Man-being they are about the here"" He it said: 

saying: to dwell 

" Na'ie' ne" diioi ; 'hwa' ne" na'ie' iga/do n k ne" do'ge'\s se" 

"That the there its matter (is) the that I keep say- the it is true asafnat- 

(it is) (=is the reason) (it is) ing it teroffacl 

on'gwe' < v 'ionnagat' ne" tho'ne 11 '. I" na" iga'do n k ne" Odendon- 

man-being they (indef.) the here. I that I keep say- the it Sap- 

will dwell one ing it 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



« Hence arose the idea so prevalent among Amerindian peoples that the earth is an island, 
floating on the primal sea. 
''Here man-being means human being. 



188 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

dwell here. And it is I, the Sapling, who say it." So then, this 
other person began to say: "I shall be called Flint." 

When they two had nearly grown to maturity, it is said, then he, 
the Sapling, made himself a lodge, erecting a booth. And when he 
had completed it, he departed. He went to hunt. He shot at a bird, 
but he missed it, and his arrow fell into the water. Verily, he then 
resolved: "I will take it out of the water again.-' Now, there into the 
water he cast himself, plunging into the water. He was surprised 
that, seemingly, he fell there beside a doorway. Then, moreover, 
from the inside of the lodge a man-being spoke to him, saying: "Do 
thou come in, my child; I am thankful that thou hast visited my lodge. 
I purposely caused thee to visit the place where my lodge stands. 
And the reason that it has thus come to pass is that my mind was so 
affected by what thy grandmother keeps saying. And, moreover, I 

ni"a' e n gia'djik." Da', o'ne 11 ' nen'ge 11 ' shaia"dada' wa'ha'sa'we 11 ' 

1 ling will I be named." So, now this one he one he it began 

(it is) person is 

tea" i'ha'do n k: " O'ha'a' na" ne" i" e n gia'djik." 

2 the he it kept "It Flint tliat the I will I be 
where saying: one that named." 

O'ne 11 ' tho"ha', ia'ke 11 , a'hiadodia'ga' o'ne 11 ' hotno n 'son'ni' 

3 Now nearly it is said, they two would now he himself made 

grow up a lodge 

wa'hanos'he 11 ' ne" Odendonni"a'. Na'ie' ne" o'ne 11 ' wahadien- 

4- he made a the It Sapling. That the now he corn- 

bower (it is) pleted his 

no"kde n ' o'ne 11 ' ho'defi'dion'. Wa'hadowat'ha'. Wa'ba'a'gwa' 

5 task now he departed. He went to hunt. He (it) shot 

ne" goiidiio'sho n "a' sa'hat'wa/'da' awe n "ge' hwa'o"nha' ne" 

() the they (z.) birds (are) he it missed it water in thither it was the 

(=small animals) immersed 

ho'hes'ga'. O'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa'he'a': u E n sgo'gwaV' O'ne 11 ' ne"tho' 

7 his arrow. Now, verily, he it thought: " will I it take out Now there 

of the water." 

awe n "ge' wa'hadia'do"iak wa'hade's'gok. Wa'hadien"ha' gwa" 

8 it water on he east his body he plunged himself He was surprised seem- 

(in) in it. ingly, 

ne"tho' hwa'hendaga"nha' ganho'hwak'da'. O'ne 11 ' di" gano n s- 

9 there there he fell on his back it doorway beside. Now more- it lodge 

over 

gon'wa 4 on'gwe 4 da'hada'dia' wa'he n 'hen": ;i Dadjio 11 ", gon'ha'wa'. 

10 in man-being thence he spoke he it said: "Do thou come I am thy 

in, parent. 

Niiawe n ' l ha' wa'sgno ni sowe n "nha\ Tea" ge'qda' tea" wasgwat'hwa' 

11 I am thankful thou my lodge The I it did the thou dost pay 

hast found. where purposely where a visit 

tea" non' we' ageno n 'sa'ie n '. Na'e 1 ne" diioi' 4 hwa' tea" ne"tho 4 

12 the the I lodge have. That the there its reason the thus 
where place (it is) (is) where 

nwa'awe""ha' ne" ak'nigo n "ha' ne" tea" nonwa'ho"de n ' iion'- 

13 so it came to the my mind the the kind of thing she it kept 

pass where saying 

do n k ne" etchi'so'da'ha 4 . Na'ie' di" age'i 4 ' ne" e n gon'ie n ' ne" 

14 the your two grand- That more- I it intend- the I thee it will the 

mother. (it is) over ed give 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VEK3ION 189 

desired to give thee a bow and also an arrow which thou dost need, 
and which, by and by, thy brother will see, and then he will ask,. 
saying: 'Whence didst thou get this?' Thou must say: ' My father 
has given it to me.' " Now, furthermore, he gave both to him. At 
this time he bestowed another thing; it was corn. At that time he 
said: "This corn, as soon as thou arrivest at home, thou must at once 
roast for food for thyself; and at that time thou must continue to 
say: 'In this manner will it continue to be that man-beings, who are 
about to dwell here on the earth, will be in the habit of eating it.' 
Th} T brother will visit thy lodge, and at that time Flint will ask, say- 
ing: 'Whence didst thou get this kind of thing?' Thou must say, 
moreover: 'My father has given it to me.' " 

Moreover, it did thus come to pass when he arrived at his home. 
At that time he husked the ear of corn and also laid it beside the fire; 

a'en'na' ga'hes'ga' o"nf, na'ie' ne" de'sado n 'hwendjio'niks. 

(it) bow it arrow also, that the it thee is necessary for. 1 

(it is) 

Na'ie' ne" ge n "djik e n 'hatgat'hwa' ne" detciade n 'hnon'da' 

That the by and by he it will see the thou he are brothers 

(it is) 

e n 'he n 'hen": "Gain" non'we' das'hawa'?" E n 'si'hen": "G'ni'ha" 

he will say: " Where the place thence thou it Thou it wilt " My father 

didst bring?" say: 

haga'wi'." O'ne 11 ' di" dashagao 11 " dedjia'o 11 '. O'ne 11 ' di" he" 

he it gave to Now more- he it gave to both. Now, more- again 4 

me." over him over, 

o'ia' donda'hat'ga'k, na" ne" one^'ha'. Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' 

it is other thence again he be- that one the it corn. At that now 

one stowed it that (time) 

wa'he n 'hen": "Neil'ge 11 ' o'ne n "ha' ganio" he n 'tcio n ' gondadie" 

he it said: "This one it corn so soon there thou wilt at once 

(it is) as again arrive 

e n sadade'skont'has e^sadekhonnia 1 , o'ne 11 ' ne'tho"ge' e n 'sado n '- 

thou wilt roast it for thou it wilt eat, now the at that thou wilt 7 

thyself (time) continue 

'hek: "Tho'ne 11 ' ne n io"dik e n iek'sek ne" on'gwe' ge n "djik 

to say: "Here so it will con- they (indef.) will the man- by and by 8 

tinue to be continue to eat it being 

tho'ne 11 w onnagat'he' tea" o n 'hwendjia'de'." E n 'hiano n \sowe n "nha' 

here they are about to the it earth is present." Will he thy lodge visit 9 

dwell where 

ne" detciade/ lw hnon'da' O'ha'a'. Tho"o^e' o'ne 11 ' e nc hai'hwanen'- 

the thou he are brothers It Flint. At that now will he ask 10 

(time) questions 

do"': e n 'he n 'hefi": "Gain" non'we', di" das'hawa' nen'ge 1 

will he it say: "Where the more- thence thou didst this one 

(is) place over bring it (it is) 

nonwa'ho"de n '?" £ n 'si'hefi" di": "G'ni'ha" thagawi"." 

kind of thing?" Thou it wilt more- "My thence he me 1^ 

say over: father it gave." 

Ne"tho' di" niiawe n "i' ne" o'ne 11 ' hesho'io 11 '. Tho"ge' 

There more- so it came to the now there again he At that 

over pass had arrive*]. (time) 

o'ne nw wahanoio"sa' ne" one rl "ha , , odjisdak'dfi' wfi'hfi'ie 11 ' o"ni' 

now he it ear husked the it corn, it fire beside he it hud also 



11 



13 
U 



190 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



he roasted the ear. So soon as it became hot, it emitted an odor 
which was exceedingly appetizing. They, his grandmother's people, 
smelled it. She said: " Flint, do thou go to see what the Sapling is 
roasting for himself, moreover." He, the Flint, arose at once, and 
he ran thither. When he arrived there, he said: " Whence didst 
thou get that which thou art roasting for thyself?" He said in reply- 
ing: "It is a matter of fact that my father gave it to me. And it is 
this that the man-beings who are about to dwell here on the earth 
will be in the habit of eating." Then Flint said: "My grandmother 
has said that thou shouldst share some with her." The Sapling replied, 
saying: "I am not able to do it, and the reason is that she desires 
to spoil it all. I desire, as a matter of fact, that man-beings, who 
are about to dwell here on the earth shall continue to eat it, and that it 
shall continue to be good." Then, verily, the lad returned home. When 



wa'hade'tcien' 4 he n '. Ganio" wa'o'dai 4 he n "ha' o'ne 114 wa wade n4 sa'e n ' 



he it roasted. 



So soon as 



it became hot 



now 



it scent emitted 



na'ie' 



ne 

the 



"J, that 

(it is) 

ho 4 soda 4 ha 4 '. 

3 his grandmother. 



heiodongo 4 'di 4 

it is exceeding 

Wa'ge n4 hen": 

She (z.) it said: 



we n4 saga"wi 4 . 



noiiwa 4 ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



o'ne 114 



hode'skoii'da' 

he himself is roast- 
ing for 

ne"tho' ia'thaa 4 'dat 

there hence he ran 



it odor is appeti- 
zing. 

44 4 ha'a', sekdo n "na 4 

"It Flint, do thon it go to 

see 

ne" Odendoiini"a 4 ." 

the It Sapling." 



Wa'odis'hwa' ne" 

They (z. ) it smelled the 



df ho't 

more- what 

over (it is) 

Da'hade n sda'tci', 

He arose at once, 



ne 

the 



4 ha'a'. 

It Flint. 



Ne" 

The 



o'ne nt 



ne"tho 4 

there 



hwa'ha'io 11 ' 

thither he ar- 
rived 

nonwa 4 ho"de n ' 

kind of thing 



wa'he n4 hen": 

he it said: 



" Gain 4 ' 

"Where 



non'we' 



44 G'ni 4 ha 4 ' 

"My father 



se 



sade'skofi'da' ? " 

thou it art roasting 
for thyself?" 

thagawi". Na'ie' e n ie'ksek 



das' ha wa' tea" 

the place thence thou it the 

didst bring where 

Da'hai'hwa'sa'gwa' ni'ha'wen 4 : 

Thence he replied 



there he it has 
said: 



onnagat'he' 

9 they (indef.) are 
about to dwell 

wa'he n4 hen": 

10 He it said: 



as a mat- thence he gave 
ter of fact it to me. 

ne" 

the 



ne 

the 



sa'gwa' 

\\ answered 



12 
13 



na le 

that 
(it is) 

gagwe'gi' 

it entire. 



ne 

the 

ne" 

the 



ne 7 ' 

]± the 



on gwe 

That they (indef.) will the man- 

(itis) habitually eat it being(s) 

tho'ne 11 ' o n4 hwendjia'de'." O'ne 114 ne" O'ha'a' 

here it earth is present." Now the It Flint 

(it is) 

"Gaweii" ksoda 4 ha" a'shenon'da'?" Da'hai'hwa'- 

• She it has said my grand- thou it shouldst Thence he 

father share with her?" 

Odendoimi"a' wa'he n4 hefi": " Hiia" thakgwe'nia', 

he it said: " Not I it am able to do, 

(it is) 

ne" tea" en"he' e n khetge n "da' 

the the she it de- ' I it shall spoil ' 

where sires 

ne" e n iek'sek e n ioia'nek onnagat'he' 

the they (indef.) it it will continue 
will habitually eat to be good 

O'ne 

Now verily 



It Sapling 

diioi"hwa' 

so its reason is 



Ge'he" se 



it 



I it desire as a mat- 
ter of fact 

on'gwe 4 ne" tho'ne 114 o nw hwendjia"ge 4 ." 

man-being(s) the here it earth on." 

(it is) 



they (indef.) are 
about to dwell 

hi'ia' 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEKSION 



191 



he arrived there, he told what he had learned, sa} T ing: "The Sapling 
did not consent to it." She arose at once and went thither to the 
place where the booth of the Sapling* stood. Arriving there, she said: 
"What kind of thing* is it that thou art roasting for thyself?" He 
replied, saying: "It is corn." She demanded: "Where is the place 
whence thou didst get it?" He said: "My father gave it to me. 
And it is this which the man-beings who are about to dwell here on 
this earth will continue to eat." She said: "Thou shouldst give a 
share, verily, to me." He answered and said: "I can not do it, and 
the reason is that thou desirest to spoil it." At that time she said: 
"It is but a small matter, and thou shouldst pluck off a single grain 
of corn and give it to me." He said: "I can not do it." She said: 
"It is a small matter, if thou shouldst give me the nubbin end of the 
corn ear." He said: "lean not do it. I desire that it shall all be 



sho'den'dion 4 ne" 

again he departed the 



haksa'a". 



hatho'ia 

it told 



he child. 

(is) 

wahe n -herT': " 

he it said: 



Ne" 

The 



one 

now 



n» 



honsa'ha'io 11 ' 

there again he 
arrived 



wa'- 

he 



Hiia" thogaie n "r ne" Odendonni"a'. 

the It Sapling. 



" Not there he was 

(it is) willing 

DofidagadeVda' ne" ho\soda'ha" ne"tho* nhwa"e n ' tea" 

Thence she (z.) sprang the his grandmother there 
up at once 

ni*hode n nos'he n ' ne" Odeiidonni"a'. Hwa'e'io 11 ' wa'amen" 

there his thatched the It Sapling. There she ar- she it said: 



thither she 
went 



the 
where 



his thatched 
bower (is) 

nonwa'ho"de n ' sade'skon'da' ? " Da'hada'dia' wa'he ni hen": 



There she ar- 
rived 



non' we* 

the 
place 

"Ho't 

' What 

(it is) 

"One 11 '- 



kind of thing 



he it said: 

55 



"It corn." 

Wahe n -heiV: 

He it said: 



thou thyself art roast- He spoke in 

ingfor?" reply 

4 ha'." Wa'ge n 'hen": "Gain" non'we 4 das'hawa'? 

She (z.) it said: " Where the place thence thou it 

(it is) didst bring?" 

"G'ni'ha" thagawi". Na'ie' e n iek'sek ne" on'gwe' onnagat'he 

"My father there he it gave That they (indef.) the man-being(s) 

(it is) 



there he it gave 
it to me. 



they (indef.) 

will continue 

to eat it 



they (indef.) 

are about to 

dwell 



ne 

the 



5/ 



tho'ne 11 ' o n 'hwendjia"ge 4 ." Wa'ge n 'hen": "A'sgenon'da 



hi'ia'." 

verily." 



Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 



here it earth on. 

(it is) 

Da"hai'hwasa'gw;V 

Thence he answered 

diioi''hwa' tea" 

the 

where 



She (z.) it said: 



"Thou shouldst 
share it with me 



wa'he n 'hen': 

he it said: 



thakgwe'nia'. 

I it am able to do. 



Tho' i 



"Hiia" 

"Not 
(it is) 

se'he" e n khetge n "da'." 

there its rea- the thou it in- I it will spoil." 

son (is) where tendest 

wa'ge n -hen v : " Nigai'hwa"a' ne" tcione n "hada' 

she (z.) it said: "Just it matter small the it grain of corn 

ns) single 

na'ie' dondas'gwe"'." Wa'he nt hen": 

that thou it shouldst give He it said: 

(it is) tome." 

Wa'ge nt hen": " Nigai 4 hwa"a' ne" dondas'gwe 

She (z.) it said: "Just it matter small the thence thou it shouldst 

(is) give to me 

see n "da\" Wa'he n 'hSn" : "Hiia" thakgwe'nia . Ge'he* gagwe'gi' 

(of the corn- He it said: "Not I it am able to do. I it desire. it whole 

ear)." (it is) 



Hiia'' 

"Not 



At that now 

(time) 

a'se'nioda/gwa' 

thou it shouldst 
pluck out 

thakgwe'nia'." 

I it am able to do." 



:n' 



ne 

the 



oko nt - 

it imma- 
ture end 



8 
9 

10 

11 
12 

13 

14 



192 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



good, so that the man-beings shall continue to eat it." At that time she 
became angry and she came forward, and, taking up some ashes, cast 
them on what he was roasting, and that was now spoiled. She said: 
"Thou desirest that that) which they will continue to eat shall con- 
tinue to be good. There, it will now be different." Thrice did she 
repeat the act that spoiled it. Then the Sapling said: "Why hast 
thou done that deed?" 

Now again, another thing: he had a pot wherein he heated water. 
Then from the ear of corn he plucked a single grain of corn, and he 
put it therein, saying: "Thus shall man-beings be in the habit of doing 
when they prepare food for eating." Then he placed the corn in a 
mortar, and also said: "In this manner also shall man-beings, who 
are about to dwell here on the earth, continue to do." Then he took 
from its stand the pounder and brought it down once, and it became 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 



e n ioia'nek e n iek'sek 

it will be good they (indef.) it 
will continue 
to eat 



ne 

the 



on'gwe'." 



Tho"ge 4 o'ne 11 ' 

man-being(s)." At that now 

(time) 



khwe n "ha\ 

became angry, 



dawa'deii'dia' 

thence she (z.) 
started forward 



wa'tga"gwa' ne" 

she (z.) it took up the 



o'ge n "ha' 

it ashes 



wa'ona'- 

she (z.) 



ne"tho 4 

there 



wa'gaie n "da' tea" hode'skon'da' o'ne 11 ' ne" na" wa'ga'hetge^'da'. 

she (z.) it dashed the he it is roasting for now the that one she (z.) it spoiled, 
against where himself so that 

Wa'ge^'hen": "Se'he" e n ioia'nek tea" e n iek'sek. Tho" o'ne 114 

She (z.) it said: " Thou it it will be ever the they (indef.) will There, now 

good where habitually eat it. 

nwa'wadief'a' 



o'ia' ne n io"dik." 



it is 
other 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



so it will con 
tinue to be." 



intendest 

>X"se n ' 

Three 



ne 

the 



Odendonni'a' 

It Sapling 



so she (z.) it re- 
many peated 

wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



tea" wa'ga'hetge n "da' 

she (z.) it spoiled. 



-n3 



nwa'siea 

so thou it didst 
do?" 

O'ne 11 ' he" o'ia' hotna'dja/ie 1 

Now again it is he has a kettle set 
other for himself 

Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' ono n 'kwe n 'ia"ge' 

At that now it ear of corn on 

(time) 

ne"tho' hwa'hok', wa'he n 'hen": 

there thither he it he it said: 

immersed, 



the 
where 

"Ho't 

"What 

(why) 



na" ne"tho 4 

that one there 



ne"tho' 

there 



wa'ha'hnekadai'ha'da'. 

he water heated. 



tcione n ''hada' wa'ha'nioda'gwa', 

it grain of corn one he plucked it off, 

(is) 

" Ne"tho' on'gwe' ne n ieienno'- 

"Thus man-being(s) such their method 
of doing kind of will 

e n iondekhon'nia\ " 

one food will eat." 



ne 

the 



de n 'k ne n ieie"hak ne" e n iekhoii'nia' 

continue so they it will the one food will 

to be continue to do prepare 

Tho"ge' ga'niga'dagoii'wa' wa'ha'e 11 ' ne" one n ' 4 ha', wa'he n *hen" 

At that it mortar in he it put in the it corn, he it said 

( time) 

o"nf: " Tho'ne 11 ' ne n ieie"hak ne" on'gwe w onnagat'he 1 ne" 

also: "This way so one it will the man-being(s) they (indef.) are the 

continue to do about to dwell 

tho'ne 11 ' o ni hwendjia'de\" O'ne 11 ' wa'ha'nioda'gwa' ne" ioiithe'- 

here it earth is present." Now he it took from standing the one it uses 

to pound 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 193 

finished perfect meal. He said: "Thus it shall continue to be; 
thus shall be the manner of preparing meal among the man-beings 
who are about to dwell here on the earth." At that time she, his 
gTandmother, came forward and heard what he was saying. She 
arrived there, and said: "Sapling, thou desirest that the man-beings 
shall be exceedingly happy." She went forward, and, taking off the 
pot from the fire, put ashes into the hot water. Now, moreover, she 
took the ear of corn, shelled it, and put the corn into the hot water. 
She said: "This, moreover, shall be their manner of doing, the method 
of the man-beings." At that time the Sapling said: "Thou shouldst 
not do thus." His grandmother did not obey him. Thence, it is said, 
originated the evil that causes persons customarily to speak ill when 

da 4 'gwa' sga'da 4 da'ha'se n4 'da' gaiennenda"! 4 gathe'tchi 4 sa"i 4 

one it is he it brought down it is finished one it meal has finished 1 

wa'wa'do 11 '. Wa'he n4 hen": " Ne"tho 4 ne n io"dik, ne"tho' 

it became. He it said: "There so it will con- thus 2 

tinue to be, 

ne n gaienno v de n k ne" e n iethe'tchon'nia' ne" on'gwe 4 ne" 

so its method of doing the one it meal will make the man-being(s) the 3 

will continue to be 

tho'ne 11 ' onnagat'he' o n4 hwendjia"ge 4 ." Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 114 dawa'den'- 

here they (indef.) are it earth on." At that now thence she 4 

about to dwell (time) started 

dia', da'we' ne" ho 4 soda 4 ha c ' gothon'de' ne" na'ie' i 4 ha'do n k. 

forward, thence the his grandmother she it heard the that heitkeptsay- 5 

she (z.) came (it is) ing. 

Ne v tho' wa'ga'io 11 ' wa'ge n4 hen": " Odendonni"a 4 se 4 he" 

There she (z.) arrived she (z.) it said: " It Sapling thou it Q 

intendes. 

e n iagotcennoii'nik ne" on'gwe 4 na'ie' ne" heiawengo 4 'di 4 .'' 

they (indef.) will con- the man-being(s) that the it is exceeding." 7 

tinue to be happy (it is) 

WiTwa^den'dia' wa'gana'djioda'gwa' ne" odjisda"ge 4 gana"djiot 

She (z.) started she (z.) it kettle took up the it fire on it kettle 8 

forward stands 

o'ge^'ha' wa"ok tea" io'hnegadai' 4 hen 4 . O'ne 114 ' di" one n "ha' 

it ashes she(z.)itim- the it water (is) hot. Now more- it corn 9 

merged in where over 

watga 4 'gwa' wa'gane n4 hogen'ia' ne"tho 4 o" hwa"ok tea" 

she (z.) it took up she (z. ) it corn shelled there too thence she (z.) the 10 

it immersed where 

non'we' o 4 hnegadai' 4 hen 4 . Wa'ge n 'hen": " Tho'ne" 4 di" ne n ieie'- 

the place it water is hot. She (z.) itsaid: "This way more- so they (in" 11 

over, def.) it will 

4 hak ne n ieienno"de n k ne" on'gwe 4 ." Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne" 4 ne" 

continue so their method of the man-being(s)." At that now the 12 

to do doing will be in kind (time) 

Odendonni"a 4 wa'he^hen": " 'A"gwi 4 ne"tho 4 na'sie'a'." Hiia 4 ' 

ItSapling he it said: " Do it not thus so thou it Not 13 

shouldst do." (it is) 

de'agogaie n "P ne" ho 4 soda'ha 4 '. Tbo 4 'ge 4 , ia'ke 11 ', nidio'nhi"i 4 

she it consented to the his grandmother. At that it is said, there it went 14 

(time), wrong 

na'ie' ne" wa 4 he'tge n ' ge n 's de 4 hodi'tha' tea" niga 4 ha'wi' ne" 

that the it is evil custom- they are talking the there it bears the 15 

(it is) arily where it (the time) 

21 ETH— 03 13 



194 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

they prepare food. And, it is said, she stated her wish, thus: "This, 
as a matter of fact, shall be the manner of doing of the man -beings." 
It so continued to be. The Sapling kept saying: "The way in which 
thou hast done this is nbt good, for I desire that the man-beings shall 
be exceedingly happy, who are about to dwell here on this earth." 

Now at that time the Sapling traveled about over the earth. Now 
there was a large expanse of earth visible. There was a mountain 
range, visible river courses, and a high clay bank, near which he 
passed. Now, verily, he there pondered many times. Then he made 
the bodies of the small game, the bodies of birds. All were in twos, 
and were mated, in all the clans [kinds] of birds. The volume of the 
sound made by all the various kinds of bird voices as they talked 
together was terrifying. And the Sapling kept saying: "Thus this 
shall continue to be, whereby the man-beings shall habitually be made 

iekhonnia"ha'. Na'ie' ne" wa'a 4 hen": "Ne"tho c se v ne n ieienno"- 

1 they (indef.) pre- That the she it said: "There as a mat- so their method 

pare food. (it is) ter of fact of doing 

de n k ne" on'gwe'.' 1 Wa''dwatgon'de n ' ne"tho' ni'io't. I>ha'do n k 

2 will be the" man-being (s)." It became fixed there so it is. He it kept 
in kind (thus) saying 

ne" Odeiidonni"a': " Hiia" de'oia'ne' tea" nwa'sie'a'. Ge'he" 

3 the It Sapling: "Not it is good the so thou it I it desire 

(it is) where didst do. 

heiotgonda"gwi' sken'no 11 ' e n iagotcennoii'nik ne" on'gwe' 

4. it will be immeasurably well (it is) they (indef.) will be the man-being(s) 

happy 

tho'ne 114 o n 'hwendjia'de' onnagat'he'." 

5 here (it is) it earth is present they (indef.) are 

about to dwell." 

Tho"ge' o'ne ni ne" Odendonni"a fc wa'thadawen'ie' tea" 

(3 At that now the It Sapling he traveled about the 

(time) where 

o ni hwendjia'de'. O'ne 11 ' gowa'ne" 4 tea" o n 'hweiidjia'de'. Onoiida fc - 

7 it earth is present. Now it much (is) the it earth is present. It mountain 

where 

ha'die', ge n4 hio n4 hwade'nio n ', dega'daetci'ha'die' ne"tho' wa'ha- 

§ rises extend- it stream stands forth it clay tall extends there he it 

ing along, severally, along 

dongo"da'. O'ne" 4 hi'ia' ne"tho' wa 1 henno n 'don'nio n '. O'ne 11 ' 

9 passed. Now verily there he thought repeatedly. Now 

wa'haia'doii'nia' ne" gondi'io' nigoiidiio'da's'a". Gagwe'gi' 

10 he its (their) body the they (z.) so they (z.) are small It all 

made animals bodied. 

degni'ha'die', odinia'gi 4 , gagwe'gi' tea" niiodi\sea/ge' ne" 

11 two they two are they(z.)are it all the so it breed is in the 

each, married, where many number 

gondi'io'. Deiodeno ni hiani"di' tea" nigaTsdowa'ne"' ne" 

12 they (z.) are It is terrifying the so it noise large (is) the 

animals. where 

gondi'io' nhwa'tgondiwefinage" odit'ha'. Na'ie' ne" Oden- 

13 they (z.) are every their (z.) language in they (z.) That the It 

animals number (is) are talking. (it is) 

donni"a' hot'ha' i'ha'do n k: "Na'ie' ne n io"dik ne" ofi'gwe' 

14 Sapling he is ne it is saying: "That so it will con- the man- 

talking (it is) tinue to be being(s) 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 195 

happy/' And now he made the bodies of the large game animals. 
He finished the bodies of two deer, and the two were mates. " There, 
that is sufficient to fill the whole earth," he said. He made all the 
various kinds of animals severally. All were in twos, and they, each 
pair, were mates [male and female]. 

At that time he, the Sapling, again traveled. Now the earth had 
grown to a very great size, and continued to grow. So now Flint 
became aware that the animals were ranging about. After a while 
then Flint concealed all the bodies of the animals. There in the 
high mountain was a rock cavern whereinto he drove all the animals. 
And then he closed it with a stone. Then Sapling became aware that 
the animals no longer roamed from place to place. Now, at this 
time, he again traveled over the entire earth. He saw on this side a 

e n iagawentgade'da"gwik." Na'ie' ne" na'ie' o n "ke n ' ne" gondi- 

it them will make happy thereby." That the that next in the they (z.) 1 

(it is) (it is) time are 

go'wane n 's ne" gondi'io' wa'haia'donnia/'hen'. Skennondo 11 " 

large in size the they (z.) are he their several bodies Deer £ 

animals formed. 

degiia'dage" odinia'gi' wa'thas"a'. "Ne"tho' ha'degaie'i' 

they two body in they (z.) are he them two "There (it is) just it is suf- o 

number (are) married finished. ficient 

de n ga c hen"nha' tea" niio n 'hwen'djia','' wa'he n 'hen". Gagwe'gi, 

it will be filled the so it earth is large," he it said. It all 

where 

ha'deganio"dage' wa'haia'donnia' 4 hen'. Gagwe'gi' degniia'dage'- 

just it animal in he its body formed severally. It all they (z.) two body 5 

every number is (is) each in 

ha'die' odiniak'se 11 '. 

number they (z.) are t> 

severally married. 

Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' he" donsa'hadawen'ie' ne" Odendofini"a'. 

At that now again there again he traveled the It Sapling, 

time 

O'ne 11 ' gowa'ne 11 ' tea" o n 'hwendjia'de' ododi'ha'die'. Da', 

Now it much (is) the it earth is present it is growing in So, o 

where size. 

o'ne 11 ' wa'hatdo'ga' ne" Oha'a' tea" deionnadawen'ie 4 ne" 

now he it noticed the It Flint the they (z.) are traveling the «? 

where 

gondi'io'. Dien"ha' gwa" o'ne"' ne" O'ha'ii' wa'haia'da'se"da' 

they (z.) are After a seem- now the It Flint he their bodies 

animals (game). while ingly concealed 

gagwe'gi'. Ne"tho' tea" ononda'ha'gowa'ne 11 ' ne"tho' oste n 'ha- 

it all. There the it mountain rises great there it rock 

where 

ga'hen'da' ne"tho' gagwe'gi' wa'haia'dinio nV da' ne" gondi'io'. 

cavern has there it all he their bodies the they (z.) are 

impounded animals. 

O'ne"' ne" oste n "ha' da'hadji'heda"gwa'. O'ne' 1 ' wa'hatdo'ga' 

Now the it rock there he it used to close it. Now he it noticed lo 

ne" Odendonni'Vr tea" hiia" de'sgon'ne's ne" oondi'io'. 

i j. 

the It Sapling the not again they (z. ) go the they(z.)are L * 

where (It is) about habitually animal. 



Tho"gc' o'ne 11 ' wathadawen'ie' tea" niio n mwen'djm\ Wa'ha- 

At that now he traveled the so it earth is large. He looked 

(time) where 



4 



7 



10 



12 



15 



196 TROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

mountain range. He went thither, and he arrived where the opening" 
of the cavern was. And he then took up the great stone and 
opened it again. Now, he looked therein and saw that the animals 
abode in that place. "*Do ye again go out of this place," he said. 
Then they came out again. And it was done very quickly. And all 
those that fly took the lead in coming out. At that time they, his 
grandmother and Flint, also noticed that the animals again became 
numerous. And then Flint ran, running to the place where the 
rock cavern was. He reached the place while they were still coming 
out. And he, by at once pulling down the stone again, stopped up the 
cavern. Verily, some of them failed, and they did not get out, and at 
the present time they are still there. And it came to pass that they 

tgat'hwa' ne n4 ' hagwa" diiononda'ma 1 . Ne"tho' nhwa'he", 

1 about this toward there it mountain There thither he 

way rises. went, 

hwa/ha"io n, ne"tho* gwa" ogamen'da' tea" ne"tho 4 io'sa'de'. 

2 there he arrived there seem- it has an the there it cavern 

ingly opening where present is. 

Wa'tha 4 'gwa' ne" gaste nc h&'gowa'ne n4 wa'hadjimeda'gwa/. O'ne"' 

3 He it took up the it rock large (is) he it unclosed. Now 



ne"tho 4 wa'hatgat'hwa/ w^'ha^e 11 ' ne"tho 4 gonni"deif ne" ga'io'. 

there he looked he it saw there they (z.) abide, the it game 

(animals). 

" Saswaiage n "nha 4 ne" tho'ne 114 ," wa'he n4 heii". Tho"ge 4 o'ne 114 

" Again do ye emerge the here," he it said. At that now 

(time) 

sagondiiage n "nha\ Agwa's tea" niio 4 sno'we\ Na/ie' dagondi'- 

O again they emerged. Just as much the so it is rapid. That thence they 

as possible where (it is) (z.) came 

4 )ient tea" niion 4 ' degondide n "ha'. Gagwe'gi 4 sagondiiage nV nha\ 

7 ahead the so it is they (z.) fly. It all again they (z.) emerged. 

where much (many), 

Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 114 wa'hiiatdo'ga' ne" ho 4 soda b ha 4 ' ne" O'ha'a' 

8 At that now they two it noticed the his grandmother the It Flint 

(time 1 ) 

o 4 'nf ne" tea" saionnatga'de n/4 ha' ne" gondi'io'. 0'ne n4 tho 4 'ge' 

9 also the the again they (z.) became the they (z.) are Now at that 

where numerous animal. (time) 

wa'thaa 4 'dat ne" 4 ha'a' ne"tho 4 nhwa'hadak'he' tea" non'we, 

10 he ran the It Flint there thither he ran the the place 

where 

diioste n4 haga'hen'da\ Hwa'ha/io"' tea" non'we 4 diiodiiage n1 'i 4 . 

11 there it rock opening has. There he the the place there they (z.) 

arrived where were coming forth 

Na'ie' ne" haiaMagonda'die' donda^a'se^'da' ne" oste 11,4 ha' 

1-^ That the his body kept right on thence again he it the it rock 

(it is) dropped 

sa 4 hadji 4 he , de n '. Ne"tho' hi'ia' o'dia'k daiodino'wen', hiia 4 

13 again he it closed up. There verily they are there they failed not 

some (it is) 

de'tciodiiage n "i 4 , ae"tho' ne" o n4 'ke n ' tgonni"den\ Ne"tho 4 

14 again they (z.) emerged, there the at present there they (z.) There 

abide. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



197 



were changed, becoming otgon [malefic], and the reason that it thus 
came to pass is that some customarily put forth their orenda for the 
purpose of ending the days of the man-beings; and, moreover, they 
still haunt the inside of the earth. 

At this time Sapling again traveled about. Then he was surprised 
that, seemingly, a man- being came toward him, and his name was 
HaduT. They two met. The man-being HaduT, said: "Where is 
the place whence thou dost come? " The Sapling said: " I am going 
about viewing the earth here present. Where is the place whence 
thou dost come?" HaduT said: "From here do I come. I am 



niiawe n "i 4 



tea' 



wa'dwatde'nf o'tgo n ' a wa'wa'do 11 , na'ie' daioi 4 - 



the 
where 



it (they) changed 
themselves 



otgon 



so it came to 
pass 

hwa'k'he' tea" ne"tho 4 nwa'awe n "ha' na'ie' 

there so it came to pass 



it (they) became, 

v 



reason 



the 
where 



that 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



that it was 

(it is) 

o'dia'k na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



deionnadennonda c 'gwi c ne" aiagawe n 'ni\sei'kda 4 'gwe 

the 



n) 



they (z.) 
are some 



they (z.) are emitting orenda 
for it 



they (z.) would cause days to 
end for them 



ne 

the 



na'ie' 



ne" 

the 



that 
(it is) 

Ne"tho' 

There 



di" ne" o n4 hwendjiagon'wa' tgon'ne's. 

the it earth in (side) 



more- 
over 



there they (z.) 
go about habitually. 



nige n *' o'ne ni he" donsa'hadawen'ie' ne' 



so it is 
distant 



now 



there again he trav- 
eled about 



on'gwe', 

man- 
being (s), 



Odendon- 

It Sapling. 



ni"a'. 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



Tho"ge c o'ne 11 ' wa'hadien"ha 1 gwa" da' 4 he' ne" hen'gwe 1 ", 

At that now he was surprised, seem- thence he the he man-being 

(time) inglv, is coming (is), 

ne" Hadu"i' & haia'dji 4 . Wa'thiada"nha'. Wa'he n 'hen" ne" 

the Hadu'T he is called. They two met. He said the 



hen'gwe 4 ne" Hadu'T: "Gain" non'we' nonda'se"?' ! Wa'he 11 - 

he man-being the Hadu"i': "Where the place thence thou He said 



thence thou 
didst come?" 



4 hen" 
a'de'. 



ne" OdendonnP'a" " Agekdonnion'die's tea" io ni hwendji- 

the It Sapling: 



Gain 4 ' 

Where 



ni's 

the 
thou 

Hadu'T: "Tho'ne 11 ' 

Hadu"i': "Here 



" I them am going about 
viewing 

nonda"se' ? " 

the place thence thou 

didst come?" 



the 
where 



it earth is pres- 
ent. 



noii'we 



Wa'he n 'hen" ne 

He it said the 



v 



nonda'ge' dewagadawenie 4 ha'die\ I" hi'ifi' 

I am traveling about. I verily 



thence I did 
come 



a In English there is no approximately exact equivalent of the term otgon, which is an adjective 
form denotive of the deadly, malefic, or pernicious use of orenda or magic power reputed to be 
inherent in all beings and bodies. It usually signifies deadly in deed and monstrous in aspect. 

b The Onondagas call this personage Hadu'i", the Senecas, Shagodiiowe'gowa, and the Mohawks, 
Akonwara'. The Onondaga name is evidently connected with the expression hadu' a,', signifying "ho 
is hunch-backed," in reference to the stooping or crouching posture assumed by the impersonator, to 
depict old age. The Seneca name means, "He, the Great One, who protects them ( = human beings)," 
and the Mohawk name, "The Mask," or "It, the Mask." All these names are clearly of late origin, 
for they refer evidently to the being as depicted ceremonially in the festival for the new year. The 
orenda or magic power of this being was believed to be efficacious in warding off and driving away 
disease and pestilence, as promised in this legend, and hence the Seneca name. The Mohawk epi- 
thet arose from the fact that the impersonator usually wears a mask of wood. But these etymologies 
do not give a definite suggestion as to what natural object gave rise to this personification, this con- 
cept. But from a careful synthesis of the chief characteristic's of this personage, it seems very probable 
that the whirlwind lies at the foundation of the conception. 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



198 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

going* about traveling-. Verily, it is I who am the master of the earth 
here present." At that time the Sapling said: "I it is who finished 
the earth here present. If it so be that thou art the master of the 
earth here present, art thou able to cause j^onder mountain to move 
itself hither?" Hadu'i' said: "1 can do it." At that time he said: 
"Do thou, yonder mountain, come hither." Then the} r two faced 
about. Sometime afterward they two now faced back, and, moreover, 
saw that the mountain had not changed its position. At that time 
Sapling said: " Verily, thou art not the master of the earth here 
present. I, as matter of fact, am master of it. Now, next in time, I 
will speak." He said: " Do thou, 3 r onder mountain, come hither." 
Now they two faced about. And as quickly as they two faced 
about again the mountain stood at their backs, The Sapling said: 
"What sayst thou? Am I master of it?" Then Hadu'i' said: "It 

gia'dagwe'ni'io' tea" o n 'hwendjia"ge'." Tho"ge' wa'he ni hen" 

1 I it am master of the it earth on." At that he it said 

where time 

ne" Odendonni"a': "I" aksa"i' tea" io n 'hwendjia'de'. Tho" 

2 the It Sapling: "I I it finished the it earth is present. Thus, 

where 

gwa" en'k do'ge n s i's sia'dagwe'ni'io' tea" io n; hwendjia'de', 

3 seem- it may it is true thou thou it art master the it earth is present, 
ingly, be of where 

sagweniofi'-khe 11 " ga/e' nonda'we' tea" sige n " diiononda' 4 ha'? " 

4 thou it art able art hither thence it the yonder there it mountain 

to do thou would come where it is rises?" 

Wa'he ni hen" ne" Hadu'T: "E n kgwe'nia'." Tho"ge 4 o'ne a ' 

5 He it said the Hadu'T: " I it will be able At that now 

to do." time 

wfrhe nC hen": " Ga'e' noiida 4 'se' sige 11 " diionoiida"ha'." Tho 4 'ge' 

6 ,heitsaid: "Hither thencedothou yonder there it mountain At that 

come it is rises up." (time) 

wa'hiatga'hade'nf. Gain'gwa' nwa'onni'she' o'ne 11 ' donsa'hiatgama- 

* they two faced about. Some So (long) it now again they two faced 

(time) lasted back 

de'ni' o'ne nt di" hoiisamiatgat'hwa' gadoge 11 " ni'dio't tea" onon- 

o now more- again hence they two it unchanged so there the it 

over looked (is) it is where moun- 

da'ma'. Tho"ge' ne" Odendonni'Yi' wa'he n 'hen": " Hiia fc ' hi'ia' 

tain rises At that the It Sapling he it said: "Not verily, 

up. (time) (it is) 

de'sia'dagwe'ni'io' tea" o n 'hwendjia'de\ I" se" gia'dagwe'ni'io'. 

10 thou it art master of the it earth is present. I it is a mat- 1 it am master of. 

where ter of fact 

O'ne 11 ' i" o n "ke n ' de n tgada'dia'." Wa'he nt hen": "Ga'e' non- 

11 Now I next in I will talk out." He it said: "Hither thence 

turn do 

da"se' sige" 4 ' disnonda' fc ha'." 0'ne nw wa'hiatga c hade'ni'. Ne"tho' 

1^ thou yonder there thou mountain Now they two faced about. There 

come it is art rising up." 

niio'sno'we' deshonnatga'hade'nioiT o'ne' 1 ' ni c sho ; 'ne 4 diionon- 

lo so it is rapid tney two again faced back now there their two there it 

backs at mountain 

da"ha'. Wa'he n 'hen" ne" Odendonni"a': " Hatc'kwi', i" gwen- 

rises up. He it said the It Sapling: " What sayst I Lit am 

thou, 



9 



14 



1 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 199 

is true that thou art master of it. Thou hast finished the earth here 
present. Thou shouldst have pity on me that I may be suffered to 
live. I will aid thee, moreover. Verily, thou dost keep saying: 
; Man -beings are about to dwell here on the earth here present.' In this 
matter, moreover, will it continue to be that I shall aid and assist 
thee. Moreover, I will aid the man-beings. Seeing that my body is 
full of orenda and even otgon, as a matter of fact, by and by the man- 
beings will be affected with mysterious ills. Moreover, it will be 
possible for them to recover if they will make an imitation of the 
form of my body. I, who was the first to travel over the earth here 
present, infected it with my orenda. And, verily, it will magically 
conform itself to [be marked by] the lineaments of my body. More- 
over, this will come to pass. If it so be that a man-being becomes 
ill by the contagion of this magic power, it is here that I will 
aid thee. And the man-beings will then live in contentment. And, 

ni'io'." Tho"ge' wa'he n 'hen" ne" Hadu'T: "Do'ge n s i's 

master At that he it said the Hadu"i': " It is true thou 

of." time 

swefmi'io'. I's saiennenda''i' tea" io ni hwendjia'de'. A'sgiden'a' 

thou it art mas- Thou thou it hast fin- the it earth is present. Thou shouldst •" 

terof. ished where have mercy on me 

ago'n'hek. E n gonia'dage % 'nha' di". I'sa'do n k hi'ia' on'gwe 4 

I should con- I thee will aid more- Thou it art verily man- 

tinue to live. over. saying beings 

hoimagat'he' ne" tho'ne 11 ' io nc hwendjia'de'. Tho'ne 114 di" 

they (z.) are about the here it earth is present. Here more- 4 

to dwell over 

ne n io"dik e n gonie'nawa's e u gonia'dage"nha'. E n kheia'dage c 'nha' k 

so it will con- I thee will assist I thee will aid. I them will aid 

tinue to be 

di" ne" on'gwe 4 . Na'ie' ne" ioen'dae' o'tgo 11 ' di" se" 

more- the man- That the it orenda otgon more- as a mat- 

over beings. (it is) is possessed of (it is) over ter of fact 

ne" gia'df'ge'. Ge n 'dji'k e n iagodianeii"nha' ne" on'gwe'. E n wa'do n ' 

the my body on. By and by they will be affected the man- It will be 

by mystic ills beings. possible 

di" ne" e n tcioii'do n ' doga"t-khe n4 de n ionde'niendeVda' tea" 

more- the again one will if it so is it, one it will make in the the o 

over recover one's self be, pattern of it where 

nighVdo"de n4 . Agadientga/'hwi' dwagadiee n "di 4 dewagadawenie" 

such my body (is) My body has affected I was the first I traveled about 

as in kind. it (with orenda) one 

tea" o n4 hwendjia'de'. Na'ie' ne" hi'ia' e n iona'ge*e n ' tea" 

the it earth is present. That the verily it it will pattern the 

where (it is) after where 

nigia , do"de ru . Tho'ne' 1 * di" ne n iawe n ' k ha'. Doga"t e n iagodie n se n '- 

such as my body Here more- so it will come If it so be one will become 

ism kind. over to pass. ill from magic 

gai n "nha' ne" off owe* na'ie' ne" ne"tho* nofi'we' & n gonie'- 

potence the man- that the there the place I thee will 

being (it is) 

nawa's. Skefi'no"' e n ionno n 'donnio n "hek ne" ofi'gwe'. Na'ie' di" 

assist. Well (it is) they will continue to think the man- That more- 

repeatedly beings. (it is) over 



3 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



200 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



moreover, they must customarily greet me b} T a kinship term, say- 
ing: 'my Grandfather.' And when, customarily, the man-beings 
speak of me they must customarily say: 'our Grandfather'; thereby 
must they designate me. And I shall call the man-beings on nry part 
by a kinship term, saying: 'my Grandchildren.' And the} 7 must 
make customarily a thing of wood which shall be in my likeness, 
being wrought thus, that will enable them to go to the several 
lodges, and, moreover, they who thus personate me shall be 
hondu'i'. a They must employ for this purpose tobacco [native 
tobacco]. It will be able to cause those who have become ill to 
recover. There, moreover, I shall take up my abode where the 
ground is wild and rough, and where, too, there are rock cliffs. More- 
over, nothing at all obstructs me [in seeing and hearing or power]. So 
long as the earth shall be extant so long shall I remain there. I shall 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



de n ionkno n 'hen"khwak 

they (indef.) will greet me by 
the relationship term 

Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



o ne 

now 



ge n 's i" 

eus- I 

tomarily 



ne" e n ia'hen" ge n 's: 'Ksoda'ha 4 '.' 

the one it will cus- ' My Grand- 

say tomarily: father.' 

e n iongwatho'ia' e n ia'hen" ge n 's: 

one me will tell of one it will cus- 

say tomarily: 

' Shedwa'soda',' na'ie' e n iongna'do n 'khwak ne" on'gwe 4 . O'ne"' 

' Our Grandfather,' that they (indef.) me will use the man- Now 

(it is) it to designate beings. 

ne" i" ne" on'gwe': ' Kheiade\sho n "a 4 ,' de n kheno n 'hen"khwak. 

the I the man- ' My Grandchildren I them will greet by the re- 

being: several,' lationship term. 

Na'ie' di" ne" e n ie'sen'nia' ge n 's ne" tea" nigia'do"de nC ne" 

That more- the one it will make cus- the the such my body (is) the 

(it is) over tomarily where as in kind 

o 4 hwen"ga' de n gaienda"gwik, na'ie' e n gagwe'nia' na'ie' tea" gono n '- 

it wood it it will resemble, that it it will be able that the they 

(it is) to do (it is) where (indef.) 

ne 7 



there 



there 



more- 
over 



so they (m.) it 
will do 



the 



saien'do 11 ' ne"tho' nhe n 'hen'ne', ne"tho' di" ne n4 hadiie'a' 

lodges have 
severally 

hondu'T ne" 

they (m.) the 
are hadu"i' 



i" 

I 



ge s 

cus- 
tomarily 



thither they (m.^ 
will go 

e n iongadia'donda"gwa' tea" nigia'do"de n; . Oie 11 '- 

they (indef.) my person will the such my body is It 

represent thereby where as in kind. 

e n iondiea'da"gwa'. E n gagwe'nia' e n djon'do n ' 

one it it will use to do. It it will be again one will be well 

able to do ( =become one's self again) 

ne" gono n 'hwak'danik. Ne"tho' di" non'we' ne n gadien" ne" tea" 

the they (indef.) ill are There more- the place I myself the the 

severally. oyer will place where 

non'we' odo n 'hwendjiat'gi's tea" o" degaste n 'he'nio n '. Hiia" 

the place it earth is wild the too 

severally where 

ste 11 " di" de'wagadawe n "das. Na'ie' 

any- more- it me obstructs (my sight, That 

thing over hearing, or power). (it is) 

e n io nC hwendjia'dek ne"tho' e n gi'deii'dak. E n kheia'dage"nhe n k di" 

it earth will be present there 



gwa'on'we' 

tobacco na- 
tive 



it rock rises severally. Not 

(it is) 

di" tea" ne n ionni'she' 

more- the so it will last 

over where long 



I will continue 
to abide. 



I them will continue 
to aid 



more 
over 



a Masculine plural of haduT. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEKSION 



201 



continue to aid the man-beings for that length of time." There, it is 
said, is the place wherein all kinds of deadly ills begot themselves — 
fevers, consumptions, headaches — all were caused b} T HaduT. 

Now, at that time the Sapling again traveled. He again arrived at 
his lodge, and he marveled that his grandmother was angry. She 
took from its fastening the head, which had been cut off, of his — the 
Sapling's — dead mother, and she carried it away also. She bore the 
head away with her. When she had prepared the head, it became 
the sun, and the body of flesh became the nocturnal light orb. As 
soon as it became night, the elder woman-being and, next in order, 
Flint departed, going in an easterly direction. At the end of 
three days, then said Sapling: "I will go after the diurnal orb of 



ne" on'gwe' 

the man- 

beings 

diiodadoimi" 

there it formed 
itself 

de n iago'hwa'e'sda', 

colic, the gripes (it will 
pierce one's body), 

ni'hoie'e 11 ' 



ne"tho ( 

there 

ne" 

the 



nigai 4 'hwes." Ne"tbo', 

so it matter is There 

long." (it is) 

nwa'tgano n 'soda'tchage" ; 

every it disease is in number; 



ia'ke 11 ', 

it is said, 



nofi'we' 



the 
place 

e n iago'do nt 'gwak, 

one fever will have, 



eniagono n 'wano n ' c h wak, 



so he it has 
done 



ne 

the 



Hadu"i\ 

Hadu'T. 



Tho w 'ge 4 o'ne nt 

At that now 

(time) 

Honsa'ha'io 11 ' tea" 



he" 

again 



There again he 
arrived 



the 
where 



non'we' 

the place 



one pain in the head 
will have, 



donsa'hadawen'ie' 

again he traveled 

thono n 'sa'ie n \ 

there his lodge 
lies. 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



ne"tho k 

there 



ne 

the 



v 



Odeiidonni"a\ 

It Sapling. 



0'ne n; wa'hoi 4 hwane w 

Now he marveled at the 



ha'gwa' tea" o'ne nt gona'khwe n "i' ne" ho'soda'ha". WaVha'gwa' 

matter the now she is angry the his grand- She it took off 



the 
where 



his grand- 
mother. 



tea" 

the 
where 

ne" 

the 



ganiionda"gwa' ne" ono n "wa' ne" tea" ondat'hnia'djia/'gi' 

the it head the the one her head had cut off 



it had been 
fastened up 



hono"ha'-ge n "ha' ne" 



the 
where 

Odendonni"a' 



hwa'e' c hwa' o"nf. 



his mother 



it was 



the 



Heiago'hau 11 " ne" 

Hence she carried the 

it away 

gaa 4 'gwa/ 



ono n "wa' 

it head 



ono n "wa'. 

it head. 



wa'wa'do n, ? 

it it became, 



It Sapling 

Tea" 

The 
where 

o'ne 114 

now 



hence she it 
carried away 

wa 1 eiennenda"nha , 



ne 

the 



she finished the w r av 
of it 

" oiee n "dr 



also. 

ne'' 

the 



ne 



it flesh 



the 
that 



gaa gwa 

nocturnal it moon 

(it is) (luminary) 

wahiia'den'diff ne" 

they two departed the 



wa'wa'do"'. 

it it became. 



Ganio" 



daio"gak 

thence it 
became nighl 

ne" 

the 



na 

that 
one 



it sun 
(luminary) 

a'sonek'ha' ga& 4, „ 

So soon 
as 

gok'sten'a' naie' gwa"tho 4 

she ancient that next in 

one (is) (it is) place 

tgaa'gwi'tge n \s nhwa'hniiea"da\ Na'ie' ne" Yi"se nt niwendage" 

there it sun rises thither they two (m.) That the three 

directed their course. (it is) 

nwa'oiini'she' o'ne n ' ne" Odendonni'Ti 4 wa'he ni hen": "0'ne nC 

so long it lasted now the It Sapling he it said : "Now 



o ne 

now 

Oha'if 

It Flint 

MS, 



so it day (is) in 
number 



3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 

13 
U 
15 



10 

11 



202 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

light. Verily, it is not good that the human beings who are about 
to dwell here on the earth should continue to go about in dark- 
ness. Who, moreover, will accompany me % " A man-being, named 
Fisher, spoke in reply, saying: "I will accompany thee." A man- 
being, another person, sa,id: vU l, too, will accompany thee." It was 
the Raccoon who said this. Another man-being, whose name is Fox, 
said: "I, too, will accompany thee." There were several others, 
several man-beings, who, one and all, volunteered to aid 
Sapling. At that time Sapling said: "Moreover, who will work 
at the canoe?" The Beaver said: u Verily, I will make it." Another 
man-being, whose name was Yellowhammer, said: "I will make 
the hollow of it." At that time there were several others who 
also gave their attention to it. And then they worked at it, making 

he n sgegwa' ''ha' ne" gaa"gwa' eiidek'ha'. Hiia 4 ', hi'ia' de'oia'ne' 

hence T it will go to the it orb of diurnal Not verily, it is good 

bring light (it is). (it is), 

daio'gas'dik tea" noii'we 4 aio n "sek ne" on'gwe 4 oimagathe" 

it should con- the the place they should con- the human they (indef.) are 

tinue to be night where tinue to go about being about to dwell 

o ne" tho'ne 114 o n4 hweiidjia"ge i . Son' di" noiiwa'ho"de n ' he n ia'gne'?" 

the here it earth on. Who more- kind of person one and I will go 

(is it), over, together?" 

Hefi'gwe', Sgaia'nis haia'dji 4 , da 4 hada'dia' wa'he n4 hen": "I" 

t He man- Fisher he is he talked in he it said: "I 

being, (Long-track) called, reply 

he n dne"." Hen'gwe', thi'haia'da'de' wa'he n4 hefi": "1" o" 

thou and I He man- just his body is projecting he it said : "I too 

will go." being (is) (he is another person) 

c n dwe"." Tcokda'gf ne" na" wa'he I14 hen v . Heii'gwe' thi'ha- 

we will go." Raccoon the that one he it said. He man- just his 

that being (is) body is 

iada'de', Sge n4 hna'kse n ' haia'dji 4 wa'he n4 hen": "■!'' o" e n dwe'." 

7 projecting (he is Fox he is he it said: "I too we will go 
another person), (It Has Bad Fur) called together." 

Thi 4 hadiia'dade'nio n ' hennongwe 4 sho n "o n4 gagwe'gi 4 wa'hoiithon- 

8 They (m.) other (are) they (m.) man-being it all they (m.) 

severally (are) severally made their 

ga'ia'k ne" tea" e ,u honwaie'nawa's ne" Odendonni"a 4 . 0'ne n4 

y scores (vol- the the they (m.) him will assist the It Sapling. Now 

unteered) where 

tho 4 'ge 4 ne" Odendonni"a 4 wa'he I14 hen": "Son" di" nonwa 4 ho"- 

at that the It Sapling he it said : " Who more- kind of person 

(time) (is it) over 

de 11 ' e n *hoio'de n ' 4 ha' ne" ga 4 hon'wa'?" Wa'he n4 heii" ne" 

he it will work at the it canoe?" He it said the 



jo Nagaia"gf: U V hi'ia' e"ge'sen'nia'." Heii'gwe* thi'haia'da'de', 

Beaver "I verily I it will make." He man- he another 

(Stick-cutter): being (is) person is, 

io Kwe lU 'kwe n4 ni'ha'senno''de n4 na'ie ne" wa'he n4 hen": "I" 



.o 



Yellowhammer such his name (is) that the he it said : "I 

in kind (it is) 

e n ksadon'nia'." Tho 4 'ge 4 o'ne 114 thigondiia'dade'nio" 1 o 4 'nf wa'ha- 

-fi-4 I trough (hoi- At that now they (z.) other individuals also they (m.) 

low)." will make (time) severally (are) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



203 



the canoe. There Sapling kept saying: "Do ye make haste in the 
work." In a short time, now, verily, they finished it, making a canoe. 
Quickly, now, they prepared themselves. At that time they launched 
the canoe into the water. Then Sapling said: ' c Moreover, who 
shall steer the canoe?" Beaver said: U I will volunteer to do it." 
Otter also said: "I, too." Now they went aboard and departed. 
Then Sapling said: "In steering the canoe, thou must guide it 
eastward." Now, it ran swiftly as they paddled it onward. It was 
night; it was in thick darkness; in black night they propelled the 
canoe onward. After a while, seemingly, they then looked and saw 
that daylight was approaching. And when they arrived at the place 
whither they were going it was then daylight. They saw that there 



dirhwasteis'da'. Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' wa'hodiio'de n "ha' 

At that now they (m.) it worked at 

(time) 

Ne"tho' i'ha'do n k ne" 

the canoe. There he it kept the 



the matter gave 
attention to. 

ioiVnia'. 



wtThadi'hon- 

they (m.) made 



Odendonni"a': 

It Sapling : 



.. 



Hau" ; 

"Come, 



he it kept 
saying 

deswa'nowaia'he n "ha'." Niioi'hwagwa'ha'' o'ne 11 ' hi'ia' wa'hondi- 

So it is a short matter now verily they (m.) 



do ye make haste (make your 
backs boil)." 

efino'k'de 11 ' wa'hadi'honion'nia' 



it task 
finished 



they (m.) it canoe 
made. 



Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 

Tho"ge' 

At that 
(time) 

nonwa'ho"de n ' 

kind of person 



o'ne 114 



awe ge 



now 



water on 
(in) 

wa'he n 'hefi" ne' 

he it said the 



Wa'dwakda"a' o'ne 11 ' wa'honde"sa'. 

It is a short space now they made them- 

selves ready. 

ne" ga'hoii'wa'. 

the it canoe. 



hwa'honna'df 

thither they (m.) it 
cast 



Odendonni"a': 

It Sapling : 



"Son" 

"Who 



di 



V 



e n thennidei!wa"da' ? " 

he the canoe will guide?" 



U TV 

"I 



e n gathonga'ia'k. 

I will volunteer." 



Skwa'ie 11 ' 

Otter 



Nagaia" gf 

Beaver 

(Stick-Cutter) 

wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said : 



more- 
over 

wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said : 



U TV 
"I 



Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' wa'hondi'dak, 

At that now they (m.) got 

(time) aboard, 

ne" Odendonnr'a' wa'he n 'hen" 

the It Sapling he it said : 

tea" e n senniden , wa ; 'da'." O'ne 11 ' 

the thou wilt guide the Now 

where 



o'ne 114 wa , hon'den'dia\ 

now they (m.) departed. 



o"ni\" 

also." 

O'ne 11 ' 

Now 

(it is) 



Tgaa'gwi'tge n 's ne n siea v da' 



" There it sun rises 



thither thou it 
wilt direct 



thou wilt guide the 
canoe." 



hi'ia- deioa"dadi' tea" hodiga- 

verily it is running the they (m.) 



the 
where 



we'ha'die\ Deio"gas, deioda'sondai'go 11 ', o'sondagonwa'sho n, gowa'- 

go along row- It is night, two it darkness to dark- it blackness (night) in along great 

ing. ness (pitch-dark) is joined, 

ne' ne"tho' hadrhoniofi'die'. Dien"ha' gwa" o'ne 11 ' wa'hontgat'hwa' 

there they (m.) go alon^ Suddenly, seem- now they (m.) looked 

propelling the canoe. 

ende"' daio'do n 'ha'die'. 



one 

now 



seem 
ingly, 



Ne" o'ne"' wa'hadi'io 11 ' ne" tea" 



day (day- 
light), 



thence so it is coming 
along. 



nofi'we' 

the place 



hwa'hen'ne' f>nde" 



thither they (m.; 
are going 



daylight 
(it is) 



The 

o'ne 11 

now. 



now they (m.) arrived the 



the 
where 



Wa'hontgat'hwa ne"tho* 

They (m.) looked there 

at it 



1 

2 
3 

1 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
11 
15 



204 



IROQDOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



was there, seemingly, an island, and they saw that the trees standing 
there were very tall, and that some of them were bent over, inclining 
far over the sea, and there in the water where the tree tops ended 
the canoe stopped. Then Sapling said: "Moreover, who will go to 
unfasten the light orb [the sun] from its bonds yonder on the tree 
top?" Then Fisher said: "I will volunteer." Then Fox said: "I, too 
[will volunteer]." At that time Fisher climbed up high, and passed 
along above [the ground]. He crossed from tree to tree, going along 
on the branches, making his way to the place where the diurnal light 
orb was made fast; thither he was making his course. But, in regard 
to Fox, he ran along below on the ground. In a short time Fisher 
then arrived at the place where the diurnal light orb was made fast. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 

12 
13 

14 
15 



gwa 



seem- 
ingly, 



tga'hwe u no', wa'hadi'ge 11 ' 

they (m.) it saw 



there it island 
floats, 

gaen'he'djfs agwa's deiotcha'kdoii'nio 11 ', 

they (z.) are bent severally, 



ne"tho' 

there 



it tree trunks (are) very (just) 
long (tall), 

gwe 114 ne" gania'da'ge"sho n '. 

the it lake (sea) on along 

hegaeiVhade'nio 11 ' 

there it trees end severally 



ga'hi'do 11 ' agwa's 

it tree stands very 

plurally (it is) 

ha'deioden'ha'k'donnioiY- 

just it tree trunks are bent over 
toward it 



awe n 'ge" 

it water on 
(in) 

ga'hon'wa'. 

it canoe. 

"Son" di" 

"Who more- 
(is it) over 

ne" tea" 

the i the 

where 

wa'he n(, hen": 

he it said: 



hagwa'di', 

side of it, 

ne"tho' 

there 



ne"tho' 

there 



tea" 

the 
where 



nori' we 4 

the place 



doiidagada"nha' ne' 

there it stopped the 



o'ne 11 ' 



now 



wa'he^hen" 

he it said 



v 



ne 

the 



Tho^'ge' 

At that 
(time) 

nonwa'ho"de n ' e nt haniiondagwa /c ha' si" 

kind of person 



Odeiidonnr'a': 

It Sapling: 



hegaen 4 hage nC hia'da 

there it tree top ends 



he it will go to unfasten 



yon- 
der 



tganiion'da' 

there it is fas- 
tened 

ne" gaa'gwa i Sgaia'nis 

the it sun Fisher 

(orb of light) ? " 

4 1", e n gathonga/ia'k." Sge nC hnak'se n ' wa'he n 'hen": 

"I, I will volunteer." Fox he it said: 



a tv 
"I 



o"ni\" 



Tho"ge' o'ne n 

also." At that now 

(time) 

he'tge 11 " ni'hodongo t di'ha'die'. 

up high there he passed along. 



sho 11 ' ne"tho 4 

there 



ni'hat'ha'hi'ne' 

there he traveled 
along, 



wa'haa"the n ' 

he it climbed 

Wa'haen'hiia v kho n? , 

He tree tops crossed over, 
severally 

ne"tho c nhwa'he" 



ne" Sgaia'nis 

the Fisher 

o'sgo'ha'ge"- 

it bough on along 



there 



thither he 
was going 



tea' 1 

the 
where 



non'we' 

the place 



tganiion'da' ne" endek'ha' gaa ; 'gwa', ne'tho 4 nhwa'hawenon'ha'- 



there it is fas- the 

tened up 

die'. Ne" na" 

The that 

that one 

Wa'dwakda"a' o'ne 11 

In a short time now 

(it is close apart) 



diurnal it sun (orb 

of light), 

Sge n 'hna'kse n ' 

Fox 



there 



thither he was making 
his way. 



ne" Sgaia'nis 

the Fisher 



e'da"ge' 

down (on the 

ground) 

in i 



ni'hadak'he'. 

there he ran. 



o n( 

now 



hwa'ha'io 11 ' 

there he arrived 



tea" 

the 
where 



non'we' 

the place 



tganiion'da' 

there it is fas- 
tened up 



ne' 

the 



gaa"gwa'. 

it sun. 



Gondadie" 

At once 



wffhateho'hi'- 

he it bit repeatedly 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 205 

At once he repeatedly bit that by which it was secured, and, severing 
it, he removed the sun. Now, moreover, he cast it down to his friend, 
Fox, who stood near beneath him. He caught it, and now, more- 
over, they two lied. When they two had run half the way across 
the island, then Flint's grandmother noticed what had taken place. 
She became angry and wept, saying: "What, moreover, is the 
reason, O Sapling, that thou hast done this in this manner?" 
Then she, the elder woman-being, arose at once, and began to run in 
pursuit of the two persons. Fox ran along on the ground and, 
in turn, Fisher crossed from tree to tree, running along the 
branches. Now, the elder woman-being was running close behind, 
and now she was about to sieze Fox, who now, moreover, being 
wearied, cast the sun up above. Then Fisher caught it. Now, next 

'ho"' ne" tea" ganiionda"gwe n4 , wa'ha'ia'k wa'haniionda'gwa' 

the the it it fastened by it, he it severed he it unfastened 

where 

ne" gaa c 'gwa\ O'ne 114 di" e'da"ge' hwa'ho'di' hwa'honwa'die n 'g 

the it sun. Now more- down below thither he it thither he it threw to 

over threw him 

ne" honna'tchi' ne" Sge ni hnak'se n ' ne"tho' dosge n "ha' tha'da'. 

the they are friends the Fox there near by there he 

stands. 

Na'ie' ne" da'haie'na' o'ne 11 ' di" wa'hiade"gwa'. Tea" 

That the there he it now more- they two (m.) fled. The 

(it is) caught over where 

dewa'sen'no 11 ' tea" niga 4 hwe"na' ne"tho' ha'don'sa'hnidak'he , 

it is the middle the so it island (is) there just there again they two 

(half) where large (m.) are running 

o'ne 11 ' wa'ontdo'ga' ne" ho'soda'ha" ne" O'ha'a'. Wa'agona"- 

now she it noticed the his grandmother the It Flint. She became 



khwe n "ha', wa'dio ni shent'hwa', wa'a'hen": "Ho't di" nonwa'ho"- 

angry, she wept, she it said: "What more- kind of thing 7 

(is it) over 

de 11 ' daioi"hwa"khe' ne" tho'ne 114 nwa'sie'a' Odendofinr'a 4 ?'' 

thence it was the the thus so thou it It Sapling?" O 

reason didst do 

O'ne 114 dondaiede n sda'djf wa'dioiia"dat ne" gok'steii'a' wa'honwa- 

Now thence she leapt up she ran the she ancient she them 9 

one pursued. 

di"se'k. Na'ie' ne" Sge n 'hna'kse n1 e'da"ge' ni'hadak'he' na'ie' 

That the Fox ground there he ran that 10 

(it is) on (it is) 

ne" o n "ke n ' ne" Sgaia'nis he'tge ,u ' de'haen'hiia'kho n "ne' 

the next in the Fisher up high he tree tops is crossing 

time severally 

o t sgo'ha"ge"sho n ' ni'hadak'he'. 0'ne nt dosge n ' 4 ha c daiedak'he , 

it boughs on along there he is running. Now near by there she came 12 

running 

ne" gok'sten'a', o'ne nC tho^ha' a'honwaie'na' o'ne 11 ' ne" 

the she ancient now almost she him could seize now the lo 

one, 

Sge Ilk hna'kse n ' wa'hatche nt 'da' o'ne" 4 di" he'tgS* 4 ' hwa'ho'di 

Fox he became wearied now more- up high thither he it 

over threw 

ne" gaa"gwa\ Sgaia'nis da'haie'na'. Na'ie' ne" o ni 'ke n ' 

the it sun. Fisher there he it That the next in 15 

caught. (it is) time 



11 



u 



206 



1ROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. a.\N, 21 



in turn, she pursued him. And he, next in turn, when she came run- 
ning- close behind him and was about to seize him, being in his 
turn wearied, cast the sun down, and then Fox in his turn caught 
it. Thus, verily, it continued. Fisher was in the lead, and he at 
once boarded the canoe. v And close behind him was Fox, holding 
the sun in his mouth, and he, too, at once got aboard of the canoe. 
Now, moreover, the canoe withdrew, and, turning around, it started 
away. Now, moreover, it was running far away as they paddled it 
onward when the elder woman- being arrived at the shore of the sea; 
and she there shouted, saying: u O Sapling, what, moreover, is the 
reason that thou hast done this thing in this manner? Thou shouldst 
pity me, verily, in that the sun should continue to pass thence, going 
thither [in its orbit, giving day and night]." He, Sapling, said noth- 



wa'honwa'se"k. 

she him pursued. 



v 



ne 

next in trie 

time 

a'honwaie'na' 

i she him could seize 



Na'ie' o ni 'ke n ' 

That 

(it is) 

daiedak'he', o'ne 11 ' tho"ha' 

there she came now almost 

running, 

wa'hatche n "'da' e'da"ge 4 

he became wearied down 

below 

da'haie'na'. Na'ie' hi'ia' niio'di'ha'die'. 

verily so it continued to be 



o'ne ni 



o'ne nw 



dosge n "ha' 

near by 



v 



hwa'ho'di', Sge n 'hna'kse 

Fox 



ne 

the 
that 



o nC 'ke n ' 



<> 



next in 
time 

n4 'ke n ' 



thither he it 
cast. 



next in 
time 

Ha'hen'de' 



there he it 
caught. 



That 

(it is) 



He is in the 
lead 



ne 

the 



Sgaia'nis na'ie' haia'dagonda'die' sa'hadi'dak 



Fisher 



that 

(it is) 



his body did not stop 



again he got 
aboard 



ga'honwagoii'wa'. 

it canoe in. 



0'ne n4 ne"tho < " gwa"tho' ne" Sgen'hna'kse 11 ' ho'nhonda'die' ne" 



6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 the 



Now 



there 



the 



Fox 



he came holding it 
in his mouth 



the 



gaa"gwa', 

it sun. 



gon'wa', 



na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

O'ne 114 

Now 



next in 
place 

o" haia'dagonda'die' sa'hadi'dak ne" ga'hoiiwa- 

too his body did not stop again he got the it canoe in. 



di" 

more- 
over 



again he got 
aboard 

ne" ga'hon'wa' dawado n "tg;T wa'dwatga'ha- 

the it canoe thence it with- it turned around 

drew itself 



de'nf 



tea" 

the 
where 



sawathonwanenda"sia'. O'ne 11 ' di" i'no n ' sagadak'he' ne" 

Now more- far again it is run- the 



again it canoe disjoined itself 
(from the landing). 



more- lar again it is run- 
over ning 

hodigawe'ha'die' ne" o'ne 114 daie'io 11 ' ganiadak'da' ne" 

they (m.) go paddling the now there she it sea (lake) the 

arrived beside 



onward 

gok'sten'a', o'ne IU di" 



she ancient 
one, 



more- 
over 



ne"tho 4 wa'diago'henV'dfv, wa'tVhen": 

there she shouted, she it said: 



" OdendonnF'a 4 , 

" It Sapling, 



ho't di" 



what 

(is it) 



more- 
over 



nonwa'ho v de n ' 

kind of thing 



diioi^hwa' 

it is reason 



tea 



V 



the 
where 



tho'ne" 4 nwa'sie'a'? A'sgiden'a' hi'ia', ne" tea" dondawet'hak 

here so thou it hast Thou me shouldst verily, the the thence it should con- 
done? pity where tinue to pass thither 

ne" gaa"gwa'." Hiia" ste 11 " de'ha'werV ne" Odendonni"a c . 'A c 'se nt 



it sun. 



Not 
(it is) 



any- 
thing 



he it said 



the 



It Sapling. 



Three 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 207 

ing. She said this three times in succession. Now she exclaimed: 
44 O thou, Fox, effuse thy orenda to cause the sun to pass habitually 
thence, going thither." Fox said nothing in reply. Thrice, too, did 
she repeat this speech. Now, again, she said: 44 thou, Fisher, 
effuse thy orenda whereby thou canst make the sun to pass habitually 
thence, going thither." He said nothing. Thrice did she repeat this 
saying. And all the other persons, too, said nothing. She said: 
44 O thou, Beaver, thou shouldst at this time have pity on me; do thou 
effuse thy orenda; moreover, thou hast the potence to cause the sun 
to pass thence habitually, going thither." He said nothing. Thrice, 
too, did she repeat this speech. All said nothing. Now, there was 
there a person, a man-being, whose orenda she overmatched. She 
said: u O thou, Otter, thou art a fine person, do thou effuse thy orenda 

nwa'ondief'a' ne" na'ie' iiofi'do n k. O'ne" 4 wa'ge n 'hen": 44 Sge n4 - 

so many she it the that she it kept Now she (z.) it said: "Fox 1 

repeated (it is) saying. 

hna'kse"' desadennon'de 11 ' tea" sa'shasde n4 sa'ie n ' e n4 sgwe'nia' 

do thou thyself in thy the thou hast potency thou it art able 

orenda array. where to do 

dondawet'hak ne" gaa 4 'gwa'." Hiia" ste nV de'ha'wen 4 ne" 

thence it should con- the it sun." Not any- he it said the 

tinue to pass thither (it is) thing 

Sge n4 hna'kse n '. 'A"se n ' o" nwa'ondietf'a' na'ie' iion'do n k. O'ne 114 

Fox. Three too so many she it that she it kept Now 

repeated (it is) saying 

he v o'ia' wage n4 hen": "Sgaia'nis desadennon'de 114 tea" sa'sha- 

again it other she (z.) it said: "Fisher do thou thyself in the thou 

(is) thy orenda array where hast 

sde n4 sa'ie n ' ne". tea" e n sgwe'nia' dondawet'hak ne" gaa 4 'gwiiV 

potency the the thou it art able thence it should con- the it sun." 

where to do tinue to pass thither 

Hiia" ste n " de'ha'wen 4 . 'A 4 'se n4 o" nwa'ondietf'a' na'ie' 

Not any- he it said. Three too so many she it that 

(it is) thing repeated (it is) 

iiofi'do n k. Na'ie' o" ne" thi'hadinVdade'nio"' gagwe'gi 4 hiia" 

she it kept That too the just they (m.) are different it all not 8 

saying. (it is) ones (it is) 

ste n " de'hofi'nen 4 . Wa'ge n4 hen": 44 Nagaia"gi', i's ne" o n4 'ke n ' 

any- they (m.) it said. She (z.) it said: "Beaver, thou the present 9 

thing time 

a'sgiden'a'; desadennon'de" 4 di", sa'shasde n4 sa'ie n ' tea" e n4 sgwe'- 

thou me shouldst do thou thyself in thy more- thou potency hast the thou wilt 10 

pity; orenda array over, where be able 

nia' ne" tea" dondawet'hak ne" gaa 4 'gwa'." Hiia 4 ' st( vr ' 

to do the the thence it should con- the it sun." Not any- 11 

where tinue to pass thither (it is) thing 

de'ha'wen'. 'A 4 'se n4 o" nwa'ondiet"a' na'ie' iion'do n k. Gagwe'gi' 

he it said. Three top so many she it that she it kept It all 12 

repeated (it is) saying. 

hiia" st< v ' v de'hon'nefT. O'ne" 4 ne"tho 4 ne" hen'gwe 4 shaia'- 

not any- they (m.) it said. Now there the he man-being he is a 13 

(it is) thing 

dada 4 wa'thonwa6ii'g&n'ni&\ Wa'g^ n 'hen v : 44 Skwa'ie n4 , i's son- 
person she his orenda overmatched. She (z.) it said: "Otter, thou thou 14 

art a 



208 1ROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

wherein thou hast the potence to ordain [forethink] that the sun 
thence shall come to pass, going thither." He said: "So be it." 
Instantly accompanying it was her word, saying: "I am thankful." 
At that time Beaver said: "Now, verily, it is a direful thing, wherein 
thou hast done wrong." vAnd now, moreover, he took the paddle out 
of the water and with it he struck poor Otter in the face, flattening 
his face thereby. 

As soon as they arrived home Sapling said: " I am pleased that now 
we have returned well and successful. Now, I will fasten it up high; 
on hiffh shall the sun remain fixed hereafter." At that time he then 
said: " Now, the sun shall pass over the sky that is visible. It shall 
continue to give light to the earth." Thus, moreover, it too came to 
pass in regard to the nocturnal light orb [the moon]. 

p-we-di'io\ desadennon'de 11 ' tea" sa\shasde n 'sa'ie n7 ne" tea" 

1 good person, do thou thyself in thy the thou hast potency the the 

orenda array where where 

e n sgwe'nia' ne" e n tcenno n "do n ' tea" dondawet'hak ne" gaa"- 

thou it wilt be the thou thyself will the thence it will con- the it 

able to do will it where tinue to pass 

gwa\" Wa'he n 'hen": "Niio"." Ne"tho' gawennaniionda'die' 

sun." He it said: "So let it be." There as soon as it was said 

(it word came fastened to it) 

wa'ge ni hen": "Niiawe n "ha'." Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' ne" Nagaia"gf 

she (z.) it said: " I am thankful." At that now the Beaver 

(time) 

wa'he^hen": "0'ne ni hi'ia' gano'we"' tea" sa'sadei'hwat'wa"da\" 

5 he it said: "Now verily it is dire the again thou hast done wrong 

where (mistaken a matter)," 

o'ne 11 ' di" da'hagawe'sotcie n "da', hago n 'si"ge' wa'haie n "da', 

6 now more- instantly he took paddle out of his face on he it struck, 

over water, 

da'ha'hwa'e'gwa' ne" Skwaie IU '-gen''ha\ 

i thence he battered it the Otter it was 

(flattened it) (poor it is) . 

Ganiio" sa'hadi'io 1 " o'ne 11 ' ne" Odendonni"a' wa'he n 'hen": 

8 So soon as again they now the It Sapling he it said : 

(m.) returned 

'"O'ne 11 ' wa'gatcennon'nia' tea" o'ne 11 ' skeii'no 11 ' tea" sedwa'io 11 '. 

9 "Now I am glad the now well (it is) the again we have 

where where returned. 

O'ne 11 ' di" he'tge 11 " e n gniioii'de n ', he'tge 11 " he n iontgonda"gwe n ' 

10 Now more- up high I it will fasten, up high it will be unchanging 

over 

e n ganiion'dak tea" gaa"gwa\" Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' wa'he iu hen": 

11 it will be fast the it sun." At that now she (z.) it said: 

where (time) 

"O'ne 11 ' de n wet'hak ne" gaa"gwa' gae n 'hia'de'. De n io'hathe"dik 

12 "Now thence it will con- the it sun it sky (is) It will cause it to 

tinue to pass thither present. be light 

tea" o n 'hwendjia"ge'." Ne"tho' di" nwa'awe n "ha' tea" a'sonek'ha 

13 tin it earth on." There more- so it came to the it night per- 
where over pass where taming to 

gaa"gwa'« 

14 it moon. 

(it luminary) 



..•> 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



209 



Now, Sapling' traveled over the visible earth. There was in one 
place a river course, and he stood beside the river. There he went to 
work and he formed the body of a human man-being. a He completed 
his body and then he blew into his mouth. Thereupon, the human 
man-being* became alive. Sapling said: "Thou thyself ownest all 
this that is made." So, now, verily, he repeatedly looked around, 
and there was there a grove whose fruit was large, and there, more- 
over, the sound of the birds talking together was great. So, now 
came another thing. Thus, in his condition he watched him, and 
he thought that, perhaps, he was lonesome. Now, verily, he again 
went to work, and he made another human man-being. Next in time 
he made a human woman-being. He completed her body, and then he 
blew into her mouth, and then she, too, became alive. He said, 
addressing the male man-being: u Now, this woman-being and thou 



0'ne 1 

Now 



demodawenie 4 ' tea" o n 'hwendjia'de' ne" Odendonni v a*. 

he traveled the it earth is present the It Sapling. 



the 
where 



Ge n 'hio n mwada'die' ne"tho< ge^hio^hwak'da' wa'thada"nha\ Ne"tho< 



It river is present 
in a course 

wfrhoio'de n ' c ha' 

he went to work 



there 



wa/hoiaVlon'nia' 

he his body made 



it river beside 

v 



he came to stand. 



There 



ne 

the 



b Wa'hoia'dr'sa' 



He his body 
finished 



o'ne 11 ' wa/haen"dat 



.V 



now he blew 

(wind uttered) 

do'n'het ne" 

the 



ne ha'sagon'wa 4 . 

the his mouth in. 



on'gwe 4 . 



became 
alive 

nen'ge 11 ' 

this one 



ne"tho c 

there 



Odeiidonni"a c 

It Sapling 



tea' 



human 
being. 

niiodie'e"'." Da' 



ongwe 

human 
being. 

Tho"ge 4 o'ne 11 ' wa'ha 

At that now he 

(time) 

wa'he n 'hen": "I's 

he it said: "Thou 



sa'we 114 

thou it 
ownest 



the 

where 



one" 

now 



so it is done." So, 

o'hon'da/ie 11 ' ne" swa'hio'na' 



hi'ia' de'hotga'don'nio n 'k 

verily 



it brush (shrubs) 
are (lie) 



the 



it fruit (are) 
large, 



ne"tho" 

there 



he is looking repeatedly 
about 

di" gavsdowa'ne' 1 ' 

more- it sound (is) 

over large 



gondiio\sho n "a' odit'ha'. Da', o'ne ni he" o'ia'. Ne"tho' ni'iVt 



they (z. ) animals 
small (birds) 

tea" 

the 
where 

sa'hoio'de n '<ha' 

again he went to 
work 



they (z.) So, 

ire talking. 

de'lioga^ha' wa'he'a' 

he him had his he it thought 
eves fixed on 

he" 



now 



again it another 
(thing). 



hagwa'da's 



hoii c '. 



he is becoming 
lonesome 



o ne 

now 



again 



o la 

it an- 
other 



per- 
haps. 

sa'ha'son'nia/ 

again he it made 



There so it is 

One 11 ' hi'ia' 

Now verilv 



Agon'gwe" o nC 'ke n ' ne" sa'ha'son'nia'. 

She human next in the again he it made. 

being time 

wa'haen"dat ne" e'sagon'wa' 

he blew the her mouth in, 

W3,'he n 'hen v . 



o ne 

now 



ne" on'gwe'. 

the human 

being. 

Wa'shagoia'di"sa' o'ne n< 

He her body com- now 

pleted 

o" na" waondo'niiot. 

too that one she became alive. 



lie it said, 



wa'hoiiw£ n,< has ne" 

he it said to him the 



hadji'na': "Na'ie' 



he (is) 
ma le : 



"That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



1 

2 

3 

•i 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



" From this paragraph to the end of this version there is more or less admixture of trans- At Ian tie ideas. 
b Here ofi'gwe' denotes a human being. See footnote on pa^e 141. 

21 ETH— 03 11 



8 

9 

10 



12 
13 



210 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

marry. Do thou not ever cause her mind to be grieved. Thou must 
at all times hold her dear." At that time he said, addressing her who 
was there: "This human man-being and thou now marry. Thou 
must hold him dear. And ye two shall abide together for a time 
that will continue until death shall separate you two. Alwa} r s } r e two 
must hold one the other dear. Ye two must care for the ofrove bear- 
ing large fruit. For there are only a few trees that belong to you 
two." He said: " Moreover, do ye two not touch those which do not 
belong to you two. Ye two will do evil if it so be that you two 
touch those which do not belong to you two." 

Thus, in this manner, they two remained together, the man-being 
paying no attention to the woman-being. The male human man-being 
cared not for the female human man-being. Customarily, they two 
laid themselves down and they two slept. Now sometime afterward, 
he who had completed their bodies was again passing that way, and, 



nen'ge n "ha 4 ne" agon'gwe' wedjinia'khe'. 'A"gwi 4 hwen'do 11 * 

this one the she human ye two marry. Do not ever 

being t do it 

a'she'nigo n 'hahetge n "da\ E n shenoe n 'khwak diiot'gont." Tho"ge ; 

thou her mind shouldst hurt Thou her shalt hold always." At that 

(grieve her mind). dear ever (time) 

wa'he n 'hen", wa'shagowe n "has ne" ne"tho ; e"den': "Wediini- 

he it said, he her addressed the there she "Ye two 

abode : 

ak'he' nenge n "ha 4 hon'gwe'. E n shenoe n 'khwak. Ne"tho' 

marry this one he human Thou him shalt hold There 

being. dear ever. 

nlgai'hwe's ne" gado'ge 11 ' e n tcia'dien' tea" nige 11 " o'ne lU ne" 

so it matter the it certain ye two will the so it is no the 

long (is) place (is) abide where far 

ge n 'he'io ni de n djisnikha"sia'. Diiot'gont de n djiadadatnoe n 'khwak. 

it death again it you two will Always ye two shall hold one the 

separate. other dear ever. 

- ; henda'ie n ' swa'hio'na' e n sni'nigo n 'ha"k. Doga"a' niio'hondo'da' 

It grove lies it fruit large ye two it will care Few in so it shrubs 

(is) for. number many stand 

tea" is' tcia'we 11 '." Wa'he n 'hen" di": u 'A"gwi 4 di" ne" na" 

the ye ye two own He it said more- "Do it not, more- the that 

where them." over: over, that one 

ne 11 " nhe n djiie'a' tea" hiia 4 ' is' de'tcia'we 11 '. E n snii 4 hwane'a'gwa' 

this thither ye two it the not ye ye two it own. Ye two will make a 

way will do (touch it) where (it is) mistake 

sen'a' gwa" ne" hiia" is' de'tcia'we 11 ' ne 11 " nhe n djiie'a'." 

at all seem- the not ye ye two own this thither ye two will it 

events ingly (it is) it way do (touch it)." 

Ne"tho' ni'io't de'hni"den' hiia" ste 11 " de'honwasteis'tha ne" 

11 There so it is they two (m.) not any- he her paid any atten- the 

abode together (it is) thing tion to 

hon'gwe' ne" agon'gwe 4 . Hiia" ne" hadji'na 4 de'shagosteis'tha' 

he human the she human Not the he male he her paid any atten- 

being being (is) (it is) (is) tion to 

ne" e"he n '. De'hnida'ga', dc'hnida"wi 4 ge Il 's. O'ne 114 gain'gwa' 

the she fe- They two (m.) lay they two (m.) sleep cus- Now some 

male (is). down together, together tomarily. (time) 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



211 



seeing the condition of things, thought of what he might do to arouse 
the minds of the two persons. Then he went forward to the place 
where lay the male person sleeping, and having arrived there he 
removed a rib from the male person, and then, next in turn, he 
removed a small rib from the sleeping female man-being. And now, 
changing the ribs, he placed the rib of the woman-being in the male 
human man-being, and the rib of the male human man-being he set 
in the human woman-being. He changed both alike. At that time 
the woman-being awoke. As soon as she sat up she at once seized the 
place where was fixed the rib that had been hers. And, as soon as 
she did this, then the man-being, too, awoke. And now, verily, they 
both addressed words the one to the other. Then Sapling was highly 



nwa'oimi'she' 

so long it lasted 



ne"tho* 

there. 



is'he' 

again 
he passed 



wa'hatgat'hwa' tea" niiodie'e 114 



he it looked at 

nonwa i ho v de n ' 

kind of thing 

wa'ha'den'dia' 

he started 



the 
Avhere 



so it has done 

namaie'a' tea" 



nen'ge 114 

this one 
(it is) 

o'ne 114 

now 



ne" shagodiia'di'sa"! 4 

the he their two bodies 

formed 



wa'henno n4 don'nio n ' 

he it thought repeatedly 



ho't 



so he it should 
do 

ne"tho 4 



the 
where 



nhwa'he" tea 



there 



hadji'na 4 hoda"wi 4 . 

he male he slept 

(is) (was asleep). 

sga'da 4 o'stie n "da' 

one it is it bone 



thither he 
went 

Wa'ha'io' 1 ' 

He arrived 



what 

(it is) 

damodi'nigo^hawen'ie'. Tho 4 'ge 4 

it their two minds should At that 

amuse. (time) 

non'we' heiida/ga' ne" 

the place he lay the 



" 



the 
where 

ne"tho 4 



o'ne 11 ' 



o'de 4 'ga', 

it rib, 



tea" 

the 

where 

tea" 

the 

where 

na'ie' 

that 
(it is; 

o'ne 

now, 



goda"wi 4 

she 
asleep was 

niwa'a". 

so it is small 
in size. 



one 

now 

O'ne 114 

Now 



ne 7 ' 

the 
that 



one 

now 



there 

ni 



ne 

the 



wa'ha'nioda'gwa' 

now he it unfixed 

(it removed) 

o n4 'ke n ' ne" 

the 



e' 4 he n< 



next in 



na 

that 
one 

ne"tho' 

there 



v 



ni 



ne 

the 



di" 

more- 
over, 



.'. 



he 11 ' 



time 

wa'ha'nioda/gwa' 

he it unfixed (it 
removed) 

wa'thade'nf ne' 

he them the 

exchanged 



she 
female 

ago 4 de 4 'ga' 

her rib 

o 4 de"ga'; 

it rib(s); 



ago 4 de 4 'ga' ne" 

her rib the 



e 

she 
female 

ne" hadji'na 4 ho'de 4 'ga' 

the he male his rib 



hadji'na' wa'ho'de 4 gae'de r 



he male 

ne" 

the 



e"he n< 

she 
female 



he him set rib in. 



wa'shago'de 4 - 

he her set rib 



ga'ede n \ Dedjia'o 11 ' sha'tbaie'a' wa'thade'nf. Tho 4 'ge 4 

in. Both alike he it did he changed the At that 

two. (time) 

ne" agofi'gwe 4 wae'iek. Ganiio" 

the she human she awoke. So soon 

being as 

gdnda'die' hwa'eie'na' tea" non'we 4 heio 4 nio'da' ne" ago'de"ga' 

at once thither she it the the place there it stands the 

seized where fixed 

ge^'ha'. Ganiio" ne"tho 4 nwa'eie'a' o'ne n< 

Ltwaa soon thus so she it did now 

(had been) as 



wa'ontgetc'gwa' 

she sat up i arose) 



wa'ha'iek 

he awoke 



o'ne n4 . 

now 



nc v tho 4 

there 



lier rib 

If 



O 

too 



ne" 

the 



hofi'gw c* 

he human 
beinf? 



ne" hadji'na 4 . 0'ne n4 hi'ia' 



the 



he male. 
(is) 



Now 



ia 
verily 



dedjia'o 114 

both 



fi'no 11 ' 



peaceful 

(it is) 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 



212 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [bm.a3w.21 

pleased. He said: " Now I tell you both that, in peaee, without 
ceasing ye both must hold one the other dear. Thou wilt do evil 
shouldst thou address unkind Avords to the one who abides with thee 
in this particular place. And, next in turn, he addressed the male 
human man-being, saying: "Do not thou ever come to dislike her 
witn whom thou dost abide. The two human man-beings that I have 
made are sufficient. The ohwachira [blood-family, offspring of one 
mother] which ye two will produce will fill the whole earth." Then 
he again separated from them. 

It thus came to pass that he noticed that his brother, Flint, was at 
work far away. Then he ordered one, saying: "Go thou after him 
who is at work yonder; he is my brother, Flint." At that time a per- 
son went thither, and said: "I have come for thee. Thy brother, 



<; 



de*hiadadwennaa"senk. Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' agwa's wa'hatceimon'nia' 

1 they conversed together At that now very he was glad 

repeatedly. (time) 

ne" Odendoiini"a\ Wa'he n 'hen": "O'ne 11 ' skeii'no 11 ' wa'- 

2 the It Sapling. He it said: "Now . peaceful I 

(it is) 

giatho'ie 11 ' tea" heiotgonda"gwi' de n tciadadnoe n ''khwak. E n sei'- 

3 you two tell the hence it is unending ye two will each other Thou 

where (unceasing) hold dear. 

hwaneVgwa' doga"t ne" gawenna'het'ge 11 ' e n 'he'sen rt has ne" 

•A wilt err if it so the it word evil is thou her wilt say to the 

be 

gado'ge 11 ' desnP'denV Na'ie' o n "ke n ' ne" hadji'inV wa'ho- 

5 itis a certain ye two abide." That next in the he male he him 

(place) (it is) time 

we n "has wa'he n 'hen": " 'A"gwi' hwen'do 11 ' a'sheshwa'he n ''ha' 

addressed he it said: " Do it not ever thou shouldst hate 

her 

ne" de'sni"den\ Ne"tho' ha'degaie'f degni" wa'tge'sen'nia' 

7 the ye two abide There justitissuf- two it I them two 

together. ficient is have made 

ne" on'gwe'. De n ga'hen"nha/ tea" niio n 'hwen'djia/, na'ie' ne" 

o the human It will become the so it earth is large, that the 

.being(s). tilled where (itis) 

i's e n tciathwadjien'nia\" O'ne 11 ' deshonnadekha''sion\ 

ye ye two will make Now again they (m.) have 

ohwachira." separated themselves. 

Ne"tho' di" niiawe n "i' tea" o'ne 11 ' wa'hatdo'ga 1 tea*' si" 

There more- so it came the now he it noticed the yon- 

over to pass where where *der 

thoio"de' ne" de'hiade n 'hnon'da , ne" O'ha'a'. O'ne 11 ' wa'ha- 

11 there he is the they two are brothers the It Flint. Now lie one 

working 

dS nfc nha"nha' wa'h$ n 'hen": " Hetchi w hno n, kse' ne" si" thoio"de' 

1^ commanded lie it said: " There go ye after him the yon- there ho is 

der working 

^ deiagiade n 'hnon'da' ne" O'ha'a'." Tho"ge' o'ne"' ne"tho' 

13 one I are brothers the It Flint." At that now there 

time 

nkwa'he" ne" shaia"dada' wa'he ,u heii": " Dagon<hno n 'kse' 

14 thither In' the he is one person he it said: " Thence I thee have 

went come for. 



9 
10 



hewitt] ONONDAGA VERSION 218 

Sapling, has sent me to bring thee with me. Then Flint said: " b I 
am at work. By and by I shall complete it, and then, and not before, 
will I go thither." He again departed. He arrived home, and more- 
over, he brought word that Flint had said: "I am at work. I shall 
complete it by and by, and then, not before, will I go thither to that 
place." He said: "Go thou thither again. I have a matter about 
which I wish to converse with him." Again he arrived there, and he 
said: " He would that thou and he should talk together." He replied, 
saying: "Verily, I must first complete nry work, and not until that 
time will I go thither." Then he again departed thence. Again he 
arrived home, and he said: " He yonder did not consent to come." At 
that time Sapling said: u He himself, forsooth, is a little more impor- 
tant than I. Moreover, I verity shall go thither." Thereupon Sap- 
ling went to that place. Flint did not notice it. When he arrived 

Hagemha'i'ha'die' ne" dedjiade nC hnon'da' ne" Odendonni"a 4 ." 

He me has ordered in the he thou are brothers the It Sapling." 1 

coming 

O'ne 11 * ne" O'ha'a' wa'he n 'hen" : t4 Wagio"de'. E u geiennenda"nha' 

Now the It Flint he it said: " I am working. I task will finish. 2 

ge n 'djik', o'ne ni ha"sa' ne"tho 4 nhen'ge'." Sa'ha'deii'dia'. 

by and by, now just then there thither I Again he departed. 3. 

(not before) will go." 

Sa'ha'io 11 ', o'ne 11 ' di" sa'hatho'ia' tea' nonwa'ho"de n ' wa'he ni - 

Again he now more- again he it told the kind of thing he it 4 

returned, over where 

hen", na'ie' ne": u Wagio"de'. E n geiennenda"nha' ge n 'djik' 

said, that the: "I am at work. I task will finish by and by 5 

litis) that 

o'ne n; ha'sr ne"tho* nhen'ge'." Wa'he n; hen": "Ne"tho', 

now just then, there thither I He it said: "There 6 

(not before) will go." 

honsa'se 4 . Agei'hwa'ie' 1 ' tea" ge'he" daiagitha'eii'." Honsa 4 - 

there again I a matter have the I it desire he and I it should There i 

do thou go. where converse about." again 

ha'io n ', Va'he nt hen v : " De'hodo n 'hwendjion'niks daesnitha'en'." 

he he it said: "It him is necessary for ye two should 8 

arrived, converse together." 

Da'hai'hwa'sa'gwa* \va'he n 'hen": '<E n gadienno"kde ,u hi'ia' hia'e', 

He replied he it said: " I my task will finish verily in the 9 

first place, 

o'ne nC ha 4 'sa' ne"tho' nhe n 'ge'." Dondama'den'dia. Sam^'io" 1 

now just then, there thither I Thence again he departed. Again he 10 

(not before) will go." returned 

wa'he^hen": *'Him' de'thogaie n, T." Tho ; 'ge< 0'ne nC wa'he n 'hen v ne" 

lie it said: "Not there he it consented At that now he it said Oh- 11 

(it is) to." (time) 

Odendonni"a': " Ha'o n 'hwa' sfhagwa 4 hi'ia' nimaia'dano'we' 1 '. 

It Sapling: " He himself farther verily so his body is precious. 12 

I" df hi'iff ne"tho' nhen'ge'." 0'ne n ' ne"tho' nhe 4 hawe'non\ 

I more- verily there thither I Now there thither he went. 13 

over will go." 

Hiia 4 ' de'hotdo'ge n; ne" Oma'a'. Ne" o'ne ,u hwa'ha'io"' wa'he ni 

Not heit noticed the It Flint. The now there he he it 1-1 

(it is; arrived 



214 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. AN5, '1\ 



there, he said: "Thou art working for thyself, art thou, in thy work \ " 
He replied, saving: "I am working. 1 desire to assist thee, for that 
it will take a long time for the man-beings to become numerous, since 
thou hast made only two.-' At that time Sapling said: "Verily, as 
a matter of fact, the two man-beings that I have completed are suffi- 
cient. And, in so far as thou art concerned, thou art not able to make 
a human man -being. Look! Verily, that which thou belie vest to 
be a man-being is not a true one." He saw standing there a long file 
of things which were not man-beings. There sat the beast with the 
face of a man-being, a monkey; a there next to him sat the ape; ft and 
there sat the great horned owl. And there were other things also 
seated there. Then they all changed, and the reason of it is that 
they were not man-beings. Sapling said, when he overmatched their 



hen": "Sadadio'de^'se'-khg"'', tea" saio"de' ? " Da'hai'hw&'sft'gwa' 

said: " Thou art working- for art thou, the thou art at He replied 



11 

12 
13 
14 



"Thou art working for art thou , the 
thyself, where 

Ge'he" 



thou art at 
work?" 



wa'he n 'hen": " Wagio"de'. 

he it said: " I am working. I it desire I thee will aid, 



e n goiiie'nawa's, 



e n ionni'she' 

it will last 
(long) 

ne" oii'gwe 

the 



human 
beings." 

se" hi'ia' 

5 as mat- verily 
ter of fact 

3iia" hi'ia' 

verily 



e n; honnatga'de n "ha' tea" degni" gen'gwa' 

they (m.) will become the two they only 

numerous where (are) 

'." Tho"ge ; wa'he n 'hen" ne" Odendoimi"a': 

At that he it said the It Sapling: 

(time) 

ha'degaie'f tea" degni" wa?tge"sa' ne" on'gwe'. 

just it is sum- the two they two I them the human 

cient where (are) finished beings. 



swa'djik' 

because 
(too much) 

wa'tci ir sa' 

thou two com- 
pletedst them 

a Ne"tho< 

"There 



Not 

(it is) 



ne 

this 
here 



ne 

the 



i's thasgwe'nia' ne" on'gwe' a'se'sen'nia'. 



thou 



thou art able to 
do it 



the 



human 
being 



thou it shouldst 
make. 



Satgat'hwa/, hiia" hi'ia' de'tgaie'i' tea" se'he" oii'gwe'." Wa'- 



Do thou look, 

hatgat'hwa 

looked 



not 
(it is) 

tea" 



verily 



it is correct 



ne 

10 the 



the 
where 

on'gwe' de"gen'. 

human it is 

being (are). 



they (z.) are in 
rank 



human 
being." 

gonni"deii' 

they (z.) abide 



He 



ga'io' 



ge no 

it ape. 



on gwe 

it is ani- human 
mal being 

n "ha\ Na'ie' 

That 

(it is) 

Thigondiia'dade'nio 11 ' 

Just they (z.) are different 
others 

daioi'hwa"khe' 

it is reason of it 



the thou dost 
where think 

deiodine n4 he's ne"tho' goimi"den' him 1 ' 

there they (z.) abide not 

(it is) 

hatgo'da' ne" gadji'k'daks (na'ie' 

he sits the it eats lice (that 

(= monkey) (it is) 

gago nC sonda"gwi'), ne"tho 4 gwa"tho' ne" 

it has the face of), there next in place the 



Ne"tho< 

There 



Lt ^} 

o nr 

also 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 

ofi'gwe' 

human 

being 



„ Lt w 9 

o in. 

also. 

tea" 

the 

where 



ne"tho' 

there 

Ne"tho' 

There 

ne"tho 4 

there 



hatgo'da' 

he sits 



ne 

the 



dc"gen c . Wa'he^heiV ne" 

it is. He it said the 



wa'dwatde'm' 

they (indef.) changed 
in kind 

nwaawe ha 

so it came 

to pass 

Odendonni"a' 

It Sapling 



degens'ge'. 

horned owl. 



gagwe'gi 4 , 



it all. 



tea" 

the 
where 
v 

ne 

the 



hiia" 

not 

(it is) 

one 

now 



"Tlic monkey and the ape were probably quite unknown to the Iroquois. 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



215 



orenda: "Verily, it is good that thou, Flint, shouldst cease th}^ work. 
It is a direful thing, verily, that has come to pass." He did not consent 
to stop. Then Sapling said: " It is a marvelously great matter wherein 
thou hast erred in not obeying me when I forbade thy working." At 
that time Flint said: "I will not stop working, because 1 believe that 
it is necessary for me to work." Then Sapling said: "Moreover, I 
now forsake thee. Hence wilt thou go to the place where the earth is 
divided in two. Moreover, the place whither thou wilt go is a fine place. " 
At that time he cast him down, and he fell backward into the depths 
of the earth. There a fire was burning, and into the fire he fell supine; 
it was exceeding^ hot. After a while Flint said : 4 ' Oh , Sapling ! Thou 
wouldst consent, wouldst thou not, that thou and I should converse 



wa'thaen'gen' nia' : 

he their orenda 
overmatched: 

tea" saio"de'. 



the 
where 



thou art at 
work. 



"Oia'ne' 

"It is good 

Gano'we 11 ' 

It is direful 



hi'ia 5 

verily 



ne 

the 



hi'ia' 

verily 



de'hogaie n "i', 

he it consented to. 

hwane'ha/gwat 

marvelous matter 



O'ne 114 

Now 



ne 

the 



tea" 

the 
where 

Odendonni"a' 

It Sapling 



a'senni' 4 he n ', 

thou it shouldst 
cease, 

nwa'awe n ''ha'." 

so it has come to pass." 

wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



O'ha'a', 

It Flint, 

Hiia" 

Not 
(it is) 

"Oi 4 - 

" It is a 



oi'howa'ne 11 ' 



it is an important 
matter 



wa'sei 4 hwane'a'gwa' 

thou hast done wrong 



tea" 

the 
where 



de'sathonda'di 4 tea 



hiia 

not 

(it is) 



if 



1! 



thou it hast consented 
to 



o'ne 114 

now 



ne 

the 



the 
where 

O'ha'a' 

It Flint 



gonia 4 his'tha' 

I thee forbid doing 

wa'he n 'hen": 

he it said: 



tea" saio"de." Tho"ge ( 



the 
where 

"Hiia 4 ' 

"Not 
(it is) 



thou art at At that 

work." time 

thagenni"he n ' tea" 

I it should cease the 

where 



wagio"de' swa'djik' ge'he" deiodo n4 hwendjio''hwi 4 tea" wagio"- 



I am at work 

de'." 



because I am 

(too much) thinking 

Tho"ge' o'ne 114 ne" 

At that (time) now the 



it is necessary 

Odendonni"a/ 

It Sapling 



the 
where 

wa'he n4 hen": 

he it said: 



I am at 
work." 

"O'ne 114 

"Now 



wa'goniadweiide"da'. 

I thee forsake. 



Tho'ne 114 

Here 



nhe n 'se" 

thither thou 
shalt go 

ne"tho 4 

there 



tea" 

the 
vhere 

nhe n4 se"." 



non'we 4 

the place 



di" 

more- 
over 

dediio ni hwendjio'ge n4 . Ganakdi'io 4 di" 

there two it earth is divided in. It place fine (is) more- 
over 

Tho 4 'ge' o'ne nw ne"tho c he'honwaia'de n4 'di 4 

At that now there there he his body 

(time) cast down 

gofi'wa' ne"tho' he ; hodaga"i ; . Ne"tho ; diiodek'ha' odjisdagon'wa 4 

there there he fell There there it is burn- it fire in 

supine. ing 

ne"tho 4 he'hodaga"i ; . Heiawengo"di' o'dai"hen\ Gain'gwa' 

there there he fell There it surpass- it is hot. Some 



thither thou 
shalt go." 

ne" 

the 



o n 'hwendjia- 

it earth in 



nwa'onni'she' 



it lasted 



long 

a c sathon'dat-khe n4 



supine. 

wa'he n< hen" 

he it sni'l 



mg is 

ne" 

the 



O'ha'a': 

It Flint: 



i'so ni donsednitha'en' ? 



«'«» 



thou wouldst 
consent 



wouldsl 
thou 



still 



once again thou and I 
should converse together? 



(time) 
"Odefidonni'Tt*. 

"It Sapling, 

Odendonni"a c wa'- 

It Sapling be 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
11 
15 



216 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth.ann.21 

once more together?" Sapling" replied, saying: "Truly, it shall thus 
come to pass. Moreover, I will appoint the place of meeting to be the 
place where the earth is divided in two." And Flint was able to come 
forth from the tire. At that time then Sapling went thither, going to 
the point designated byvhim. He arrived there, and, moreover, he 
stood there and looked around him. He looked and saw afar a cloud 
floating away whereon Flint was standing. Sapling said: "What 
manner of thing has come to pass that thou art departing hence away % " 
Flint answered: "I myself did not will it." Sapling said: "Do thou 
come thence, hitherward." At that time the cloud that was floating 
away returned, and again approached the place where Sapling stood. 
Then this one said: "How did it happen that it started away ? " Flint, 
replying, said: "It is not possible that I personally should have willed 

he n 'hen": " Do'ge n s ne"tho' ne n iawe n "ha\ Ne"tho' di" wa'gna'do 11 " 

it said: "Itis*true there so it will come There more- I it appoint 

to pass. over 

tea" deio n 'hwendjio'ge n ' ne"tho' de n diada"nha'." Wa'hagwe'nia' 

£ the two it earth is divided in there thou and I will He was able to 

where meet." doit 

ne" O'ha'a' da'haiage n "nha' tea" odjisdagoii'wa'. Tho"ge' 

the It Flint thence he emerged the it fire in. At that 

where time 

o'ne 11 ' ne"tho' he'hawe'non' ne" Odendonni"a' tea" non'we' 

"* now there there he went the It Sapling the the place 

where 

ni'honna'do 11 '. Wa , ha'io n ' ne"tho' di" wa'thadtf'nha' wa'thatga'- 

O there he it has He arrived there more- he stood he looked 

appointed. over about 

don'nio"'. Wa'ha'ge 11 ' i'no 11 ' waVdendion'ha'die' wa'o'djrga'die' 

D repeatedly. He it saw far thither it is going along thither it cloud is 

(it is) going on 

ne"tho' hada'die' ne" O'ha'a'. Odendonni"a c wa'he n 'hen": 



1 



3 



7 



9 



11 
12 



there he is riding the It Flint. It Sapling he it said: 

on it 



"Ho't nonwa'ho"de n, nwa'awe n "ha' tea" we'sa'dendion'ha'die'?" 

o "What kind of thing so it came to the thither thou art going 

(it is) pass where along?" 

Wahe n 'hen" ne" O'ha'a': " Hiia" ne" i" dagenno^'do 11 '." 

He it said the It Flint: "Not the I I it willed." 

(it is) 

Wa'he n 'hen" ne" Odendonni"a' : " Ga'e' na" doiida"se'." 

lO He it said the It Sapling: "Hither that thence do 

one thou come." 



Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' sawttk^da' tea" o'dji'ga'die', ne"tho' saga'io 

At that now again it the it cloud is float- there again it 

time turned back where ing along, arrived 

tea" non'we' ni'ha'da' ne" Odendonni"a'. O'ne 11 ' neil'ge 11 ' 

the the place there he is the It Sapling. Now this one 

where standing 

wa'he n 'hen": "Ho't nwa'awe n ' k ha' tea' wa'wa'den'dia' ? " Wa'- 

!♦-> he it said: "What so it came to the it started?" He 

(is it) pass where onward 

he n 'hen" ne" O'ha'a' da'hadadia': "Hiia" deVwet ni v a' 

1-1 it said the It Flint he spoke in "Not itispossi- the I 

reply: (it is) ble personally 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VERSION 



217 



it. 7 ' Sapling rejoined: 4w How did it happen that thou didst not will 
it ? " Then Flint said: ' 4 I did not do that." Sapling said: "It is true 
that it is impossible for thee to do it. Moreover, thou and I, verily, 
are again talking together. What kind of thing desirest thou? What 
is it that thou needest, that thou and I should again converse 
together ?" Flint then said: "It is this; I thought that, perhaps, 
thou wouldst consent that the place where I shall continue to be may 
be less rigorous. And thou didst say: 'Thou art going to a very fine 
place. ' And I desire that the place where thou wilt again put me be 
less rigorous than the former." Sapling said: "It shall thus come 
to pass. I had hoped that, it may be, thou wouldst sa} r , 4 1 now 
repent.' As a matter of fact it did not thus come to pass. Thy 
mind is unchanged. So, now, I shall again send thee hence. I shall 



dondao*enno n "do n \" 

there I it could will." 



Odendonni"a 4 

It Sapling 



wa'he n4 hen": 

he it said: 



nwa'- 



awe n ' 4 ha' 

to pass 



i's 



tea" hiia" deVwet 

not it is possi- thoii 

(it is) ble 

wa'he n 'hen" ne" 4 ha'a': " Hiia 4 ' 

he it said the It Fint: 



the 
where 



"Not 
(it is) 



" Ho't 

"What so it 

(is it) came 

donda 4 senno n "do n ' ? " Tho 4 'ge' 

there thou it couldst will ? " At that 

time 

de'ne" tha'gie'a." Odendon 

It Sapling 



the 
that 



thus I did 
do it." 



ni"a 4 

di" 

more- 
over 

Ho't 

What 
(is it) 

Wahe n4 hen" 

He it said 



wa'he n4 heii": 

he it said: 



u Do'ge n s hiia 4 ' de'a'wet a 4 sgwe'nia'. 0'ne n4 

It is true not it is possi- thou couldst be Now 



not it is possi- thou couldst be 

(it is) ble able to do it. 

hi'ia detcioiigni'tha' o'ne 11 '. Ho't nonwa'ho"de n ' se 4 he"? 

verily again thou and I are now. What kind of thing thou it de- 

talking together (is it) sirest? 

nonwa 4 ho"de n ' desado n4 hwendjion'ni 4 tea" donsednitha'en' ? " 

kind of thing thou it needst the once again thou and I 

where should converse together ?' ' 

" Na'ie' ne" wa'ge'a' 

I it thought 



ne 

the 



v 



4 ha'a': 

It Flint: 



"That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



a 4 sathon'dat thage n k"a 4 tea 

thou it shouldst 
consent to 

e n gi'dion'dak. 



it should be 
less 

Na'ie' 



the 
where 



I will abide con- 
tinuously. 

tea" 

the the place 

where 



That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



tea. 



naganakdo"de n k 

such it place be 
in kind 

wa si hen : 



tea" 

the 
where 



non'we* 



tganakdi'io'. 

there it place 
(is) tine.' 



the 
where 



thou it didst 
say: 

Na'ie' ge'he" 

That I it desire 

(it is) 



'Ne"tho' 

'There 



do'ga't 

if perhaps 
(it may be) 

non'we' 

the place 

nhe lU se" 



thither thou 
shalt go 

thage n k'Yi' tea" 

it should be the 

less (severe) where 



naganakdo"de n k tea" non'we' hofisasgi v den'." Odendonni'Ti 4 w{f- 

such it place be in the the place there again thou me It Sapling he 

kind where shouldst place." 

he n4 hen": " Ne"tho' ne n iawe n ' c ha'. Na'ie' ne" ge'he"gw&' dien' 4 ha' 

it said: "There so it will come That the I it had thought altera 

to pass. (it is) while, 

gwa" e nt si 4 hen": 'Sagadathewa"da' o'ne n V Hiia" se" ne"tho" 

seem- thou it wilt ' I myself repent now.' Not as a mat- there 

ingly, say: (it is) ter of fact 

dwa'awe n "ha\ Tc^nigo^hagon'da'. Da 4 ', o'ne" 4 di" he n sgofiia- 

BO it came to pass. Thence thy mind is So now, more- hence again I 14 

unchanged. over, line will 



1 

2 
3 

5 
6 

'7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



218 



IKOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



send thee to the bottom of the place where it is hot." Now, at that 
time his body again fell downward. The place where he fell was 
exceedingly hot. At that time Sapling said: "Not another time shalt 
thou come forth thence." Then Sapling bound poor Flint with a 
hair. And he bound him with it that he should remain in the fire as 
long as the earth shall continue to be. Not until the time arrives 
when the earth shall come to an end will he then again break the 
bonds. Then Sapling departed thence. 

Moreover, it is said that this Sapling, in the manner in which he 
has life, has this to befall him recurrently, that he becomes old in 
body, and that when, in fact, his body becomes ancient normally, 
he then retransforms his body in such wise that he becomes a new 
man-being again and again recovers his youth, so that one would think 



where 

o'ne 11 '. 



ne 

the 

one 



non"we' 



8 

9 
10 

11 

12 

13 
11 
15 



deimie"da'. Ne"tho' he n sgoniadennie''da' 

send There hence again I thee will send 

tea" noii' we ' diio'dai"hen'." Tho"ge' 

the the place there it is hot." At that 

(time) 

Ogeni'sdi' o'dai"heii' tea" 

now. It is exceed- it is hot the the place 

ing where 

Tho"ge' o'ne 11 ' ne" Odendonni"a' wa'he n 'hen" 

At that now the It Sapling he it said: 

(time) 

o'ia' donsasiage n "nha'." Tho"ge' wa'honwashain'de n, ono n 'khwe"a 

it other again thou shalt At that he bound him it hair 

(is) come out." (time) 

wa'has'da' ne" Odendonni"a' ne" 0'ha'a'-ge n "ha. Na'ie' ne" 

he used it the It Sapling the It Flint it was. That the 

(it is) 

na" wa , hoiiwashainda i 'gwa' tea" ne n ionni'she' e n io n 'hwendjia'dek 

» the one he it used to bind him the so long it will it earth will continue 

where last to be present 

tea" 



ga'no n 'dea"ge' 

it bottom on 

heshoia'de n "i' 

there again his body 
fell down in it 

he'hodaga"!'. 

there he fell 
supine. 

"Hiia" ne" 

"Not the 

(it is) 



that 

ne"tho' 

there 



so it is 
far 



he n 'he n 'den'dak odjisdagon'wa'. Ne"tho' nige 11 " 

there he will con- it fire in. There 

tinue to be 

o'ne 11 ' de n shadesha'ia'k. Tho"ge' 

now he will break the At that 

tether. 



e n wado 11 ' h wend j io" kde 

it earth itself will end. 



the 
where 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 



(time) 



ne" Odendoiini"a' 

the It Sapling 



sho'den'dion 



czi 



more- 
over 



ne' 

that 



Na'ie' di" 

That 

(it is) 

ne"tho', ia'ke 11 ', 

it is 
said, 

ne" tea hok'steffa' 

the the he old in age 



thus, 

tea" 



that 

(it is) 

ni'io't 

so it is 



again he de- 
parted. 



ne 

the 



na'ie' 



nenge n "ha 4 



ne 

the 



tea" 

where 



this (it is) 

ho'n'he" 

he is alive 



ne 

the 



Odendonni"a ; 

It Sapling 



ne"tho k 

thus 



niia'we n s 

so it comes 
to pass 

v 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 

custom- 
arily 



the 
where 

se" 

in fact 



na'ie' 

that 
(it is) 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



v 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



don sa ' had ia'dade' nf 

again he changes his body 
(transforms it), 



wado n "ha c heiotgofida"gwi\ 

it becomes it- it is unceasing, 

eratively 

ge n 's haia'dage u "tci' waVa'do 11 ' o'ne 11 ' 

custom- his body ancient it has become now 

arily 

sa'hadofigwe" ne" 



na'ie' 

that 

(it is) 



ne 



ge n 's 



the 



custom- 
arily 



again he becomes 
man-being 



the 



HEWITT] 



ONONDAGA VEKSION 



219 



that he had just then grown to the size which a man-being custom- 
arily has when he reaches the youth of man-beings, as manifested by 
the change of voice at the age of pubert}^. 

Moreover, it is so that continuously the orenda immanent in his 
body — the orenda with which he suffuses his person, the orenda which 
he projects or exhibits, through which he is possessed of force and 
potency — is ever full, undiminished, and all-sufficient; and, in the next 
place, nothing that is otkon a or deadly, nor, in the next place, even the 
Great Destroyer, otkon in itself and faceless, has any effect on 
him. he being perfectly immune to its orenda; and, in the next place, 
there is nothing that can bar his way or veil his faculties. 

Moreover, it is verily thus with all the things that are contained in 
the earth here present, that they severally retransform or exchange 
their bodies. It is thus with all the things [zoic] that sprout and grow, 
and, in the next place, with all things [actively zoic] that produce 



tea' hongwe'da'se"a i sawa'do 11 ', na'ie' ne" aien'a' ne"tho' ha"sa' 



where he man-being new 



again it is be- that the one would 

come, (it is) think, 

ne" ha"sa' 

the just then 



tea" ni'io't 

where so it is 



nithodo'di' ne y 

so there he has the 

grown 

de'nio 11 ' ne" hongwe'da'se"a' ne" oii'gwe'. 

changed the he man-being new the man-being. 

small 



ge"'s 

custom- 
arily 



thus just then 

(there) 

de'hodweima- 

his voice has 



Ne"tho' na'ie' di" ni'io't ne" tea' 



Thus 



that 

(it is) 



more- 
over 



so it is 



the 



tgaie'i' diiotgont ne" 

always the 



where there it is full 
and sufficient 



tea" 

where 



tho' 

it 



ni'hoia'daen'nae' ne" tea" hadennoda"gwa', ne"tho' gwa"- 

so his body has orenda the the he his orenda exhibits, there next to 

where by which, 

hadeimonda''gwa' ne" tea" ha'qhwa; ne" ga'shasde n 'sa', 

he himself with orenda the the he it holds the it potency (power, 

embodies by which, where force) 

ne"tho' gwa"tho' ne" hiia" ste 11 ' noiiwa'ho"de n ' ne" o'tgo n ', a 

there next to it the not any- kind of thing the otkon 

it is thing (monstrous), 

ne"tho' gwa"tho' ne" O'sondoa'go'na' O'lii'dafgo"' 

there next to it the 



Hiia" 



It Great Destroyer 



Otkon in itself 



De'gago" "sonde', de'hona'go'was, ne"tho' gwa"tho' 

It has a face, (not) it affects (wears there next to it 



(not) it affects (wears 
on) him, 

nonwa'ho v de n ' de'hodawe n "das. Ne"tho 4 hi'ia 1 

it him bars (shuts) out. Thus, verily, 



df 



kind of thing 

niion' 



hiia" 

not 

(it is) 

ni'io't 

so it is 



not 
it is 

ste n " 

any- 
thing 

tea" 



5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

where 10 
11 



more- 
over 

ga'qhwa/ ne" tea" o ni hwendjia'de' dewadia'dade'nio ni s, 

soitismuch it it holds the where it earth is present it changes its body 

(many; iterativcly, 

gagwe'gi' ne"tho ; ni'io't ne" wadonnia"ha', ne"tho' gwa"tho' 

it all thus so it is tin- it (z.) produces there next to it 

itself, 



12 



a Set- footnote on page Y.)'i 



220 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. ann21 

themselves and grow, and, in the next place, all the man-beings. All 
these are affected in the same manner, that they severally transform 
their bodies, and, in the next place, that they (actively zoic) retrans- 
form their bodies, severally, without cessation. 

\ 

ne" goMonnia/'ha', ne"tho' gwa/'tho' ne" ofi'gwe'. Gagwe'gi' 

the they (act, z.) pro- there next to it the man- It all 

duce themselves, being(s). 

ne"tho* nigaie"ha' deswadia'dade'nio n4 s, na'ie' gwa v tho 4 des- 

there so it acts it changes its body that next to it they 

iteratively, (it is) (act. z.) 

gondia'dade'nio n 's heiotgonda"gwi 4 . 

again change their it is unceasing, 

bodies iteratively 



A SENECA VERSION 

There were, it seems, so it is said, man-beings dwelling on the other 
side of the sky. So, just in the center of their village the lodge of the 
chief stood, wherein lived his family, consisting of his spouse and one 
child, a girl, that they two had. 

He was surprised that then he began to become lonesome. Now, 
furthermore, he, the Ancient, was very lean, his bones having become 
dried; and the cause of this condition was that he was displeased that 
they two had the child, and one would think, judging from the cir- 
cumstances, that he was jealous. 

So now this condition of things continued until the time that he, 
the Ancient, indicated that they, the people, should seek to divine his 
Word; that is, that they should have a dream feast for the purpose of 
ascertaining the secret yearning of his soul [produced by its own 



Ne v gwa', gi"o n4 , hadi'nonge' ne" sgaoiTiadi" ne" hen'non'- 

That, it seems, it is said, they dwell the one other side the they (m). 

of the sky man-beings. 

gwe\ Da', sha'degano'ndae 114 ne"ho 4 ni 4 hono n4 so't ne" ha'sen- 



So, 



just in the center of 
the village 



there 



just his lodge 
stands 



nowa'ne 114 , 

name), 



."* 



ne"ho 4 hawadjia'ie 1 , 

there his ohwachira lies, 



sga't hodiksa'da'ie 11 ', 

they child have, 



one it 
is 



Waadiengwa w 'shon 4 

He was surprised, 



ie'o 114 

she 

female (is) 

o'ne nt 



ne w 

the 



ne ne 10 

the his 

spouse 

ieksa"a 4 . 

she child. 



ne" 

that 



the 

kho" 

and 



he Chief 
(great) 



ne 

the 



it 



ho'wiV'sawe 11 ' 

it began 



0'ne n * clfq we'so' ho'nen'iathen 4 

Now more- much his bones are dry 

over ( = he is very lean) 



ne" hagwenda"s. 

that he became 

lonesome. 

ne" Hage Il "tci; ne v gai'ionni, 

the He Ancient One; that it )t causes 



the n "e nt 

not (it is) 

heniio v defi' 

so 



deo'nigon"iio 4 he" odiksa'da'ie n ', 

his mind happy is (because) they child have, 



aiefi" 

one would 
think 



ne" 

that 



it is in 

state 



ne 

that 



Da'. 

So, 



o'ne"' 



ne" hosheie'o 114 . 

the he is jealous. 

niio'defi'andie* 



ne'ho"shon 

only thus 



so it continued 

to he 



he" 

where 



nno we 

so it is 
distant 



non" 

perhaps. 



one 

now 



wa n onwande n " ne 4 ' Hage n "tci ne" ne 4 ' £ n au n wa n wenni"sak. Da', 

he pointed it out the lie Ancient the that they should seek to divine So, 



they should seek to divine 
his word. 



o'ne 114 gagwe'go 114 



now 



it all 



3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
1> 
10 



he Ancient 
One 

ne" hSnnof)gwe'shon v o n< ne'ho"shon' hodii- 

the they (m.) man-being only thus they mi.) jl 

individully (are) habitually 



221 



222 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann.21 

motion]. So now all the people severally continued to do nothing 
else but to assemble there. Now they there continually sought to 
divine his Word. They severally designated all manner of things that 
they severally thought that he desired. After the lapse of some time, 
then, one of these persons*, said: " Now, perhaps, I myself have divined 
the Word of our chief, the excrement. And the thing that he desires 
is that the standing tree belonging to him should be uprooted, this 
tree that stands hard by his lodge." The chief said: u Gwa"" 
[expressing his thanks]. 

So now the man-beings said: "We must be in full number and we 
must aid one another when we uproot this standing tree; that is, there 
must be a few to grasp each several root." So now they uprooted it 
and set it up elsewhere. Now the place whence they had uprooted 
the tree fell through, forming an opening through the sky earth. 
So now, moreover, all the man-beings inspected it. It was curious; 



6 



10 
11 
12 
13 



e'is. Diiawe n "o n4 o'ne 11 ' ne"ho' hoiiwa n wenni"sas; ganio'shon" 

assem- Constantly now there they (m.) sought to divine it anything 

hie. , his word whatsoever 

he" na"ot hennonwafi'tha' ne" na"ot deodoendjon'ni'. Gaii!'- 

where such kind they (m.) it point that such kind of he it needs. Some- 

of thing out thing 

gwa' na'ionnishe"t o'ne 11 ' shaia"dat waen": "O'ne 11 ' non" 

what so it lasted now he (is) one heitsaid: "Now it is, perhaps, 

person 

ni"a' wae'dawanon'we n 't ne" sedwa'seii'no 11 '. Ne" non" ne" 

I per- I have divined excre- the he (is) our chief. That perhaps the 

sonally ment's word. it is, 

k deodoendjon'ni' non" ne" haganiodagwen'ong neii'gen' ne" 

he it needs, perhaps, the one it should uproot this is it the 



1 

2 
3 
4 



hoda'it, neii'gen' dosgen'o 11 ' ga'it heoii'we' ni'hono u 'so't." 

he has for himself this is it it is near it tree where so his lodge 

standing tree, stands stands." 

n "Gwa"," waen" ne" ha'sennowa'ne 11 '. 

"Thanks," heitsaid the he chief (is). 

Da', o'ne 114 waen'nf: " E n dwagwego'ong, deMwaie'nan' 

o So, now they it said: " We will be in full we will assist one 

number, another 

no'ne 114 e n dwa'niodago' nen'gen 4 ga'it. Ne" ne" do"ga'a 4 

" the time we it will uproot this it is it tree That the few it is 

stands. it is 

niiongwe'dagea'die' ne" e n adiie'nan' ne" djokde'asho 11 '." Da', 

so they man-being in the they it will the each it root several." So, 

number to each grasp 

o'ne n( waadinioda'go' oia"djP ne"ho' saadinio'de 11 '. O'ne 11 ' 

now they it uprooted elsewhere there again they (m.) Now, 

it set up. 

di'q ho'wa"sen't he'ofiwe 4 hodinioda'gwe 11 ', aufldjaga'ent 

more- hence it fell where they it have uprooted, it earth perforated 

over, down 

o'wa'do"'. Da', o'ne 114 di'q na'e' gagwe'go 11 ' ne" ofi'gwe 4 

i I became. So, now more- verily, it all the man- 

over, being(s) 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



223 



below them the aspect was green and nothing else in color. As soon 
as the man- beings had had their turns at inspecting it, then the chief 
said to his spouse: " Come now, let us two go to inspect it." Now she 
took her child astride of her back. Thither now he made his way with 
difficulty. He moved slowly. They two arrived at the place where 
the cavern was. Now he, the Ancient, himself inspected it. When 
he wearied of it, he said to his spouse: "Now it is thy turn. Come." 
"Age'," she said, "myself, I fear it." "Come now, so be it," he said, 
"do thou inspect it." So now she took in her mouth the ends of the 
mantle which she wore, and she rested herself on her hand on the right 
side, and she rested herself on the other side also, closing her hand on 
either side and grasping the earth thereby. So now she looked down 
below. Just as soon as she bent her neck, he seized her leg and 
pushed her body down thither. Now, moreover, there [i. e., in the 
hole] floated the body of the Fire-dragon with the white body, and, 



waennatchi'waeil*'. Odianofi't 4 gana 4 daikho n "shon 4 niio"den* ne 4 ' 



they (m.) looked at it. 



na n 'gon 4 '. 

below 
(inside). 

ha'e'gwa 4 

also 



Ganio" 



It curious 
(is), 

o'tho'dia'ho' 



it green only (is) 



so it is 



M 



So soon 
as 

ne" 

the 



they had their 
turns to look 

ha'sennowa'ne n< 



ne" hennontchi'wa'ma', 

the they it were looking at, 



he chief (is), 



waeii" : 

he it said: 



a 



Hau 



it 



one 



non" 

per- 
haps, 

0'ne ni 

Now 



1' 
we 



with dif- 
ficulty 

he'oirwe 4 oia'de\ 

where it abyss 

stands. 



diiatchi'wa'no 114 . " 

let us two it go to look 
at." 

ne"ho' 

there 

0'ne n( 

Now 



se n 'ge" 



0'ne n; 

Now 



wa'e'. 

thither he 
went. 



"Come, 

wa'ago'sa'de 11 ' 

she her took astride 
of own back 

Skenno n "on 4 

Slowly 



ne 

the 



now, 
it 



the 

one 

then 

gwa 4 ' 

it seems, 



goa'wak. 

her child. 



waatchi'wa'en' 

he it looked at 



ne 

the 



i'e'. 

he 
walked. 

ha'onhwa"' 

he himself 



Wani'io*' 

They two ar- 
rived 



ne 

the 



Hage n "tci. Ganio' waogan'de"' 



He- 
Ancient One. 

satchi'wa'en' 

do it thou look 
at 

"Hau", neii' 

"Come. now, 



So soon 
as 

gwa"." 



he it was weary 
of 



o'ne 114 



now 



waefi" : 

he it said: 



"I'S 
"Thou 



.. 



just." 



Age 4 '!" wa'a'ge 11 ': 

"Age!" she it said: 



" Ge'sha'nis 

"lit fear 



4/ 5? 



nio 

so let it 
be," 



wa'o n4 sho'go' ne 4 ' 

the 



i'ios 



she it took in her 
mouth 
if 



man- 
tle 



waen", 

he it said, 



ne 

the 



44 satchi'wa'en 4 ." 

"do thou it look at." 



Da', 

So, 



ne'wa' 

next in 
turn 

ni"a 4 ." 

I per- 
sonally." 

o'ne 114 

now 



goe", 

she it 
wore, 



o'ne I14 -kho 4 

now and 



ne" ieiefisdon'-gwa 4 , 

the her right side, 



o'ne n4 -kho' 



now 



and 



ne 

the 



o'dio n4 'tchi 4 

she rested herself 
on her hand 

i 



sgaga/di 4 ha'e'gwa' 



(the one side), 
the other side, 



also 



o'dio n "tchi-, 

she herself rested 
on her hand, 

wa n "kho n '. 

severally. 



o , dio n4 tchagwe'non'nr 

she her hands closed 



dedji'ao n -gwa 4 ' he 4 ' ieicna"- 

both side where she it held 



Da', 

Bo, 



o'ne n4 

now 



na n "gofi 4 

below 
(inside) 



w.'Vontgat'ho'. 

she it looked at. 



Ganio'shon 4 ' 

Just so soon as 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



224 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



verily, he it was whom the Ancient regarded with jealousy. Now 
Fire-dragon took out an ear of corn, and verily he gave it to her. 
As soon as she received it she placed it in her bosom. Now, another 
thing, the next in order, a small mortar and also the upper mortar 
[pestle] he gave to her. So now, again, another thing he took out 
of his bosom, which was a small pot. Now, again, another thing, he 
gave her in the next place, a bone. Now, he said: "This, verily, is 
what thou wilt continue to eat." 

Now it was so, that below [her] all manner of otgon [malefic] male 
man-beings abode; of this number were the Fire-dragon, whose body 
was pure white in color, the Wind, and the Thick Night. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 

15 

16 



o'die'nonnia'k da'shago'si'na', o'ne IU -kho' ne"ho' ho\shagoia"den. 

she bent her head he her leg seized, now and there hence he her 

forward body cast down. 

ne"ho' ieia'don'die\ 0'ne lU di'q ne"ho' haia'doii'- 



Da', 

So, 

die 1 

along 



one 



now 

ne" 

the 



there 



her body was 
falling. 



Now 



more- 
over 



there 



his body 
floated 



Gaha'ciendie'tha' Ononwa n 'da"a n ' Ni t haia'do"de n ' ne" 



it (is) white 



nige 

that 
it is 



nV 



kho" 

and 



It Fire Dragon 

«/*< ne " 

the he was jealous of him 



na e 

verily, 



honwa n 'shea'se'ak ne" 

the 



ne"ho' waada"go' ne" o'nfsda' ne" onen'o 11 ', 

there he it took the it ear the it corn, 



he it took 
out 



so his body is in that 
kind 

Hage n "tci. 0'ne n ' 

He Ancient Now 
One. 

o'ne n '-kho fc na'e' 

now and, verily, 



o'shaga'on'. Ganio" wa'eie'na' o'ne Ilfc ne"ho 4 ienias'dagoii* wa'- 



he her it gave. 

aun'ia't. 

placed 

ne"-kho' 

that and 



So soon 

as 

0'ne lU 

Now 



o ia 



she them took 



ne wa 



ne 

the 



it next in 

other order 

hetgeii'on' 

upper (one) the 



now there her bosom in she 

them 

ne" ne" ga'niga"da' niwa"a 4 , 

that the it mortar so it is small 

in size, 

ne" ga'niga"da', dedjia'o' 14 o'shaga'on'. 



it pestle, 
(—it mortar) 



both 



he her gave them 
to. 



Da', 

So, 

ne" 

the 



o'ne nt 



a'e' 

again 



o'ia' daada"go' haniasdagon", 



it other 

(is) 



he it took 
out 

i 



his bosom in, 



gana n "dja' niwa"a'. 0'ne n 



a'e' o'ia'-kho' 



ne 

the 



4/ 



it pot 

o'nen'ia' 

it bone (is) 

J5 



so it small 
in size is. 



Now 



again 



it and 
other 



o'ne nC 

now 



o'shaga'on'. 

he it her gave to 



O'ne 11 ' waen": 

Now he it said: 



ne 

that 

ne" 

the 

" Ne" 

"That, 



ne'wa' 

next in 
order 

ne wa 

next in 
order 

na'e 4 

verily, 



e n 'seg'seg 

thou it wilt be in 
the habit of eating." 
.ru 



Da', 

So, 



o ne 

now 



he" 

where 



niiodie'e 11 ' 

so it is being 
done 

ho'dio"de n '; 

of all kinds; 



ne" e'da"ge' hadi'na n ge' ne" 

the below they (m.) are the 

dwelling 

ne" ne" (ta'ha'ciendie'tha' 

that the It Fire Dragon 



honnondia'dat'go n 's 

they are otgon-bodied 
(are malefic) 

Ononwa n 'da"a n ' Ni 4 haia'do"de u \ kho" ne" Ga'ma, ne" gwa"ho' 

it white (is) so his body is in kind, and the It Wind, that next to it 

ne" Deioda'sondai'ko lU . 

the It Thick Night. 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 225 

Now, they, the male man-beings, counseled together, and they said: 
"Well, is it not probably possible for us to g-ive aid to the woman- 
being whose body is falling thence toward us ? " Now every one of the 
man-beings spoke, saying: "I, perhaps, would be able to aid her." 
Black Bass said: "I, perhaps, could do it." They, the man-beings, 
said: "Not the least, perhaps, art thou able to do it, seeing that thou 
hast no sense [reason]." The Pickerel next in turn said: "I* perhaps, 
could do it." Then the man-beings said: "And again we say, thou 
canst not do even a little, because thy throat is too long [thou art a 
glutton]." So now Turtle spoke, saying: "Moreover, perhaps, I would 
be able to give aid to the person of the woman-being." Now all the 
man-beings confirmed this proposal. Now, moreover, Turtle floated 
there at the point directly toward which the body of the woman-being 
was falling thence. So now, on the Turtle's carapace she, the woman- 
being, alighted. And she, the woman-being, wept there. Some time 

Da', o'ne n< waadias'hen. Waen'ni': "Gwe", gen' non" 

So, now they (m.) held a They it said: "Well, can it perhaps 

council. be 

da'a'on' aedwagwe'nf aethiia'dage"ha' ni'ge 11 ' ne" iagon'gwe' 

not it pos- we should be able we her should aid such it is the she man- 

sible (is) it to do being (is) 

daieia'don'die' ? " O'ne 11 ' ha'de'ion hadi'snie's, hennon'do 11 " "I", 



1 

2 



thence her body is Now every one of they (m.) spoke, they (m.) it said: "I, ~ 

falling? 1 ' them o 



4 



non" agegwe'nf akheia'dage''ha'." Oga"gwif waen": "I", 

per- I it could do I her could aid." It Black Bass, he it said: " I, 

haps, 

non" agegwe'nf." Waen'ni': "De'osthon" non" de'sagwe'nion', 

per- I it could do.'' They it said: "Not a little, per- thou art able to do it, K 

haps, haps 

so"dji' de'sa'ni'go n t." Ne" ne'wa' ne" Sgefidjes' waen": 

because thou hast no That next in the It Pickerel he it said: Q 

(too utterly) sense." order (=it fish long) 

"I," non" agegwe'nf." Waen'ni' kho" a'e': " De'osthofi" 

"I, per- . I it could do." They it said and again: "Not a little 7 

haps, 

de'sagwe'nion', so"dji 4 sania'do'wis." Da', o'ne 11 ' ne" ne'wa' 

thou hast no sense, because thou art a glutton." So, now that next in 8 

(too utterly) order 

waa'sniet ne" ha'no'wa' waen": "I" di'q non" agegwe'nf 

he spoke the It turtle he it said: ,'I, more- per- I it could do 9 

over, haps, 

akheia'dage"ha' ne" iagon'gwe'." O'ne 11 ' gagwe'go 11 ' waadii'- 

I her could aid the she man-being Now it all they con- \Q 

(is)." firmed 

wani'ad. O'ne 1 " di'q ne"ho' ha"sko' he'onwe' odoge n "do nk ne" 

(the) Now, more- there he floated the where it is objective the -j i 

matter. over, point x ' 

daieia'don'die' ne" iagon'gwe'. Da', o'ne 114 ne'"ho' ga , nowa"ge' 

thence her body is the she man- So, now there it turtle on 

falling being is. 

o'die'dion'da't. O'ne'" di'q ne'"ho' wa'oVdaen' ne" iagon'gwe'. 

she alighting Now, more- there she wept the she man-being 

stepped. over, is. 

21 eth— 03 15 



21 
13 



226 



IKOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



afterward she remembered that seemingly she still held [in her hands] 
earth. Now she opened her hands, and, moreover, she scattered the 
earth over Turtle. As soon as she did this, then it seems that this 
earth grew in size. So now she did thus, scattering the earth very 
many times [much]. "In a short time the earth had become of a con- 
siderable size. Now she herself became aware that it was she herself, 
alone seemingly, who was forming this earth here present. So now, 
verily, it was her custom to travel about from place to place contin- 
ually. She knew, verily, that when she traveled to and fro the earth 
increased in size. So now it was not long, verily, before the various 
kinds of shrubs grew up and also every kind of grass and reeds. In 
a short time she saw there entwined a vine of the wild potato. There 
out of doors the woman-being stood up and said: "Now, seemingly, 
will be present the orb of light [the sun], which shall be called the 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 

14 



Gain'gwa' na'ion'mshe't o'ne 11 ' wa'agoshaa"t ne" ie'a 

so long- it lasted now she it remembered the 



Somewhat 
if 



she it 
held, 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 



ne 

the 



oe"da'. 

it earth. 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



wa'o n ',tcagwai"si', o'ne n '-kho' di'q ne"'ho' 

she her hand opened, now and more- there 



more- 
over 



o'diondo'gwat ne" ga'no'wa'ge'. Ganio' ne"'ho' na'e'ie' agwa's 

she it scattered the it turtle on. So soon as thus 



so she it 
did 



gwa 

seem- 
ingly 

we'so : 

much 

(it is) 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 

he" 

where 

Da', 

So, 

ne" 

that, 

di'q 

more- 
over, 



na'e' 

verily, 



o'wado'diak nen'gen' ne" oe"da'. 

it grew this it is the it earth. 



Da' 

So, 



very 
(just) 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 



gain'gwa' 

somewhat 



ne"'ho' na'e'ie' o'diondo'gwat ne" oe"da'. Da'djia"shon 

thus so she it she it scattered the - it earth. In a very short 

did time only 

niioen'dja' o'wa'do 11 '. O'ne 11 ' wa'enni'naMog 

so it earth is it became. Now she it noticed 

large 

gaon'hon" gwa"shon ie'cion'ni's nen'gen' ne" ioen'dja'de' 

she herself seemingly she it makes this it is the it earth is 

only present. 

na'e' gen's deiagodawen'nie' diiawe n "o n '. Gono n "do n ' 

verily, cus- she is traveling about without ceasing. She it knew 

tomarily 

ganio" deiagodawen'nie'. Da', o'ne 11 ' 

so soon as she would travel about. So, ' now, 



o'ne 11 ' 

now, 

i 



nae 

verily, 



o'wado'diak 

it grew 



de'aonni'she'on' 

it did not last long 



o'ne 11 ' 



now, 



na'e' 

verily, 



o'skawa'shon"o nt 

it bush of various 
kinds 



owenna - 

they (z.) 



do'diak, ne"-kho' 

grew up, that and 

wa'e'ge 11 ' owadase" 

she it saw it is entwined 



ne 

the 



it 



ha'deio'eo"dage'. Da'djia"shon k o'ne 11 ' 

every grass (plant) in In a very short now 

number. time only 

ne" onen'no n 'da'-ofi'we' o'o n "sa'. O'ne 11 ', ne" 

the it wild potato (native) it vine. Now, the 

iagon'gwe' ne'"ho' a'sde 4 o'die'da't, o'ne n '-kho' wa'a'ge"': 

she man-being there out of she stood up, Now and she it said: 

(is) doors 

gwa" c n gaa'gwa'a'k ne" cndek'ha' e n gaiaso'ong." Doge n 's sede" 

seem it luminary will the day pertain- it will be called." It is true early in 

ingly, be present, ing to 



"O'ne 11 ' 

"Now, 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 227 

diurnal one." Truly now, early in the morning, the orb of light arose, 
and now, moreover, it started and went thither toward the place where 
the orb of light goes down [sets]. Verily, when the orb of light went 
down [set] it then became night, or dark. Now again, there out of 
doors she stood up, and she said, moreover: "Now, seemingly, next 
in order, there will be a star [spot] present here and there in many 
places where the sky is present [i. e., on the surface of the sky]." 
Now, truly, it thus came to pass. So now, there out of doors where 
she stood she there pointed and told, moreover, what kind of thing 
those stars would be called. Toward the north there are certain 
stars, severally present there, of which she said: ' ' They-are-pursuing- 
the-bear they will be called." So now, next in order, she said another 
thing: ''There will be a large star in existence, and it will rise cus- 
tomarily just before it becomes day, and it will be called, 'It-brings- 
the-day." Now, again she pointed, and again she said: "That cluster 
of stars yonder will be called 'the Group Visible.' And they, verily, 



1 
2 
3 



djirr o'ne 11 ' dagaa'gwit'ge n 't, o'ne 11 ' di'q ho'wa'den'df he" ga'a'- 

morn- now thence it luminary came now more- it started where it 

ing forth, over luminary 

gwe"'s-gwa' ho"we'. Ne" no'ne 11 ' ho'ga'a'gwe n 't o'ne 11 ' wai" 

sets direction thither it That the time thither it orb of now of 

went. light set course 

wa'o"ga'. O'ne 11 ' a'e' ne'"ho' a'sde' o'die'da't, wa'a'ge 11 ' di'q: 

it became Now again there out of she stood \ip, she it said more 

night. doors over:- 

"O'ne"' gwa" ne'wa' e n gadji'so llV deonniong he" gao n 'hia'de\" . 

"Now seem- next in it star will be present where it sky is present." 

ingly order plurally 

O'ne 11 ' doge n 's ne'"ho' niiawe n "o n '. Da', o'ne 11 ' as'de* he'onwe' i'iet 

Now it is true, thus so it came to pass. So, now out of - the place she 

indeed, doors where stood 

ne'"ho' wa'o n "tcade n ', wa'a'ge 11 ' di'q ne" na n "ot e n gaiaso'ong hoi'- 

there she pointed with she it said more- that such kind it will be called those 

her finger, over of thing 

geh' gadji'so n 'da"sho n '. Otho'we'ge'-gwa' ne" ; ho' gadogen'no 11 ' ne" 

it star is severally. It is cold direction there it is certain one the 

severally 

gadji'so n 'de'onnio n ' ne" ne" "Nia'gwai' hadishe" e n gaiaso'ong," 

it star is present (fixed) that the "Bear they (m.) are it will be called," 

plurally pursuing it 

wa'a'ge 11 '. Da', o'ne 11 ' o'ia' ne'wa' wa'a'ge 11 ': "Ne" ne" 

she it said. So, now it other next in she it said: "That the ^ 

(is) order it is 

e n gowanen'oiig gadji'so n "da' e n ge n 'k, e n tga'a'gwitge n 'seg tho"ha' 

it will be large it star it will be it will be in the habit of nearly *■" 

rising 

gen's ne" e n io"hen't ne" e n gaiaso'ong Tgenden'witha'." O'ne"' 

custom- the it will become that it will be called It day brings." Now J--L 

arily day 

o'ia' wa'o n "tcade n ', a'e'-kho' wa'a'ge 11 ': "Ne" hi'gen' wa'go"sot 

itothcr she pointed her again and she it said: "That that one it group is -*■■* 

i U i finger, it is present, 

od]Tso n 'da"sho n ' ne" (Y'gfiiaso'ong, Gatgwa"dfi\ Ne" na'c, ^ 

it star (is; severally that it will be called, It cluster is present. That, verily 



228 



TROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[F.TII. ANN. 21 



will know [will be the sign of] the time of the year [at all times]. 
And that [group] is called 'They-are-dahcing.'" So now, still once 
more, she spoke of that [which is called] a She4s-sitting." [She said]: 
"Verily, these will accompany them [i. e., those who form a group]. 
' Beaver its-skin-is-spread-out,' is what these shall be called. As soon, 
customarily, as one journeys, traveling at night, one will watch this 
[group]." Some time after this, she, the Ancient- bodied, again spoke 
repeatedly, saving: u There will dwell in a place faraway man-beings. 
So now, also, another thing; beavers will dwell in that place where 
there are streams of water." Indeed, it did thus come to pass, and 
the cause that brought it about is that she, the Ancient- bodied, is, as 
a matter of fact, a controller [a god]. 

So now, sometime afterward, the girl man*- being, the offspring of 
the Ancient-bodied, had grown large in size. And so now there was 
also much forest lying extant. Now near by there was lying an 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



13 



U 



this one 
it is 



hi'gefT e n gaiende'iak he" niwadoshi'ne's ne" gaia'so 11 ' hi'geiT 

that one it will know it (will be where jnst it year is in its that it is called 
it is the sign of it) - course 

De"honnont'gwe ,u . Da', 'a"so n4 sgat' ne" ne'wa hi'gen 4 

still one it is that next in this one 

order it is 



They are dancing. 



Da', 

So, 



leniu"ciot. 

She is sitting. 



Ne v 

That 



na'e' 



verily 



hi'geiV 

this one 
it is 



e n wefine"seg 



it will accompany 
them 



nige ne' 

that is the 

to say 

haditgwa"da'. Na^an^'go 11 ' Ga'sa'do" 1 ne" e n gaiaso'ong hi'gen'. 

they (m.) are a Beaver (Rodcutter) It spread that it will be called this it is. 

cluster (fixed). skin is 

de n ioiitha'ak ne" e n iontga'io n, hi'gen ; de n ionda- 

that one will watch it this it is one will 



Ganio" 

So soon as 



gen's 



wen'nie' 



travel 



custom- 
arily 

ne" 

the 



one will start to 
travel 



son'e'." 



ne/' 

the 



night 

(it is)." 

Eia'dage n "tci', wa'a'ge 

she it said 



Gain'gwa' niio'we 1 a'e' wa'e'snie"cion' 

Somewhat so it is dis- again she spoke repeatedly 



nv 



.. 



She Ancient- 
bodied (is), 



we'e 11 ' he'onwe'. 



far 



the place 
where. 



Da', 

So, 



o'ia' 

it other 

(is) 



so it is dis- 
tant 

E n4 hadina n geg' ne" on'gwe' 

"They (m.) will dwell the man-being (s) 

habitually 

kho 4 e n gana n ge'g ne" na n gania"go n ' 



and 



it (z.) will dwell 
habituallv 



the 



honwe'-gwa 4 he'onwe 4 tge n 'hande'nio n \ 



place direction 



we n "o n ' 

came to pass 



ne 

that 



the place 
where 

ne" 

the 



gaion ni 

it it causes 



Eia'dage n "tci 4 . 

She Ancient- 
bodied (is). 

Da', o'ne nt 

So, now 



there it stream is 
plurallv present." 

' he" 

for that 

(where) 



Doge n 's 

It is true 

lewenni'io' 

She Master (is) 



ne 



it beaver 

"ho' 

thus 



nua- 

so it 



se e 

it matter of 
fact (is) 



ne 

the 



it 



nen'gen 4 

this it is 



ne 

the 



kho c we'so' 



and 



much 

(it is) 



gain gwa 

somewhat 

iagon'gwe', 

she man- 
being, 

ga'ha'daie 1 ". 

it forest lies. 



na'ion'nishe't o'ne ni 

now 



so it is (long) 
lasted 



we so legowa ne 

much she large (is) 
(it is) 

Eia'dage n "tci 4 goa'wak. Da', 

She Ancient- her So, 
bodied offspring. 



nt 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



Da', o'ne 11 ' do'sgen'o n "shoiT 
So, now near by only, 



ne"ho, 

there 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



229 



uprooted tree, whereon it was that she, the child, was always at play^ 
Customarily she swung, perhaps; and when she became wearied she 
would descend from it. There on the grass she would kneel down. 
It was exceedingly delightful, customarily, it is said, when the Wind 
entered; Avhen she became aware that the Wind continued to enter her 
body, it was delightful. 

Now sometime afterward the Ancient-bodied watched her, musing r 
" Indeed, one would think that ury [man-being] offspring's body is not 
sole [i. e., not itself only]. " Ho," she said, " hast thou never custom- 
arily seen someone at times? " " No," said the girl child. Then she, 
the Ancient-bodied, said: " I really believe that one would think that 
thou art about to give birth to a child." So now, the girl child told it,, 
saying: kW That [I say] there [at the swing] when, customarily, I would 



gaienga'sa'de' ne" ne 4 

it upturned tree that the 



he'onwe 4 diiot'gont gotga'nie' ne" 

at all times she is playing the 



the place 
where 



ieksa"a'. 

she child. 



Ne" 

That 

(it is) 

gotce n "do n * o'ne 11 ' 

she was now 

wearied 

o'diondosho'doif. 

she got on her knees. 



gen's 



no'ne 11 ' 

the time 
(now) 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 



godonwi'da"do n 

custom- she it was swinging 

arily on 

ne"ho' wa'endia"de 

there she descended 

(lay down) 

Odo'kda"gi', 

It is at the 
extreme, 

ne'"ho' 

there now custom 

arily 



non". 

perhaps. 



O'ne 11 ' gen's 



Now 



ia'ge 11 ', 



custom- 
arily 

Ogeo'dja"ge' ne"'ho' 

On the grass there 



gen's 



it is said, 



o'ne 11 ' 



gen's 



daga'iint. 

it it en- 
tered, 

eia"dagon' hewe'tha' ne" ga"ha', ne" ne" os'gas. 



os gas 

it gives 
pleasure 

wa'enni'na n dog 

she it noticed (felt) 



custom 
arily 



ne" 

that 

ne' 

the 



her bodv in 



the 



O'ne 11 ', gaifi'gwa' 

Now, 



thither it is 
entering 

na'ionni'she't 

somewhat so it lasted 



It wind, 

o'ne 1 

now 



that 



the 



it gives 
pleasure. 



wa'ega'en'ion' 

she it watched 



ne 

the 



1 

2j 
3 

4: 

5 

6 

7 



:?xc?v 



she 
mused 



agwa s aien 

just one would 



rJ 5? 



Ho' 

"Oh," 



Iege n "tci' wa'en 

She Ancient 
One 

ne" khe'a'wak. 

the mv (anthropic) 
child. 

gen's de'songa" de'she'ge 11 ' ?" 

custom- someone 
arily 

Q'ne n ' wa'a'ge*' 

Now she it said 



•lien" 

e woul 
think 



waagc , 

she it said, 



the n "e nt 

not it 

is 

u He n "e n 



de'djiagoia'do'sga'a' 

her body is sole 



ge n " 



Not 



"The n "e n ' " 



thou seest one 
customarily?" 

ne" Iege n "tci' 

the 



" Not it is," 

"Aiefr'shofi 



is it 
n5 
she it said 



dewen'do 11 ' 

not ever 



wa'a'ge 



ne" eksa"a'. 



the 



she child. 



an 



non". 



prob- 
ably." 



per- 
haps, 

"Ne" ne- 

"That the 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



She Ancient "One would 

One: think only 

wa'onthiu'wf ne" 

she it told the 



e nt sade"don', gi" 

thou wilt give birth I 
to a child, think, 

eksa"a', wa'a'ge 11 ': 

she child she it said : 



ne"'ho' gen's ne" o'ne 11 ' 



there 



gen's 

custom- 
arily 



o gem na dog 

1 it felt 



custom- 
arily 

he" 

where 



the 



o'gade' n io 'so'de 11 ' ne' " ho ' 

I knelt down on my there 

knees 

o'wade'no n "da' ne" ga"ha' ne" 

it itself buried the It wind the 



8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
iff 
14 



280 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



kneel down, I became aware that the Wind inclosed itself in my body." 
So now, she, the Ancient-bodied, said: " If it be so, I say as a matter 
of fact, it is not certain that thou and I shall have good fortune." 

Sometime afterward then, seemingly, [it became apparent] that two 
male children were contained in the body of the maiden. And now, 
verily, also they two debated together, the two sa}ang, it is said, cus- 
tomarily: ''Thou shalt be the elder one," "Thee just let it be," so 
it was thus that they two kept saying. Now, one of them, a male 
person who was very ugly, being covered with warts, said: "Thou 
shalt be the first to be born." Now the other person said: " Just let 
it be thee." Now he, the Warty, said: "Just let it be thee to be the 
first to be born." "So let it be," said the other person, "thou wilt 
fulfil thy duty, perhaps, thou thyself." " So be it," verily said he, the 
Warty. Now, he who was the elder was born. And then in a short 
time she [the Ancient-bodied] noticed that, seemingly, there was still 



gia'da'gon'." Da', o'ne ni waVge 11 ' ne" Iege n "tci': "Ne" ne"ho 4 



my body in." 



So, 



now 



she it said 



the 



She Ancient 
One 



That 



it matter 
of fact 



ne" diengwa"shon' aiongiadaa'shwiio"he't de'oi'wado'gen'." 



the 



if that only be 



it us good fortune would give 



it is an uncertain 
matter." 



Gain'gwa' na'ionni'she't o'ne 11 ' ne" gwa" ne" deiksa"a 



Somewhat 



so it lasted 



that 



seem- 
ingly 



the 



they (m.) are 
two children 



dei"no n t ne" ne" eia'da'gon' ne" eia"dase\ Da', .o'ne nt -kho' 

4: they (m.) two that the her body in the she maiden. So, now and 

are gestating 

na'e' deodii''hwage'he n '. Ia'do 11 ', gi"o n ', 

5 verily they (m. ) two are con- They (m.) it is said, 



wanen'ong." 



gen's 



they (m.) two are con- They (m.) 

tending in dispute. two it said, 

"I's gwa"," nige n 

be the larger "Thou just," that is custom- 

(elder) one." to say arily 

shaia"dat ne" agwa's haet'ge 11 ', ne" ne" 

one he is that very he is ugly, that the 

person 

0'ne n ' 



gen's: 

custom- 
arily: 

ia'do 11 '. 

they (m.) 
two said. 



"!' 



s e sego- 

Thou thou wilt 



O'ne 114 

Now 



ne 

the 



if 



"I's e n tcadie'e n t e n 'seiina n 'gat. 

"Thou thou wilt take thou wilt be born." 



UT' 



thou wilt take 
the lead 



I's gwa". 

Thou just. 



O'ne 114 

Now, 



ne 

the 



hono nC hi"dae' waen": 

he is covered with he it said : 
warts (pimples) 

ne" shaia"dat waen": 

Now ' the one he is a he it said : 

person 

Hono n 'hi"dae' waen": "I's gwa" 

He Warty he it said: "Thou just 



12 



"Nio"," 

"So be it," 
at 



waen" 

he it said 



e n tcadie'e n t e n 'senna n 'gat. " 

10 thou wilt be thou wilt be 

the first born." 

"e n 'si c waie'is gwa". nofi" na 

11 " thou it wilt fulfill just, per- this 

haps, 

ne" Hono n 'hi"dae\ O'ne 11 ' waenna n 'gat nige 11 " ne" hago'wane 11 '. 



i's'a'." 

thou per- 
sonally." 



ne" shaia"dat, 

the one he is a 

person, 

; 'Nio"," na'e' waen" 

" So be it," verily he it said 



the 



He Warty. 



Now 



he is born 



this it is the 



he large one. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



231 



another to be born. The other had been born only a short time when 
this one was also born. They had been born only a very short time 
when their mother died. There, verily, it is said that he, the Warty, 
came forth from the navel of his mother. So now, verily, she, the 
Ancient-bodied, wept there. Not long after this, verily, she gave 
attention to the twins. As soon as she finished this task she made a 
grave not far away, and so she there laid her dead offspring, laying 
her head toward the west. So now, moreover, she talked to her. She, 
the Ancient-bodied, said: " Now, verily, thou hast taken the lead on 
the path that will continue to be between the earth here and the upper 
side of the sky. As soon as thou arrivest there on the upper side of 
the sky thou must carefully prepare a place where thou wilt continue 
to abide, and where we shall arrive." Now, of course, she covered it. 



Dadjia" o'ne n '-kho' wa'enni'na n dog ne" 

and she it noticed the 



In a short 
time 

e n na n 'gat. 

he will be 
born. 

,n/ 



waenna gat. 

he was born. 



now 

Da'djia"shoii' 

In a short time 
only 

Da'djia"shoiT 

In a short time 



hona n ga'do n4 

he is born 

nina n ga'do n ' 

they (m.) two 
are born 



o la 

it 
other 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



gwa" 

seem- 
ingly 

ne" 

that 



wa'ai'e' 

she died 



'a"so n ' 

still 



ne'wa' 

next in 
order 

ne" 

the 



shagodino"e n ' 

she their mother is. 



Ne"'ho' 

There, 



na'e', 

verily, 



gp'o 11 '. 

it is 
said, 



ne 

the 



Hono n 'hi"dae' 

He Warty 



daaia'ge n 't he" diiago'she"dot ne" hono"e n '. Da', o'ne 11 ' na'e' 

he came forth where just she has her the his mother. So, now verily 

navel 

wa'oii'sdae 11 ' ne" Eia'dage n "tci'. The n "e n ' da'aonni'sheV o'ne 11 ' 

she wept the She Ancient- Not it is it lasted 



She Ancient- 
bodied. 



now 



nae' 

verily 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



o'thonwadi'snie' 

she them cared for 



ne/' dei'khe 11 '. 

the they (m.) two 
are twins. 



Ganio" wa'ondienno"kde n ' 



So soon 
as 



she completed her 
task 



na'e' wa'eiadon'nf dosgen'o n 'shoii', da', ne"'ho' 

verily she made a cave just near by, so, there 



ia"shen' 

her laid 



wa'agogoen". 

she her scalp (head) 
laid. 

Eia'dage n "tci': 

She Ancient- 
bodied : 



she made a cave 
(hole) 

ne" goa'wak-gen'on', 

the her was, 

offspring 

Da'. 



he" 

where 



gaa'gwe n "s-gwa' 

it sun sets direction 



wa'ago- 

she 

"'ho' 



ne 



o'ne 11 ' 



So, 



now, 



"O'ne 11 ' i's 

"Now, thou 



di'q 

more- 
over 

na'e' 



wa'agotha'has. Wa'a'ge"' 

she her talked to. She it said 



there 

ne" 

the 



o'satha'hon'de"' 

verily thou it path hast taken 



neii'gefi' 



2 



4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



this it is 



he" 

where H 



ioen'djade' gaon'hia"ge' he n iotha'hinon'ong. 



it earth is 
pn-sent 

he n "cio n ' 

thou wilt 
arrive 

on'da'k, 

continue 
to abide, 



sky on 

ne" gaon i hia"ge < 

the sky on 



r'-kho* 

we two 
(we and) 



he'onwe' 

the place 
where 



it path will have its 
course. 

e n 'se'cionnia'non' 

thou wilt make 
preparations 

he n iagwa'io n \" 

there we shall urrive." 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 

he'onwe' 

the place 
where 



ne"'ho' 

there 12 

e n 'si'di- 

thou wilt 13 



0'ne ni 

Now 



wai'i" 

of 

course 



14 



232 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



So, now. only this was left, that she customarily eared for the twins, 
the two children. 

Again, after some time, it is said, the two male children were of 
large size, and verily, too, they ran about there, customarily. After- 
ward, the elder one, being now a youth, questioning his grandmother, 
asked: fcfc Oh, grandmother, where, verily, is my father? And who, 
moreover, verily, is the one who is my father? Where, moreover, is 
the place wherein he dwells ? " She, the Ancient-bodied, said : ' c Verily, 
that one who is the Wind is thy father. Whatever, moreover, is the 
direction from which the wind is customarily blowing, there, truty, 
is the place where the lodge of thy father stands." " So be it," replied 
the youth. So now, verily, the youth stood out of doors, and now he, 
moreover, observed the direction of the wind, whence it was blowing; 
and this too he said: "I desire to see my father, and the reason is that 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



wa/onwe"sa\ Da', o'ne 114 ne"shon' we'gen' de n wadi 4 'snie' nige 11 " 

she it covered. So, now that only it is left she will attend to that it is 



ne" dei'khe 11 ', ne" dei'ksaV. 



she will attend to 
two persons 



the 



they (m.) two 
are twins 



the 



they (m.) two 
are children. 



Gain'gwa' a'e' na'ionni'she't o'ne 11 ', gi"o n4 , deigowa'nen ne" 

Somewhat again so it lasted now, it is said, they (m.) two are the 



dei'ksaV, o'ne ni -kho' 

they (m.) two now 

are children, 

waada'on'doif ne 

he it asked the 



na'e" 



deidak'he's. 



and, verily, 

" hagowa'nen 4 , 



he (is) large, 



they (m.) two 
run about. 

o'ne ni 

now, 



they (ra.)two are 
large 

Tha'geii"o nt o'ne ni 

Afterward 



now 



na'e' 



verily, 



haksa'dase"a'. 

he (is) a youth. 



O'shago'oii'doii' ne" ho'sot' waefi": "Aksof, 

the his grand- he it said: " My grand- 
mother mother, 



He her asked 

" ha'nl'? 



gain*' 

where 



di'q 

more- 
over 



na'e' 

verily, 



ne 

the 

Gawe* 

Where, 



he is my 
father? 



Son" 

Who 



di'q 



more- 
over 



kho" 

and 



naV nige n " 

verilv that it is the I 



ni" ne" haW? 



the 



he is my 
father? 



di'q 

more- 
over, 

EhVdage n "tci': 

She Ancient- 
bodied : 

Gain" di'q 

Where more- 
over 

thono n "sot 

there his lodge 
stands 

Da', o'ne"' 

So, now, 



non 

perhaps, 

" Ne v 
"That 



gwa gwa 

in direc- 
tion 

it 



gwa'gwa' 

in direction 



thana n 'ge' ? " 

there he dwells?" 



WaVge" 

She it said 



ne 

the 



if 



ne 

the 



ia"ni. 

he is thy 
father." 



wai'i' 

of course 



gen's 

custom- 
arily 



hi 'gen' 



this 
it is 



ne 

the 



, v 



la in 

he is thy 
father 



ne 

the 



" Ga"ha'. 

It Wind. 



diioagont' ne" noii" ne"'ho fc -gwa' 

that perhaps there direction 



there it wind 
is fixed 
it ?? 



Nio", 

"So be it," 



waefi" 

he it said 



ne" haksa'dase"a e . 

the he youth. 



nae 

verily 



as'de' 

out of 
doors 



o'tha'da't ne" 

he stood the 



haksa'dase"a', 

he youth, 



di'q waatga'ion 1 

more- he it watched 

over 

ha'do" c ne" ne' 

he it kept that the 
saying 



he'onwe'-gwa' diioagont'; ne" kho*' 

the place where there it wind is that and 
in direction coming; 

dewagadoendjon'nr ae'ge 11 ' ne" ha'ni'. 

I it need I him should the lie my 

see fatlier is 



o'ne n; 

now 

ne" 
the 

, ne" 
that 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



233 



he would give uie aid." Now, he said: "Far yonder stands the lodge 
of my father, the Wind; he will aid me; he will make the bodies of all 
the kinds of animal [man-beings]; and by all means still something else 
that will be an aid to me." So now he started. He had not gone far 
when in the distance he saw the place where stood the lodge of his 
father. He arrived there, and there a man-being abode who had four a 
children, two males and two females. The youth said: 44 I have now 
arrived. O father, it is necessary that thou shouldst aid me. And that 
which I need are the game [animals] and also some other things." 
They were all pleased that they saw him. So now he, the Ancient, 
their father, said: " So let it be. Truly I will fulfil all of thy require- 



diior'wa* ne*' aagia'dage' 4 ha'." O'ne 11 ' 

there it is the he me should aid." Now 

reason 



waen": 

he it said: 



thono n4 so't 

there his lodge 
stands 

e n 'a 4 cioiini' 

he it will make 



ne 

the 

ne' 

the 



ha'nl' 

he is my 
father 



ne 

the 



Ga"ha\ 

It Wind, 



ne 

that 



44 Honwe'-gwa 4 

" Where in direction 



e n4 gie'na n wa's, 

he me will aid, 



ha'deganio"dage 4 ; tgagon 4 ' 

by all means 



every it animal kind (is) 
in number; 



'a 4 'so r 

still 



•kho 4 

and 



hagwisde 11 " gie" ne" o'ia', ne" 

something some of the other that 



Da'. 

So, 



o'ne ni 



now 
n5 



some of 
them 

waa 4 'dendf . 

he started. 



other 
it is, 



The n "e n4 

Not it is 



gagwe go 

it all 

de'we'e 11 

far away 



e n agia'dage' 'ha' . " 

he me will aid." 

deawe'non 4 o'ne 114 



he went 



waa ge 

he it saw 

he n 'dio n ' 

he abode 



honwe'-gwa 4 tgano n4 so't. O'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 waa'io 11 ' 

where in direction there it lodge Now there he arrived 



there it lodge 
stands. 



ne 4 ' hon'gwe 4 , ge'i 4a ni'oksa'da'ie 11 ', deiias'he 4 

the he man- four so many he has chil- they (m.) two 



being is, 



dren, 



are persons 



na\ degiias'he 4 degni'o 114 . 



they (f.) two are 
persons 
k nV. 



they (f.) two 
are female. 



Waen" 

He it said 



ne 4/ haksa'dase"a 4 : 

the he youth: 



now 

ne" 4 ho 4 

there 

deidji'- 

they (m.) 

two are 

male 

44 O'ne 114 

"Now 



ha'ni', ne' 



ne 

the 



OglO , 

I have oh, my that 

arrived; father, it is, 

Ne" ne*' dewagadoendjoii'ni 4 ne 4 ' 

That the it me is necessarv for the 



dewagadoendjon'ni 4 asgia'dage'4ia. 

it me is necessarv for 



thou me shouldst 
aid. 



ganio'shoii"o n4 ne"kho 4 ne 4 ' 

it game (collective.) that and the 



ha"gwisde n ' 

anything 



gie" 

some of 
them 

ne 4 ' \va 4 oriwage n ' , < 

the they him saw. 



ne 

the 



o'ia'." 

it other." 



Gagwe'go' 1 

It all 



Da', o'ne 114 

So, now 



waen" 

he it said 



ne 

the 



waennadon 4 ha'en' 

they were pleased 

Hage n4 'tci 4 ne 4 ' 

He Ancient the 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 

12 



a The use of the number four here is remarkable. It seems that the two female children are intro- 
duced merely to retain the number four, since they do not take any part in the events of the legend. 
It appears to the writer that the visiting boy and his warty brother are here inadvertently displaced 
by the narrator- by the substitution of the two girls for the reason given above, owing to his or a 
predecessor's failure; to recall all the parts of the legend. This form has emphasized the importance of 
the twins to the practical exclusion of the other brothers. In the Algonquian Potawatomi genesis 
narrative, which, like those of its congeners, appears to be derived from a source common to both 
Iroquoian and Algonquian narrators, four male children are named as the offspring of the personage 
here called Wind. For the Potawatomi version consult De Smet, Oregon Missions, page 347. 



234 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

ments in coining here. In the first place, however, 1 will that these 
here, ye my children, severally shall amuse yourselves somewhat by 
running a race. I have a flute for which } T e shall contend one with 
another, whereby ye shall enjoy yourselves. And I say that ye shall 
make a circuit of this earth here present, and also that ye shall take 
this flute." So now they stood at the line whence they should start. 
Now the visiting youth said: "I desire that here shall stand he, the 
Defender a [the False-face, He-defends-them], that he may aid me." 
Truly, it thus came to pass; the Defender came and stood there. 
And now, moreover, the youth said: " And I say that thou must put 
forth thy utmost speed for that I am going to trail thy tracks." So 
now truly it did thus come to pass that at all times they two [males] 
were in the lead throughout the entire distance covered in making the 
circuit [of the earth]. As soon as they started running he trailed him, 
and the pace was swift. In a short time now they made a circuit of 
it. Much did they two [males] outfoot the other two. Now he that 

honwa"nI: " Nio". Do'ge n s ne'"ho' e n gi'waie'is na"ot se'he'die'. 

he their "So be it. Truly thus I will fulfill the such kind thou desirest 

father is: matter of thing in coming. 

Ne" gwa" ia'e' i" e n tgenno n "do n ' osthoii' e n swatga'nie' 

That seem- in the I I it will will it little ye will amuse 

ingly first place yourselves 

nen'gen' gwaawa'kshon'o 11 ' ne" ne" de n swene n "dat. Agie 11 " 

o this it is I am parent of you that the ye will run (a I it have 

children race). 

ne 4 ' ieo'dawas'tha' ne" ne" e n swasge"ha' ne" ne" e n swaden- 

4 the one uses it for blow- that the ye it will contend that the ye will use 

ing (a flute), for it to 

dofi'nia't. Ne" ne" de n swathwada'se' nen'gen' he" ioen'djade', 

D amuse your- That the ye will make a circuit this it is where it earth is 

selves. of it present, 

ne"kho' ne" e n swa'a' nen'gen' ne" ieo'dawas'tha'." Da', 

6 that and the ye will take this it is the one uses it for blow- So, 

with you ing (a flute)." 

o'ne ,u ne'^ho 4 o'thadi'da't he'onwe' e n thenne n "sga'. Da', o'ne 11 ' 

7 now there they (m.) stood the place they (m.) will start So, now 

up where from the line. 

waen" ne" haksa'dase"a 4 : "Ne" ne" dewagadoendjon'ni' 

he it said the he youth: "That the it me is necessary for 



8 



it 



ne'kho' daa'da't ne" Shagodiowe'go'wa ne" ne" aagia'dagie'- 

9 nere he should the He Them Defends that the he should aid 

stand • (He Whirlwind) me." 

'ha'." Do'ge n s ne'"ho' na"awe n '; ne'"ho' o'tha'da't ne 

10 It is true thus so it came there he stood the 

to pass; up 

Shagodiowe'go'wa. O'ne"' di'q waen" ne" haksa'dase"a': 

\\ He Them Defends Now more- he it said the he youth: 

(He Whirlwind) over 

" Ne" ne" (V'tsadia'noat ne" nige 11 " ne" e n gonia'nonda'." 

12 "That the thou must exert that so it is the I will trail thy 

it is thy best speed tracks." 

Da', o'ne n ' do'ge n s ne'kho* naa'we 11 ' ne" diiawe n "o n ' hiien'de' 

lo s 0) now it is true thus soitcame that continually they (m.) two 

to pass were in the lead 

('This is the Seneca name for the Hadu'T of the Onondagas. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



235 



carried the 'flute gave it to his father. Now he, the Ancient, took it 
and also said: " Now, of course, truly thou hast won from me all the 
things that thou desirest that I should do for thee." Now, moreover, 
he there laid down a bundle, a tilled bag- that was very heav} 7 . So now, 
verily, he gave to his son, to the one who came from the other place, 
this bundle and also this flute that he had won, and he also said: " I say 
that this shall belong- to you both equally, to thee and thy younger 
brother." So now the } T outh took up the bundle and bore it on his 
back by means of the forehead burden strap. So now he traveled 
along- to a place where he became tired and the sack began to be heavy. 
So now he exclaimed, "It may be, perhaps, that I should take a rest." 
And so now he sat down and also examined it [the bag]. He thought, 
"Let me, indeed, view them; for indeed they belong to me anyway." 



ne 4 ' he'' niio'we' waennoiithwada'se'. Ganio" no'ne 114 o'thenne" 4 '- 

the where so it is they (m.) made a circuit So soon the time they (m.) ran, 



so it is 
distant 



thev (m.) made a circuit 
of it. 



So soon the time 

as (now) 

dat, waodianonda" osno'we'. Da'djia 4 ' o'ne 114 waennonthwada'se'. 

he doubled his it is swift. In a short now they (m.) made a circuit 

tracks time of it. 

We'so' wa'onwandiiatgen'nf ne 4 ' sniia"dat. O'ne 114 ne 4 ' haa'wf 

Much he them overmatched the they (m.) two are Now the he it bore 
(it is) 



the they (m.) two are 
persons (other). 



ne 4 ' ieo'dawas'tha' da'on' ne 4 ' ho"ni. O'ne 114 



the 

kho 4 ' 

and 



one it uses for 
blowing 

.4/ 



he it gave 
to him 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



he his 

father (is). 

ne" Hage n4 'tci 4 : 

he it said the He Ancient 



waen" 



Now 

44 O'ne 114 

"Now 



waa iena , ne 

he it took, that 



wai'i 4 



o\sge"nia' he 4 ' ni'ion desadoendjon'ni 4 ne 4 ' 

thou me hast where so it is in it thee is necessary the 

won from amount 



it thee is necessary 
for 



O'ne 114 di'q ne" 4 ho 4 waathena n 'ien' ne 4 ' 

Now, more- thus he his bundle the 



more- 
over 



he his bundle 
laid down 



do'ge n s 

of course it is true 

nagoniadie'a's." 

so I thee should do 
for." 

gaia" gana n 'ho n4 , 

it bag it is full, 



oi'nosde'. Da', o'ne" 4 na'e 4 da'on' ne 4 ' hoa'wak ne 4 ' 

it is a heavy So, now verily he it gave the his off- 

pack, to him spring 

thawe 4 'do n nige 11 ". ne 4 ' gane n nos' 4 ha', ne" kho 4 

that it is the it bundle, that and 



thence he 
came 

it 



ne 

the 



the 

it 



ne 

the 

44 Ne" 

"That 



o'ne 114 



he 4 ' 

where 

Da', 

So, 
I" 



ieo'dawas'tha' daonwa'ie"', 



V 



one it uses to 
blow 

nen'gen 4 

this it is 



he it gave to 
him. 



ne 

that 



kho 4 ' 

and 



ne 

the 



oia'dji 4 

elsewhere 



nen'gen 4 

this it is 



waen" : 

he it said: 



desniawe n4 '-gen'ong ne 4 ' he 4 se"gen\" Da', 



So, 



ye two it will will the he thy younger 

own be brother is." 

o'thathe'nak, waatge 4 'dat ne 4 ' haksa'dase"a 4 . Da', o'ih' 1 "' 

he his bundle he bore it on his back the he youth. So, now 
took up, by the forehead strap 



niatha 4 i'ne' 

there he was on i 

his way 



o'ne 114 



wa'os, 

he got 

tired, 



ne" 

that 



kho 4 ' 

and 



ne 

the 



hosda'ne'. 



o'ne n4 



wa e : 



it him 
weighed down. 

Agadofiis' 4 hen 4 gi" en' non 4 '." Da', 

I think it seems perhaps." So, 



wai'i* 

of 



" I mvself should 
rest." 



he 
decided: 

riig6 n " aga'we" 4 ." O'ne" 4 na'e 4 ne'^ho* waaw;rhfi"'si\ 

so it is I own it Now verily there he it unwrapped, 

(it is mine)." 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



236 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Now, verily, he there unwrapt it and uncovered it. Just as soon as 
he opened it there were repeated shovings. Now, moreover, there all 
the various kinds of animals that his father had given him came forth. 
He was taken by surprise that all the animals so suddenly came forth. 
Thus it came to pass as soon as he fully opened the sack. And there, 
moreover, they severally trampled upon him. So the last one to come 
forth was the spotted fawn. Now he there shot it. On the front leg, a 
little above the place where the hoof joins the leg, there he hit it. It 
escaped from him, verily, moreover. So now he said: "Thus it will 
be with thee alwaj^s. It will never be possible for thee to recover. 
And the wax [fat] that will at all times be contained therein will be 
a good medicine. And it will continue to be an effective medicine. 
As soon as an} 7 one customarily shall have sore eyes, one must cus- 
tomarily anoint them with it, binding it thereon; then, customarily it 
will be possible for one to recover. 



1 
2 
3 
1 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



waawe'sa'go'-kho'. Ganio"-shon wa'hodoil'go' o'ne 11 ' dawa'djaen"- 

he uncovered it and. So soon just he it uncovered now it pushed up 

as repeatedly. 

cioii'. O'ne" 4 di'q dawadiia'ge n 't ne" 4 ho' ne" hadeganio"dage' ne" 

Now more- thence they (z.) there the every it animal in that 

over came forth number (is) 

ne" ho'wi 4 ne" ho"nI. Waadiengwa 4 'shon', dawadiiage u "dak ne" 

the he it gave the he his He was surprised just, they (z.) came out the 

to him father is. suddenly 

ha/deganio"dage'. Ne"ho 4 na'a'we 11 ' ganio" we'so' o'thamagweii'dat. 



There 

(thus) 



so it hap- 
pened 



so soon 
as 



much 



every it animal in 
number (is). 

Ne" 4 ho' di'q o'ne lU o'thoia'daiqda'noff. Da', 

There, more- now it trampled on him So, 

over, severally. 

na n 'gen"shon o'gaia'ge n 't ne" djisda'thieii'o 114 . 

very last (hind- it came forth the spotted fawn, 

most) 

waa"iak. Oeiidofi'-gwa', ga c si'no n 'ge 4 , osthon" 

he it shot. Front side, its leg on, it little 



ne' 

that 



he it opened. 

agwa's ne" 



very 



0'ne n( 

Now 



the 

'mo' 



ne 

there 



he'tge 11 " ne" 

the 



above 

(it is) 



odjiene u, da'ge' 

its ankle on 



he'onwe 4 ga'si'not ne"'ho' 

there 



the place 
where 



its leg is 
fixed 



waa si s. 

he it hit. 



Wao"nia- 



It escaped 
from 



ge s 

him 



di'q 

more- 
over 



nae. 

verilv. 



Da'. 

So, 



one 

now 



waen": 

he it said: 



"Ne" 4 ho' 

"There 



ne n io'den'ong diiotgont'. The n "e n ' da"aon' 

always. Not (it is) it is pos- 

sible 

ono"*gwa"sha'-gen'ofig hoi'geiV 

it medicine it will be that it is 



so it will con- 
tinue to be 



nrs 

the 
thou 

wen'do' 14 onsa\sa'do n '. 

ever again thou thyself 

shouldst recover. 



Ne" 

That 



ne 

the 



oi'sa' 



ne 

the 



ne"mo' 

there 



diiotgont' 

always 



i'da'k. 



Ne" 

That 



gen's 



it fat 

(wax) 

ne" r n iono lu gwa 1 tchi'ioag. Ganio" 

the it medicine will continue So soon 

to be a good. as 



14 



e wan 

it will he con 
tained 

a" e n iagoganon'wa n k ne" gen's ne^no' 

it will sicken one s that cus- there 

eyes tomarily 

, o'ne 11 ' gen's e"wa'do n, ne" e n djon'do n V 

one will bind it on now cus it shall he the again shall one 

one's sell', tomarily possihle recover." 



cus- 
tomarily 



anyone 

e n iondie n "sao n ' 



e uigo ga , 

one it will 
anoint, 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



237 



So then he departed again from that place. When he again arrived 
at the place where their lodge stood, he told his younger brother, 
saying: "Do thou look at what the father of us two has given us 
two." When he again arrived where his grandmother was, he said: 
" Now I have been to the place of my father on a visit. He granted 
me a most important matter. So do ye again go out of doors. Ye 
will hear the great noise [made] by all the several kinds of animals." 
Now the} T went out, and they listened to the loudness of the noise 
made by all the kinds of animals. Now there, their grandmother, 
the Ancient-bodied, she stood up, and she talked, saying: "Let it 
stand here; that is the elk, which this thing shall be called. Here 
also let another stand, one that is just a little smaller, which shall be 
called a deer. Now also another thing, let it stand here, and that 



Da', 

So, 

no n4 sot' 

lodge 
stood 

waefi": 

he it said: 

ne" 4 ho 4 

there 



o'ne 114 ne'"ho* saa'den'di'. 

now there 



Saa^o"' he'onwe' 



again he 
departed. 



Again he 
arrived 



the place 
where 



thodi- 

their (m.) 



o'ne n " 



di'q woo'wf ne" ho"gerf ne" Othagwe n "da\ 

It Flint, 



more- 
over 



he him 

told 



the he his younger the 
brother is 



44 Satga"tho 4 ne" shongia'wi 4 ne" shedi"ni 4 ." O'ne"' 

the he it has given the he is the father Now 



" Do thou look 
at it 

saa'io"' 



he it has given 
to us two 



again he 
arrived 



ne 

the 



ho'sot'ge' 

his grand- 
mother at 



waen": 

he it said: 



he is the father 
of us two." 

44 0'ne n4 

"Now 



ne" 4 ho 4 

there 



ho*ga"get ne 4 ' ha'm'ne 4 . Oi 4 owa'nen 4 o'thagia'dowe"de n \ Da', 

I have been the at my It is a great he me granted to. So, 



at my 
father's. 



It is a great 
matter 



o'ne n4 

now 



:nk 



waa'dien', 

he himself 
seated, 



waak'don ? -kho 4 . 

he it exam- and. 
ined 



Wa'e' : 4 4 Gekdonsa"-shon. 



He 
thought: 



" Let me go to sev- 
view them erally. 



one"" saswaia'ge n 't. E n swathon'deg he" nigai"sdowanen 4 

now do ye go forth. Ye it will hear where so it sound great is 

ha'de'ion 4 ne 4 ' ganio"shon'o n4 ." O'ne 11 ' waadiia'ge n, t, o'ne n4 -kho 4 

the it animal is severallv." Now they (m.) went now and 



every one in 
number 



they(m.)went 
out, 



waiathofi'dat he 4 ' niiotkai"ni ne 4 ' onondi's'da' ne 4 ' ha'deganio"- 

vvhere so it is loud the they (z.) are the 



they(m.) 
listened 



dage 4 . 



O'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 o'die'da't 

Now there she stood up 



they (z.) are 
making noise 

ne" 



the 



Eiadage n "tci 4 , wa'onthiu'wi', 

She Ancient- she it told, 

bodied, 

nige n4 ' ne 4 ' djinaen"da', ne" 

so it is the elk, that 



wa'a'ge"' 

she it said: 



na'e 4 

verily 



nen'gefi' 

this it is 



every it animal is 
in number. 

shagodi 4 'sot, ne" 

she their grand- the 

mother is 

Ne'kho 4 de n ga'drft 

"Here it will stand 

up 

ne" e n gaiaso'ofig. 



that 



it will he named. 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Ne'kho" 

Here 



o'ia'-kho" 

it other and 



ne" 4 ho 4 

there 



niiaga'Ti 4 , 

so it is 
small(er), 



ne" 

that 



na'e 4 

verily 



de n ga'da't, ne" ne 4 ' heio'sthon' 

it will stand that the 

up, 



it is just 
little 



this it is 



ne oge 

deer 



e n gaiaso ong. 

it will be 
named. 



O'ne"' 

Now 



I'd 



14 



238 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



next in turn shall, verily, be called a bear. Now, also, another thing, 
next in order, let him stand here, and that next in order of time shall 
be called a buffalo. 80 that, verily, is just the number of [game 
animals] which are large in size. As soon, verily, as man-beings shall 
dwell here, those, verily, shall be the names of the different animals; 
when the man-beings dwell [here], then they shall give names to all 
the other animals." 

So, verily, now, he, the youth, said: k4 I desire that there shall be a 
hollow here [in the ground], and that it shall be full of oil." Veril} 7 , 
it thus came to pass. Now, moreover, he said: "Hither let him 
[anthropic], the buffalo, come." In just a short time it then stood 
there. Now he said: " Therein do thou plunge thyself." Thus, truly, 
did it come to pass. On the farther side it landed from the oil pool, 
having become as fat as it is possible for it to be. So now again he 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 

14 



o'ia'-kho 4 

it and 

other 

nia'gwai' 

bear 

ne'kho 4 

here 



ne'kho 4 

here 



ne'wa' 

next in 
order 

e n gaiaso'ong ne' 

it will be the 

called 



de n ga'da't, ne" 

it will stand that 

up, 

' na'e'. O'ne 114 

verily. Now it other 



ne 

the 



o'ia' 



Da', 

So, 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 
j/ 



de n4 ha'da't, ne" 

he (m.) will that 

stand up, 

na'e' ne"ho 4 

verily there 



ne wa 

next in 
order 



de'giia'go 11 ' 

buffalo 



ne'wa' ne" 

next in the 
order 

kho 4 ne'wa' 

and next in 

order 

e n gaiaso'ong. 

it will be 
named. 



niwen'nandi 4 ne' 

so many they the 

are in number 



ga'nio 1 

it game 



ne" 

the 



wadigo'wane n4 s. Ganio" na'e 4 e n iena n ge'g ne'kho' ne" ofi'gwe 4 , 

verily they will here the man-being, 



they (z.) are large 
ones. 

da', ne" 

so, that 



So soon 
as 



na'e 4 

verily 



e n wadiia'shoii 

they (z.) will be 
named, severally; 



'. 



they will 
dwell 

ne" 

that 



no'ne 114 

the 
time 



oii'gwe 4 

man- 
being 

Da,' 

So, 

dase"^ : 

youth: 



o'ne" 

time 
now 

o'ne 114 

now 



gagwe'go 114 e n adi 4 sen'no n ' ne 4 ' 

it all they (m.) them the 



na'e 4 shon 4 

verily just 



they (m.) them 
names will give 

ne"ho 4 

there 



o'ne n4 



waen" 

he it said 



e n adina n 'geg ne 4 ' 

they (m.) will the 

be dwelling 

ha'deganio"dage 4 ." 

every it animal in 
number (is)." 

ne" haksa'- 

the 



he 



^Dewagadoendjon'ni 4 ne'kho 4 daio 4 dada'gwen'ong, ne" 

" It it causes me to desire here it hollow place should be, that 



it 



ne 

the 

O'ne 114 

Now 

shon" 



o no 

it oil 



di'q 

more- 
over 



one 

now 



&n< 



e n gana n hon'g. " Ne" 4 ho 4 do'ge n s na n 'a'we n4 . 

it will be full of it." Thus it is true so it came 

to pass. 

44 Ga'o' it'het ne" degiia"go n '." Da'djia 4 - 

buffalo." In a short 

time just 

44 Ne" 4 ho 4 

"There 



ne" 4 ho 4 

there 

waen"; 

he it said : " Hither let him the 
(anthr.) come 

ne" 4 ho 4 o'tga'da't. O'ne 114 

there it stood up. Now 



waen" : 

he it said : 



ho'sade"sgo 4 ." Ne" 4 ho 4 do'ge n s na n 'a'we n4 . 

thither do thou Thus it is true so it came to 

plunge thyself." pass. 

he 4 ' niioerwe'nion' o'sen". Da', 

So, 



Ho'gwa 4 

That side 



ho'wade'- 

thither it 



sgo go 

landed 



where 



nuogwe nion 

so it is possible 



o'sen". 

it fat I is). 



o'ne 114 

HOW 



a'e' 

again 



waen" : 

he it said: 



HE WITT j 



SENECA VERSION 



239 



said: " Hither let him [anthropic] come next in order of time, the bear." 
In a short time now the bear stood there. Moreover, he now said 
again: " Therein do thou, next in order, plunge thyself into that oil." 
Thus, truly, did it come to pass. On the farther side it landed from 
the oil pool, having become as fat as it is possible for it to be. So 
now he said: " What is it thou wilt do, and in what manner, to aid 
[human] man-beings? " " This, seemingly, is all; I shall just flee from 
him," it said. So now he loaded it by inserting meat into its legs. 
And now, verily, its legs are very large. So now he said: "Let the 
deer next in order stand here." As soon as it stood there, he said: 
"There into that oil thou shalt plunge thyself." Now of course he 
[anthropic] cast his body therein, and landed from the oil pool on the 
other side, and it [zoic] was as fat as it was possible for it to be. So 
now he said: " With what and in what manner wilt thou aid the [human] 



"Ga'o' 

"Hither 

o'ne 114 

now 

waen": 

he it said: 

Ne" 4 ho' 

Thus 



it'het 



v 



ne 

that 



ne'wa' 



ne 

the 



if 



nia'gwai'." 



,sr</ 



bear." 



let him that next in 

come turn 

ne'"ho' o'tga'da't ne" nia'gwai'. 

there it stood the bear, 

itself 



a'e 1 



"Ne"'ho< 

"There 

do'ge n s 

it is true 



i's 

thou 



ne'wa' 

next in 
turn 



ho'sade"sgo' 

thither do thou 
plunge thyself 



Da'djia'shoii 

In a short 
time just 

0'ne n < di'q 

Now more- again 

over 

hi'gen' o'no n 'ge'." 

this it is it oil in." 



na n 'a'we nt . 



niiogwe'nion' 

so it is possible 



ni's 

the 
thou 

gwa" 

seem- 
ingly 

on'son" 

severally 



wane n4 s. 

large. 



ne n4 cie" 

so wilt 
thou do it 



o sen 

it fat (is) 

ne" 

the 



so it came to 
pass. 

Da', 

So. 



-Ho'gwa ; ho'wade'sgo'go' he" 

That side thither it landed where 



o'ne nC 

now 



waen": 

he it said: 



"A' 

"What 



x) 



e n4 sheia"dage' 'ha 

thou them wilt aid 



ne 

the 



na n 'o"te n 'en' 

so it is kind 
of thing 

"Ne" 

human beings?' ' ' ' That 



on'gwe" 



ne* 

the 



e n gade"go'," o'ge n ". 

I will flee," it (z.) it said. 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



ne 

the 



o'wa" 

it meat 



ne 

the 



ga'si'nagon\ 

its leg in. 



Da', 

So, 



one 

now 



ii. 



waen": 

he it said: 



*» 



0'n6 n< na'e' 

Now verily 



Neo'ge 11 ' ne'wa 



Deer 



de n ga'da't." Ganio" ne"'ho' o'tga'da't o'ne n< 

he shall stand." So soon there 



So soon 
as 



he nC sade\s'go 4 

thou wilt plunge 
thyself 

waadia'do"iak, 

he his body cast, 



hi'gen' 

this it is 



it itself 
stood 

o'no n 'ge c ." 



now 



it oil in. 



0'ne nc 

Now 



next in 
turn 

waen": 

he it said: 



wai'i' 

of course 



waondani- 

he it inserted 

dea"sino- 

his legs are 

ne'kho' 

here 

"Ne"'ho< 

"There 

ne" 4 ho' 

there 



ho'gwa'-kho' 

that side and 



waa'do'go', 

he came up, 



>" 
where 



he" nnogwe nion 



cc< 



o sen . 



so it is possible it fat (is). 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne ni 

now 



waen": 

he it said: 



ne"-kho' 

that and 

"A' 

"What 



ne*' 

the 

na n V- 

such 
kind 



te n "efT ne" i's ne n "cie' ne" e n \she''I'dage'ma' ne" on'gwe'?" 

of thing the thou so thou the thou em wilt aid the human beings?" 



so thou 
wilt do it 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



240 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETK. ANN. 21 



man-beings?" "As for me, I shall not flee from him," it said. He 
said: w ' With what, and in what manner, moreover, wilt thou just do 
it?" u I will just bite them repeatedly," it replied. So now he, the 
youth, said: "Thus, just so, and only so, shall it be with thee," and 
now, moreover, he removed severally its upper teeth. Then he said: 
"Now the bodies of all those things which have horns, the buffalo, 
and the elk, etc., inherit the effect of this change." That is the reason 
that they [anthropic] have no upper teeth. All these several small 
things, the raccoon, woodchuck [or badger], porcupine, and also the 
skunk, all cast their bodies therein; therein the} T [zoic] plunged them- 
selves. So only that is the number of those who were received. So 
next in order are those (z.) who were not accepted. I say that 
these, the Fisher, the Otter, and the Mink, and the Weasel [were 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 



"Ne" 

"That 



ne 

the 



i" 



the n "e n4 



na n Vte n "en' 

such kind of 
thing 

Da'. 

So, 



thagade"go'," o'ge n ". Waen": "A' 

I not it is I should flee," it said. lie said: "What 

dl'q-shon' ne n "cie' ? " " E n khegai"-shon 4 ," o'ge n ". 

"I them will bite only," it it said. 



o'ne ni 



more- only 
over 

waen" 

he it 
said 



ne 

the 



so thou wilt 
doit?" 

haksa'dase"a 4 : 

he youth: 



Nen'da' gwa"-shon' 



This 



seem- 
ingly 



just 



ne" 

the 



i's 

thou 



ne n io'den'ong," 

so it shall continue 
to be," 

he'tgen'-gwa'. O'ne 11 ' 

upper side. Now 



one 



waen" : 

he it said: 



di'q waono'djodagwa'off 



it 



more- 
over 

"Ne" 

"The 



he its teeth removed 
plurally 

gagwe'go 11 ' 

it all 



ne 

the 



o'ne 11 ' 



wa'odiia'dadiio'was 

their (z.) bodies shared 
the change 

it 



ne 

the 



degiia"go n ', 

buffalo, 



kho" ne" djonae n "da', 

and the elk, 



khb" ne 

and the 

(ones) 

no n "djot ne" 

have teeth the 

sa i -shon"o n ', 

severally, 



deiodino n "geont." Ne" 

they (z.) have horns." That 



gaii^on'm' 

it causes the 
matter 



the n "e nC deadi- 



not it is 



they (m.) 



he , tgen"-gwa'. Gagwe'go ni nen'gen' ne" nienna'- 

upper side. It all this it is the 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



djo'a'ga', the"doo n ', 



ne 

the 



se'non'. 

skunk, 



ne 

that 



ne" 4 ho' o'wSnnade's'gok, 

there they (z.) plunged. 



hofiwandi'gwe" 4 . 

they fm.) were 
accepted. 

Da', ne" ne'wa' 

So, that next in 

order 



gagwe go 

it all 

Da'. 



Hb 



woodchuck 
(badger?), 

>"'ho 4 



ne 



thus 



ne 

the 



So, 



the 



ne"'ho c -shoiT 

thus only 



so they (z. ) 
small are 

ga'he"da\ ne"kho' 

porcupine, that and 

o'wennadia'do"iak, 

they (z.) cast their bodies' 



ni'ioiV 

so they 
many (are) 



nVxnC 



not 



deawandi'gwe 11 ' : 

they were accepted: 



sgaiana n ne'ge n1 , 

Usher, 



ne 

that 



Ne" 

That 

(it is) 



ne 

the 



ne*' 

the 



ne 

the 



odawen'do 11 ', kho" ne" djio'da'ga', kho" 

otter, and the mink, and 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VEKSION 



241 



the ones]. So that was the number of those who were excluded, 
[being set] aside, and who assembled there near by. So the Mink 
now cast his bod} T into the oil. As soon as he came up out of it 
the youth seized him there, and he held him up, and he stripped 
his body through his hands, and that is the reason that his bod} r did 
become somewhat longer. Now, verily, again it thus came to pass. 
Their bodies shared the change [into the character they now have], 
namely, those of the Fisher, and the Otter, and the Mink, and the 
Weasel. And this is the number of those [zoic] whose bodies next 
shared this transformation there — the Wolf, and the Panther, and the 
Fox. All these were excluded, being set aside. 

So now the two male children were in the habit of going away. 
Day after day they two went to a great distance; there far away they two 
were in the habit of setting traps. So then day after day they two 



ne" hanon'got. Da', ne" 4 ho 4 niweiinandi" wak'a" 

the weasel. So, thus .so many they aside 



ne*'*ho* 

there 

ne v, ho ; 

there 



o'ne nk 

now 



wak'a 4 ' 

aside 



waodiia'daiei". 

they (z.) assembled. 



so many they 
(are) in number 

Da', 

So, 



o'ne nk 



ne 

the 



waadia'do"iak ne" 

he cast his body the 

ne" haksa'dase"a' 

the he vouth 



o'no n 'ge 4 . 

it oil in. 

"'ho' 



Ganio"-shon 4 

So soon as just 



wa'odiis, 

they were 
excluded, 

djio'da'ga' 

mink 

daa'do'go' 



he landed 
therefrom 



ne 

there 



waaie'na 111 . 

he it caught, 



he'tge 11 " waa'dat, kho" ne' 

up high he it held, and the 



on'ni* 

matter 



gain'gwa' 

somewhat 



waa'djiiu'ak, ne" 

he stripped it that 

through his hands, 

0'ne ni 

Now 



kho" 

and 

ne" 

the 



na e 

verily 



n* / v Ti L 

na a we , 



na'gaia'des'he't. 

so its body became 
long. 

Wa'odiia'dadiio'as netYgeii 4 sgaianane'ge 11 ', 

Their bodies shared the this it is fisher (marten), 



a'e' 

again 



ne" 

the 

gaii 4 - 

it 
makes 

ne" 4 ho w 

there 



kho 4 ' 

and 



ne" 

the 



so it came to 

pass. change 

odawen'do ni , kho 4 ' ne" djio'da'ga, kho 4 ' ne" hanon'got; da', 



otter, 



ne"'ho 4 niwennandi" he 4 ' 

there so many they (z.) where 

(thus) are in number 

othaion'nf, kho 4 ' 

wolf, * and 



and the mink, and 

wa'odiia'dadiio'as. 



the 



gagwe'go" 4 wak'a" 

it all aside 



their (z.) bodies shared 
the change. 

hen'es, ne v kho 4 ' 

panther that and 

(longtail), 

wa'odi'is. 

they were 
excluded. 



Ne" 

That 



ne 

the 



weasel ; 

ne'wa' 

next in 
order 



SO, 

ne 4 

the 



ne no gwat'gwaV 

the fox. 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne n4 



ne" 

the 



deiksa"a 4 



o'ne 114 

now 



gen's 



ia 4 den'dio n s 



0'hS n '- 

Day after 



cion'nio' 



they (m.) two now custom- they (m.) two were 

children arily in the habit of 

going away. 

honwe'-gwa 4 henet'ha'; we'e" 4 ne 1 ' ne 4 ' hfeo'da'ne's. 

far direc- they (m.) two far that the they (m.) two go 

tion go habitually; to set traps. 



day plurally 

21 ET] 



6 



8 
9 

10 

11 
L2 

13 



242 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



were in the habit of going away. So for some time now they [masc. 
anthropicj who severally had otgon" natures, and they also whose 
bodies were otgon in nature, hated them [the two boys]. Now, of 
course, the}' two, verily, in going away, were in the habit of going 
together. So that [I say], moreover, one day the elder one said: 
4 'Thou alone, for the time being, go thither. Thou alone next in 
time shalt view our several set traps." So moreover [I say], that 
truly it did thus come to pass. As soon now as he was far away they 
[masc. anthropic] whose bodies are otgon by nature killed him there. 
So now he, the elder one, became aware that they had killed his 
younger brother. So now he began to cry. And [I say] that when 
it made him weep the most, when he said in his crying, c 'en c , 'eii", 
'en", 'en"', then there were noises made in several places in the 
sky that is present. So now they [masc. anthr.] who are severally 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 

12 
13 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne n< 

now 



o 4 he n 'cioii'nio n< ia"den'dio n s. 



na'ionni'she't 

so long it lasted 



one 

now 



day after day 
plurally 

honwadi'swa'ai n s 



Da', 

So, 



gaiii'gwa' 

somewhat 



they (m.) two went 
away habitually. 

ne" honnontgo n \shon"o nfc 

they (m.) them hated the they (m.) are otgon « plurally 



ne" ne" honnondia'dat'go n 's. O'ne 11 ' 

that the their (m.) bodies are otgon Now 

plurally. 



we n "o n ' 

tinually 



o ne 

now 



na'e' 

verily 



gen's 



i'ne's. 



Da'. 



ne 

that 



ne 

that 



custom- they (m.) two So, 
arily go together 
customarily. 

ne" hagowa'ne 11 ' : 

he it the he large one: 

said 



he" 

where 

di'q 

more- 
over 



ia'den'dio n s diia- 

they (m. ) go away con- 
habitually 

ne" swenniVha't 

the one it day is 



waeii" 



ho"set. Son'ha'ge'a' ne'wa' e n4 sekdon'no 



"I's-shon' ia'e' ne" fc ho 4 

Thou only for the there 



thou wilt go to see 
them 



o'ne 11 ' 



ne Vi ho 

there 



thither do Thou just alone next in 
thou go. (by thyself) turn 

Da', ne" di'q do'ge n s ne" c ho 4 na n 'a'we n '. 

So, that more- it is true thus so it will come 

over to pass. 

waoiiwa'nio' 

thev (m.) him 
'killed 

Da', o'ne ,u waanina n do'g 

So, now he (m.) it 

noticed 

ne" honwa'nio 4 ne" ho'gen". Da', o'ne 114 

the they (m.) him the he his younger So, now 

killed brother is. 



only for the 
time being 

ne" ongni'eo'do"'. 

the thou I have set 

traps." 

Ganio" no'ne 11 

So soon as the time 



we'e 11 ' he"s 

far he is going 
about 

nondia/dat'go n 's. 

bodies are otgon 
plurally. 

LI 



ne" ne" hon- 

that the their (m.) 

ne" hagowa'ne nt 

the he large one is 



o'tha'sent'ho" 

he wept. 



Ne v 

That 



ne" no'ne 114 



the 



do'ge n s waode H hasdon's, ne'' no'ne 11 ' o'ge"" ne" 

it is true it used great strength that when it it said the 



it used great strength 
on him, 



t4 'en". 



'en" 



when 
(the now) 

hasda/'ha', ne" ne' "en", en* , 

lie is weeping, that the " lienh, henh, nenn, Jienn," now 

wa'otgaiia"sofi' he" ga'on'hiade'. Da', o'ne 114 ne" honnontgo 11 '- 

it began to give out where it sky is present. So, now the they (m. ) are otgon 

sounds 



when it it said 
(the now) 

'en", 'efr'." 

henh, henh," 



aOtgon signifies malefic. Jt denotes specifically the evil <»r destructive use of orenda, <>r magic 
power. 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 243 

otgon, and also they [zoic] whose bodies are severally otgon, now, 
verily, became alarmed. Now, moreover, they said: "In just a short 
time only, we believe, the sky will fall, perhaps, as soon, we think, 
as he weeps much; it is preferable that he, his younger brother, shall 
return; nothing else [will stop it]." So now of course the youth 
became ashamed because such a large number of persons severally 
became aware that he was weeping. So now verily he did close up 
his lodge, all places therein where there were openings [crevices]. 
So now just after he had completed his task of closing up the open- 
ings, in just a short time, now thence, from the outside, Flint spoke, 
saying: u Oh, elder brother, now I have returned." So now he the 
elder one, who was shut up indoors, said: "It can not be that thou 
shouldst come in. Thou shalt just depart, thou thyself. Thou shalt 
take the lead on the path whereon went the mother of us two. There 

shon"o n \ ne" kho 4 ne" onandia'datgo n \shon"o n4 , o'ne 11 ' na'e 4 

plurally, that and the their (z.) bodies are plurally otgon, now verily 1 



wfiVno n4 dio n 'k. O'ne 11 ' di'q waen'nf: '' Ha'djigwas' -shofi ' 

they (z.) began to fear. Now more- they it said: "Just soon only 



cxi 



2 



e n dwa"se n 't, gi" en' non", he"' ga'on'hiade' ganio" en' noii" 

it will drop I think it may perhaps, where it sky is present so soon as it may per- & 

down, be be, haps, 

we' so' e n ons'dae n '; ne" sa"gwa 4 ne" e n shadon'het'-shon' ne" 

much he will weep; that it is better the he will again just the 4: 

(preferable) come to life 

ho'geii"." Da', o'ne 11 ' wai'i 4 ne" ne" haksa'dase"a 4 waade' 4 he n4 

he his younger So, now of course that the he is a youth he became 5 

brother is." ashamed 

so"dji 4 gendio"gowanen 4 o'ne 114 waennefininandog'hon" ne" 

because it body of people large is now they became aware of it plurally the 6 

(too much) 

hasda' fc ha'. Da', o'ne 11 ' na'e 4 waa'ho'don' he" hono ni so't, 

he is weeping. So, now verily he it closed up where hisit lodge 7 

stands,. 

gagwe'go' 1 ' he'ofiwe" deio'hagwende'nio 11 '. Da', o'ne 11 ' wae"- 

it all the place it has openings So, now after- § 

where plurally. ward 

shofi* waadi^nno"kde n ' ne 4 ' waadjiodonnion", o'ne 51 * da'djia"-shon 4 

just he his task finished the he shut up the several now soon after just 9 

openings, 

o'ne 114 daa'snie't ne" Otha'gwe n, da' ne" a'sde*, waen": 

now thence he spoke the It Flint the out of doors, he it said: 10 

"Ha'djl", o'lir"* sagio 11 "." IV, o'ne 114 waen" ne" hagowa'nc*'* u 

"My elder now again I have So, now he it said the he is large 

brother, returned." 

ne" ne" ongie" ha"nont: ''DaVoiV aofida"cio n \ E n 'sa'dendi"- 

that the indoor- he is con- " It can not be thou shouldst Thou shalt depart 

tained: enter heir. 



12 
13 



shofi* ne" i's. Ne" ne 4 ' e n *satha*on'(lc n ' he'ofiwe 4 ieiagawe'non 

just the thou. That the thou shalt take up the the place hence she has gone 

path where 

ne" ethino"$ n '-gen'on\ Ne"'ho 4 i's-kho' 6 n cianon'dak. Ne" ne" 

the she our mother it was. There thou and thy track shall be That the 14 

present. 



244 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[eth. axx. 21 



thou too shult print thy tracks. I say that thou shalt trail the tracks 
of her who was our mother. Moreover, not far hence, there thou 
shalt seat thyself. So there now thou shalt observe the kind of life 
that customarily the human man-beings will live who will dwell on 
the earth. So now there, moreover, the path will divide itself where 
thou wilt abide. One of the ways will lead thither to the place where 
is the abode of His-word-is-master/' and the other will lead to the place 
where abides He-dwells-in-caves. 5 And also thou wilt have servants, 
they-[masc.]-dwell-in-caves. So that, moreover [I say], thou shalt take 
this thing-to-blow, this flute, and that thou shalt constantly continue 
to blow it. Just as soon, customarily, as one's breath ends, one shall 
hear customarily from what direction speaks the flute. 

Sometime afterward the youth now began to wonder, soliloquizing: 
" What is, perhaps, verily, in great measure, the reason that my 
grandmother does not eat wild potatoes?" Now, verily, he asked her, 



e'^sheianen'oiv 

thou shalt follow the 
path 

ne v iio' 

there 



ne* 

the 



e n4 sa'dieif . 



thou shalt sit 
down. 



ethino"e n4 -geii'oif. The n "e n4 di'q de'we'e 114 

she our mother it was. Not it is more- far 

over (it is) 

Da', ne" 4 ho 4 o'ne 114 e n4 satga'ioif he" 

So, there now thou shalt watch where 



niio"deii 



such it is in 
kind 



Da', 

So, 



ne' 

that 



gen s 

custom- 
arily 

di'q 

more- 
over 



ne" 

the 



ioeiidja/'ge 4 e n iagon"heg ne" ofi'gwe'. 



it earth on one shall be living the 

"ho 4 de n watha' ho' ere if he'oiiwe' 



ne" 4 ho 4 de n watha 4 ho'ge if 

there it path will divide the place 

into two where 



numan 
beings. 

e n4 sr- 

thou 



dion'dak. 



shalt continue That 
to abide. 



Ne" ne 4 ' sga't Haweiiniio"ge 4 -gwa 4 he n iotha 4 hino'oiig, 

the oneitis He Master at direction thither it path shall lead. 



kho 4 ' ne 4 ' sga't Hanisheono n "ge 4 -gwa 4 he n iotha'hino'ong. Ne"- 

and the oneitis He Cave-dweller at direction thither it path shall lead. That 



( 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



kho 4 ' 

and 

di'q 

more- 
over 

kho 4 

and 



ne 

the 



e n sa 4 ha'shaieii'dak ne' 

thou shalt have servants the 



hadinishe'ono n \ Da', ne" 

they (m.) are cave- So, that 

dwellers. 



ne 

the 



neii'geii 4 

this it is 



he n 'sha' neii'gen 4 ne" ieo'dawas'tha', ne"- 



ne 

the 



thou shalt 
take it 

diiawe n "o n4 



this it is the one uses it to blow, 



continually 



e n seno'dado'oiig. Ganio"-shon 

So soon as just 



e ll iondoni £ swe"de n ' o'ne 114 



now 



one's breath becomes 
exhausted(=dies) 

diio'tha' ne 4 ' ieo'dawas'tha/. 

there it is the one uses it to blow. 
speaking 

Gaiil'gWiV 

Somewhat 



thou shalt keep on blow- 
ing it. 

kho" gen's 

and custom 

arilv 



that 



gen's 

custom- 
aril v 



e n iagothoii'deg he'oiiwe 4 

one it shall hear the place 

where 



na'ionnis'he't 

so long it lasted 



he"he': ' 4 A\ 

he it "What, 

thinks: 



non" 

per- 
haps, 



na'e 4 

verily 



o'ne lU 

now 



go wa 

great 
it is 



waodianon'the\s, ne" ne" 

he wondered at it, that the 

(it is) 

de"es ne 4 ' onenno n "da , ne 4 ' 

not she it the it wild potato the 
eats 



'i This is the name of the Ood of the Christians. i> This is the name of the devil of the Christians. 



HEWITT] 



SENECA VERSION 



245 



saying-: "Oh, grandmother, what is it, verily, and why dost thou not 
in great measure eat wild potatoes?" "I customarily, all alone, by 
myself eat food," she said ; "I eat it [food], as a matter of fact." 
Now he mused, u Now, verily, I will watch her in the night, now 
just soon to be." So now he made an opening in his robe. Now, 
verily, he laid himself down, pretending* to be asleep. Thence, never- 
theless, he was looking, out of the place where he had made a hole 
in his robe. Now, moreover, he was looking out of the place where 
he had made an opening in the robe, and he was watching the place 
where his grandmother abode customarily. So now, she, the Ancient- 
bodied, went out. Now, moreover, she looked in the direction of the 
sunrising. Now the Star, the Da} r -bringer, was risen. Now she, the 
Ancient-bodied, said: "Now of course, so it is, I will remove my 
pot sitting [over the fire]." So now truly she removed the pot 



aksot'. 

my grand- 
mother? 



O'ne 11 ' 

Now 



noil" na'e' 



per- 
haps, 

"T'-shon< 

"I only 



verily 



na'e' o'shago'ondon'. Waefi": "Aksot', a' 

verily he her questioned. He it said: " My grand- what, 

mother, 

ne onenno da \ 

the it wild potato?" 



go wa 



great 
it is 



ne' 

the 



l'S 

thou 



de v ses 

not thou it 
eatest 



gen's, 



agon'ho n 'ge'a' 

I am wholly alone 



.. 



custom 
arily, 

i'ges ne"ho'." O'ne 11 ' wa'e': 

" I it eat as matter Now 

habitually 
v 

ne 

that 
it is 



o'gadekhofi'nf," 

I my food eat," 



wa/a'ge 11 ', 

she it said, 



as matter 
of fact." 



he re- 
solved: 



"O'ne 114 

"Now, 



na'e' e n kheiatga'ioii\ 

verily, I her will watch, 



ne" ha'djigwas' e n io v ga'." 

the ' just soon now 



Da'. 

So, 



o'ne 11 " 



it will be 
night." 

ha'gwas'tha'. 0'ne ni na'e' waadias'hen', 

Now verily he lays himself 

down, 



waogaiiefi'de 11 ' ne" 

he it hole in it made the 



he it to wrap 
himself uses. 



ia'ge n 'o n ', 

pretending, 



hoda'o 11 *. 

he is asleep. 



There, 



neverthe- 
less . 



the place 
where 



Ne*"ho', se n "e n ' nige nV dethaga'ne 1 he'onwe' ne" thaogai'iefit. 

there he it hole 
in it made. 

dethaga'ne' 

thence he was 

looking 



O'ne 11 ' di'q 



Now 



more- 
over 



na'e' 

verily 



so it is 
(however) 
if 



ne 

the 



thence he is 
looking 

haias'heff ne" w ho' 



he lay supine 



there 



he'ofiwe' thaogai'iefit 



the place 
where 



he has it hole 
in it made 



ne 

the 



i'ios. 



robe, 



he'ofiwe' ie"dio n ' 



the place 
where 

Iege n "tci' 

She 
Ancient One. 

O'ne"' 

Now 

O'ne"* 

Now 



she was 
seated 

O'ne' 

Now, 

i. 



ne 

the 



ho w sot'. 

his grand- 
mother. 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne 11 ' 

now 



one 

now 



the 

o'ne 11 ' 

now 

ne^no' 

there 



>> 



deaga'n 

his eyes were 
fixed on it 

wa'eia'ge n, t ne" 

she went out the 



di'q wa'ofitgat'ho 

she looked 



more- 
over, 
nV„n 



>a gwitge o 

there it planet is risen 



ne* 

the 



Iege n "tci' 

She, 
Ancient One 



ne" 

the 

wa a ge 

she it said: 



ne tgiuVgwitge 11 s -gwa . 

the thence it luminary direc- 

comes up tion 

Fgefidenwifha' Gadji'so n "da\ 



Thence it brings 
day 

•'O'ne' 1 ' 

"Now, 



It Star (is). 



^gna^djoda'go' ne" 

I pot will remove the 



agna ,,v djot." Da'. 



I have set up the 
pot (on the fire)." 



So, 



wai'i' 

of course 



one 

now 



nigv 

so it is 



do'ge"s 

truly, 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



246 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



[from the tire] and also put the wild potatoes in a bowl of bark, and 
there was just one bowlful. So now, next in order, she rummaged 
among her belongings in a bag which she pulled out, and now. verily, 
she there took out coTn. So now she parched it for herself. Now, 
moreover, it popped. There was quite a pile of the popped corn. 
Now, verily, she took out a mortar of small size. Moreover, she 
struck repeated blows on the mortar, and the mortar grew in size, 
and it grew to a size that was just right. ' Now she took out the 
upper mortar ° [pestle] from her bag. Now again she struck it 
repeated blows and it, too, increased in size. So now she pounded 
the corn, making meal. So now again she searched in her bag. She 
took thence again a small pot, and she, too, again did in like manner, 
striking repeated blows upon it, and it, too, increased in size. Now 

wa'ena^djoda'go 1 ne" kho' ne" gadjie n "ge 4 wa'e'e" 1 ne" onen- 

1 she. pot removed that and the it bowl in she it placed the it 



no n "da', sgaksat'-shon' o'wa'do n \ Da', 

2 potatoes, one it dish only it became. So, 



o'ne 11 ' cra'oii'ho 11 ' ne'wa' 



o'diagoda'no n "dai' 

3 she rummaged her 

belongings 

na'e w ne^ho 4 

4 verily there 



ne 

that 



ne 

the 



wa'eda"go' 

she it took out of 

0'ne nt 

Now 



wa w onde n 'son\ 

5 she parched it for 
herself. 

gaiii'gwa' niio'so'djes. 

t) somewhat so it pile is 

high. 

niwtV'a" ne" ga'niga"da'. 

7 so it small the it mortar, 

in size is 



ne 

the 

di'q 



gaia" 

it bag 

a 



more- 
over 



now she herself 


next in 




turn 


wa'ondien'tho', 


o'ne 11 ' 


she it pulled forth. 


now 


oneii'o"'. Da'. 


o'ne ni 


it corn. So, 


now 


o'wa'dadon'go'. 


0'ne rit 


it popped (burst). 


Now 



O'ne 114 

Now 



0'ne ni di'q ne"ho' wa'eie n< da'noif, 

Now more- there she it struck 

repeatedly, 

ne v ne" ga^iga^'da' o'wado'diak, ho'gowa'me't, agwa's ne , ho"tci i 

8 that the it mortar it grew, it became larger, very just right 



na'e' 

verily, 

di'q 

more- 
over 



a e 

once 
more 



wa^eda^'go" ne" 

she it took out the 



9 



na n 'wa n '"he't. O'ne" 4 he'tgen'oii' ne" ga^iiga^a' 



ne 

10 the 



so it became 
in size. 

it 



Now 



upper (one) 



the 



it mortar 



goia gon 

her bag in. 



O'ne' 

Now 



a'e' 



once 
again 



11 

12 
13 
14 



ho'gowa"he , t. 



it became large 
in size. 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne nt 



wa'eie nc da'non', 

she it struck 
repeatedly, 

ne v ho ; wa'e'the't, 

there she it pounded, 



o'ne n< 



(exactly) 

wa'cda'^o' 

she it took 
■out 

ha'e'gwa' 

also 



othe"sha' wa'e'- 

it meal she it 



cion'ni'. 

made. 



Da', 

So, 



t «ni 

one 

now 



a'e' 

once 
more 



Wit 



ne 

this 
way 



hwa"eie' 

she it did 



ne 

the 



goia'gon'. 

her bag in. 



Ne"'ho' wa'eda"go' a'e' niwa"a' gana nv djii\ 

There she it took out once so it is small it pot, 



once 
more 



ne"-kho' 

that and 



it 



so it is small 
in size 

ne" c ho fc a'e' na n 'e'ie' wa'eie ,u dfi'non', ho'gowa"he't-kho 

there once so she it she it struck it became large and 



once 
more 



so she it 
did 



she it struck 
repeatedly, 



ne 

the 



a'e'. 

once 
more. 



"This term goes back to the time when upper and lower grinder had the same name. 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 247 

she there set up the pot, and also made mush therein. So, as soon as 
it was cooked she again rummaged in her bag. So now she took 
from it a bone, a beaver bone. Now again, verily, she scraped the 
bone, and she poured the bone-dust into the pot, and now, moreover, 
at once there floated oil on its surface. Now, of course, she took the 
pot from the fire. So now she ate the food. Verily, now, the youth 
went to sleep. Now early in the morning again [as usual] she, the 
Ancient-bodied, went away to dig wild potatoes. As soon as she dis- 
appeared as she went, then he went to the place where his grandmother 
customarily abode. Now, moreover, he began to rummage [among 
her belongings]. He took out an ear of corn which had only a few 
grains left fixed to it, there being, perhaps, only three and a half rows 
of grains left. So now he began to shell the corn; he shelled it all. 

O'ne 11 ' ne" 4 ho 4 wa/ena n 'djaniion'de n, , o'ne ni ne"'ho 4 wa'edjisgoii'nf- 

Now there she it pot fastened up, now there she mush made 1 

kho\ Da', ganio v ho ? ga'i c o'ne ,u a'e' wa'dieno n "dai v nige 11 " 

and. So, so soon it was now once she it rummaged so it is 2 

as cooked more 

ne" goiii'gon 4 . Da', o'ne 114 ne v 'ho' wa'eda^o' o'nen'ia' 

the her bag in. So, now there she took it out it bone & 

na n ga n nia v go n1 o'nen'ia/. O'ne 114 a'e 1 na'e ; wa'e'get. O'ne 11 ' ne" 4 ho 4 

beaver it bone. Now once verily she it scraped. Now there 4: 

more 

wa'aontho' ne" o'donnie nV sha\ o'ne 11 " di'q iogonda'die' o'ga'nu'. 

she it poured the it scrapings, now more- it at once it caused 5 

over oil to float. 

O'ne"' wai'i 4 wa'ena^djoda'gxr ne" gana n 'djo't. Da', o'ne n; 

Now of she it pot removed the it pot sets up. So, now 6 

course 

wa'ondekhon'nf. O'ne 114 na'e 4 wao'da' ne" haksa'da 4 se v a'. Ne" 

she it food ate. Now, verily he went the he youth. That 7 

to sleep 

no'n<>"' sede"tcia ; o'ne 114 a'e' wao n "dendi' ne" Ie£e n "tci 4 

the time early in the now once she departed the She 8 

morning more Ancient One 

wa'ennenno^dogwat'ha'. Ganio"-shoiV noVa^'do 11 ' he" hwa"e n '" 

she wild potatoes went to dig. So soon as just thither it where she went 9 

disappeared onward 

o'ne" 4 ne'"ho' wa'e' he'ofi'we 4 iondi&ndak'hwa' ne 4 ' ho'sot'. 

now there thither the place she it uses to remain the his grand- 10 

he went where mother. 

O'ne 114 di'q waa"sawe n ' ne 4 ' o'thano n "dai\ O'ne" 4 

Now more- he it began the he it rummaged. Now H 



over 



inif 



\vaada"go' ne" o'nis'da" dogaa"-shon nidjonen'ot, 'ase r 

he it took out the (it) ear of a few only so many it corn- three 12 

corn grains remain on it, 

gi"sh< v '" nidjoaa'ge 4 hsVdeswa'sen'no"'. Da', o'ne nt waa"sawe n ' 

probably, so many it row is just it is one-half. So, now he it began 13 

in number 

wao'gefi' ne 4 ' onSn'o ', gagwe'go'" waas'Yrt. Da', o'ne" 4 

he it shelled the it corn, it all he it So, now 14 

exhausted. 



248 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth.ann.21 

So now he parched it for himself. Now, moreover, it popped, burst- 
ing iteratively, there being- quite a heap, quite a large amount of it. 
Again he rummaged. Again he there took out a mortar of .small size 
and also an upper mortar [pestle]. So now he used this to strike that, 
and now, moreover, both increased in size. And now he poured the 
parched corn. So now he in the mortar pounded it, and now verily 
it became meal. Now again he searched in her bag, and he took there- 
from a small pot, and now used something else to strike upon it blows; 
then it, too, increased in size. Now, verily, he there set up the pot 
[on the fire] and also put water in it. So now he thepein poured 
all this meal. Now, of course, he made mush. So now again he 
searched in the bag of his grandmother, and therefrom he took 
a bone, and he put it therein, and the mush became abundant. 

waade n4 'son'. O'ne" 4 di'q oVa'dadon'go 1 , gaiii'gwa 4 niio"sodja', 

1 he it parched Now more- it popped by burst- somewhat so it pile is in 

for himself. over ing, size, 

ne"kho w ne" gain'gwa 4 na'ioff'he't. O'ne" 4 a'e' o'thano n "dai\ 

2 that and the somewhat so it amount Now once he it rummaged. 

became. more 

O'ne" 4 aV ne V4 ho 4 waada"go' ne" ga'niga"da' niwa"a' ne v kho 4 

3 Now once there he it took the it mortar so it size that and 

more out is small 

ne 4 ' he'tgen'on' ne 4 ' ga'niga"da\ Da', o'ne" 4 ne" waaia"dak 

•1 the upper (one) the it mortar So, now that he it used 

(pestle). 

waaie ni da'non'', ©'ne 11 ' di'q o'gowa^he't dedja'o" 4 . Da', o'ne" 4 

5 he it struck re- now more- it became large both. So, now 

peatedly, over 

ne" 4 ho 4 waiaun'tho' ne 4 ' onen 4 so""gwa'. Da', o'ne 11 * ne"'ho' 

6 there he it poured the it parched corn. So, now there 

waat'he't, o'ne 114 wai'i 4 othe"sha' o'wa'do"'. O'ne" 4 di'q a'e 5 

7 he it pounded, now of it meal it became. Now more- once 

course over more 

waak'don' ne 4 ' goia'gon 4 , o'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 waada"go' ne" niwa"a' 

8 he it searched the her bag in, now there he it took the soitissmall 

lor . out in size 

gana n ' v dja', o'ne"' ha'gwis'de"' a'e' o'ia' waaia"dak waaie"'da'non', 

9 it pot, now something once it- he it used he it struck re- 

more other peatedly, 

o'ne" 4 a'e'-kho 4 ho'gowa^he't. O'ne" 4 na'e 4 ne" 4 ho 4 waana"'dja- 

10 now once and it became large. Now verily^ there he it pot 

more 

niiofi'de"', waa 4 hnega'en'-kho 4 . Da', o'ne"' ne V4 ho 4 waaun'tho' 

11 nung up, he placed water and. So, now there he it poured 

in it 

nen'gen 4 ne" otheVhii' gagwe'go"\ O'ne" 4 wai'i 4 waadjisgon'nr. 

12 this it is the it meal it all. now of he mush made. 



course 

c 



Da', o'ne" 4 a'e' wae 4 'sak ne" goia'gon' ne" ho"sot. Ne"'ho 

13 So, now once he it looked the her bag in the his grand- There 

more for mother. 

waada"go' ne" o'nen'ia', o'ne" 4 ne" ne" 4 ho 4 wa'o 4 , odo^ou'do"' 

14 he took it out the it bone, now that there he put it abundant be- 

lt in • came 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 2-19 

"Ho'ho'V he kept chuckling. "It tastes good." Now soon there- 
after his grandmother returned. She said: "Well, what manner of 
thing art thou doing?" t4 I have made mush," the youth said, "and 
it is pleasant, too. Do thou eat of it, so be it, oh, grandmother. 
There is an abundance of mush." So now she wept, saying: " Now, 
verily, thou hast killed me. As a matter of fact, that was all there was 
left for me." " It is not good,'' he said, " that thou dost begrudge it. 
I will get other corn and also bone.' 

So now the next da} T he made his preparations. When he finished 
his task, he said: " Now it is that I am going to depart." So now, 
verily, he departed. He arrived at the place where dwell man-beings. 
As soon as he arrived near the village he then made his preparations. 
I say that he made a deer out of his bow, and, next in order, a wolf 

kho' o'wa'do' 1 ' ne" odjis'gwa'. " Ho'ho"," u Oga"o nC " kho", ha'- 

and it became the it mush. "Aha!" "It tastes and, he 1 

good" 

do 114 . 0'ne nt da'djia"-shon w saie'io"' ne" ho"sot. Wa'a'ge"': u Gwe'. 

kept Now soon after just again she the hisgrand- Sheitsaid: "Well. *2 

saying. returned mother. 

A n na n "ot ni'sadie"ha'?" u Agedjisgon'ni 4 ," waen", ne" haksa 1 - 

What manner so thou art " I mush am making," he it said, the he 3 

of thing doing?" 

dase"a': "Agwa's awendetga'de'-kho'. Sadekhoii'nP, nio". 

youth: "Very it is pleasant and. Do thou eat, so be 4 

it, 

aksot'. Odo nc hon'do n ' ne" odjis'gwa'." Da', o'ne" 4 waWdae"', 

my grand- It is abundant the it mush." So, now she wept, 5 

mother. 

ne" ne"' waVge n ': " O'ne"' na'e' noil" o'sgi'io'. Ne v<, ho'-shofI % ' 

that the sheitsaid: "Now verily, proba- thou hast So much just 6 

bly, killed me. 

ne' 4 ho k niwagieiTdak." "WaV De'wi'io," waen", " Sa'se n "se\ 

as matter so it I have had." "Oh. It is not he it said, " Thou dost be- 7 

of fact good," grudge it. 

Oifr'-shoiV i" e n gie'gwa' ne" onen'o"' kho" ne" o'nen'iff. 

It other just I I it will get the it corn and the it bone." 

Da', no'ne' 14 waV'hefi't o'ne n< waadecionnia'noii'. No'ne 11 



iC 



So, the time it day became now he his preparations made. The now 

waadienno'k'de' 1 ' o'ne' 1 ' waen": **0'ne n * nige' 1 " e n ga"deiidi\" 

he his task finished now lie it said: "Now that it is I will depart." 



10 



Da', o'ne nt na'e' waa'den'df. Ne"iio 4 waa'io"' he'onwc*. 

So, now verily he departed. There he arrived the place 11 

Where 

ienan'ge' ne" ofi'gweV Ganio" ne" 4 ho' waa'io"' ne" 

thev (indef. ) the man-being. So soon as there he arrived the 12 

dwell 

ganondak'Yr o'ne 114 ne"iio k waadecionnia'noff. Ne" ne" 

It village beside now there he preparations made. That the 13 

ho'en'nfr waade'cion'ni' ne" ne'oge"', o'ne"' ne" ne'wa' ne" 

his bow lie it made for the deer, now that next in the 14 

himself order 

«See footnote on page 141. 



250 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



out of his arrow; he made these for himself. Now he said: "When- 
ever it be that ye two run through the village it will customarily 
be that one will be just on the point of overtaking the other." Next 
in older he himself made into an Ancient-bodied one. So now he went 
to the place where they [masc], the man-beings, abode. So now, some- 
time after he had arrived there, then, verily, they gave him food, 
gave to the Ancient-bodied. During the time that he was eating 
they heard a wolf approach, barking. One would just think that it 
was pursuing something. So now they all went out of doors. They 
saw a wolf pursuing a deer which was approaching them, and saw 
that, moreover, it was about to seize it. So now all ran thither. So 
now he was alone, and the Ancient-bodied ate. As soon as they had 
all gone, he now thrust his body into the place where, severally, the 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



ho"no n ' ne" ne'wa' thaion'ni* ne" ne" waade'cion'nf. O'ne 11 * 



1 his arrow 

ne'^ho' 

2 there 



that 



wolf 



next in 
order 

•'Tho'*ha* 

he it said: " Nearly 



the 



that 



he it made for 
himself. 



Now 



waen" 



goii"shoii' he n snidak'he'." 

in along thither ye two will 

run." 

(ha'on'ho"') ne" hage n "tci' 

he himself the he ancient 

one 



gen's 

custom- 
arily 

Ne" 

That 



e n goiiwa'aiit no'ne 11 * ganoiida- 

the time it village 



one it will over 
take 

ne" 

the 



ne'wa' 



waadadon'ni'. 

he himself made. 



next in 
order 

ne'"ho 

there 



ha'on'hwa 11 ' 

he himself 



Da', 

So, 



waa'io 11 ' 



he arrived 

he'onwe' gano n "sot ne 4 ' theiini"dio n ' ne" hefinon'gwe*. Da', 



the place 
where 

o'ne 11 ' 



it lodge 
stood 

gaiii'gwa* 

somewhat 



the 



the 



they (m.) (are) 
man-beings. 

na'ioii'nishe't ne"*ho' ho'io n4 



there they (m.) 
severally abode 



so long it lasted 



there 



waoiiwakhwa'nont 

they (m.) him 
food gave 

na'ioii'nishe't 

so long it lasted 



(? waonkhwa'nont) 

they (m.) him food gave 



he has 
arrived 



o ne 

now 



ne 

the 



hodekhoii'ni* 

he is eating 



o'ne n * 

now 



ne* hage n "tci'. 

the he ancient 

one. 

honnonthofi'de' 

they (m.) it heard 



So, 

wai'i* 

of 
course 

Ne" 

That 

daga- 

thence 



ni'ne' 

it came 
barking 

o'ne"' 

now 



.4' 



ne' thaion'ni*. Aieii"-shon* ha"gwisde n ' dagas'he\ Da', 

the wolf. One would just something thence it it So, 



gagwe go 

it all 



think is pursuing. 

waadiia'ge n 't. Waennontgat'ho , ne" thaion'ni' 

they (m.) went They (m.) saw the wolf 



out. 



dagas'he' ne" ne'oge 111 , o'ne n ' di'q tho'ma* 

thence it the deer, now more- nearly 

it pursued over 

o'ne 11 ' gagwe'go' 1 ' ne'"ho* o'thenneii'e n *dat. 

now it all there they (m.) ran. 



agaie'na"\ 

it it could 
seize. 



Da', 

So, 



Da', 

So, 



o'ne n ' 

now 



haon'ho n 'gea"-shon* 

\o he (was) all alone just 



wa ons a t 

-'-'* they themselves 
exhausted 



hodekhon'ni ne" 

he is eating the 



o'ne' 1 ' 



ne"'ho' 

there 



waadia'do"iak 

he his body cast 



hage n "tci'. 

he ancient one. 



Ganio" 

So soon 
as 



he'onwe* 

the place 
where 



oasde n 'sani- 

it corn string 
hangs 



hewitt] SENECA VEKSION 251 

strings of corn hung. Two strings of corn he took off, and now, 
moreover, he placed them on his shoulder and he went out at once. 
He was running far away when they noticed [what he had done], 
but, verily, they did not at all pursue him. Again he arrived at 
their lodge. So now he cast them down where his grandmother 
abode. '•Here," he said: "Thou wilt do with this as seems good to 
thee. Thou may est decide, perhaps, to plant some of it." When it 
was day, he said: "Well, 1 will go to kill a beaver." Now, moreover, 
he went to the place that his grandmother had pointed out, saying 
that such things would dwell there. So he arrived there, and then, 
also, he saw the place where the beavers had a lodge. Then he saw 
one standing there. He shot it there and killed it. So then he placed 
its body on his back by means of the forehead pack-strap and then, 
moreover, he departed for home. Some time afterward he arrived 

ioii'do 11 '. Deiosde n "sage 4 waaniionda'go', o'ne n4 di'q hane n sha"ge 4 , 

severally. Two it corn string he them removed, now more- his shoulder on 1 

in number over 

wao'da". o'ne 114 di'q waaiage n4 'dak. We'e n< waadak'he' o'ne 11 , 

he them now more- he went out at once. Far he was running now 2 

hung, over away 

waennenni'na n dog, the n "e" 4 na'e 4 kho 4 ' de'osthofi" deonwa'cion'. 

thev Cm.) became aware not it is verily and it is a little thev him pursued. 3 

of it, 

Honsaa'io"' he" thodino n 'sot'. Da', o'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 wao'di' 

There he again where there their lodge So, now there he it cast 4 

arrived stands. 

he'onwe 4 ie"dio n ' ne 4 ' ho 4 sot'. "Gwa'V waen", u e n 'seiino n 'doif 

the place she was the his grand- "Here," he it said, " thou thyself wilt 5 

where seated mother. please 

i's he 4 ' ne n4 sadie'ivt nen'geii 4 . E n4 se", gi"she n4 , 4 gie 4 ' gientwa't"." 

thou where so thou it wilt this it is. Thou wilt it may be, some I it will plant." Q 

use decide, 

No'ne" 4 waV'hen't o'ne 114 waen": "Gwa". £ n giiosha" ne 4 ' 

The it became day now he it said: "Well. I it will go the 7 

now to kill 

na n ga n nia"go n \" O'ne"* di'q ne" 4 ho 4 hwa'e' he'onwe 4 fge n ' 4 honde' 

beaver." Now more- there thither the place there it river 8 

over he went where flows 

ne 4 ' gaonwa"nt' ne 4 ' ho'so't, ne" ne 4 ' ga'wen 4 ne 4 ' ne" 4 ho 4 , 

the she it pointed the his grand- that the she it has the there 9 

out mother said 

e"ganofi'gek ne" na"ot. Da', o'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 waii'io"', o'ne" 4 -kho 4 , 

it will be that such kind So. now there he arrived, now -and 10 

abundant of thing. 

waa'ge"' he'onwe 4 odino n; sot' ne 4 ' na"ga n nia"go"\ O'ne" 4 

he it saw the place they (z.) have the beaver. Now 11 

where their lodge 

waa'ge"' ne" 4 ho 4 ga'at. O'ne 11 ' ne" 4 ho 4 waa"iak, kho 4 ' ne/' 

he it saw there it stood. Now there he it shot, and the 12 

waa'nio'. Da'. o'ne" 4 waadia'tge 4 'dat, kho 4 ' ne 4 ' o'ik'"* di'<j 

he it killed. So, now he placed its body on his and the now more- 13 

back by forehead band. over 

safr'dendf. (raifi'gwa 4 mVion'nishe't o'ne" 4 ne" 4 ho 4 saa'io n ' 

again he Somewhat so long it lasted now there again he 1-4 

departed. arrived 



252 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



at the place where their lodge .stood. Thus, also, again did he do; 
there where his grandmother was sitting he east it. "Here," he said. 
"So be it,'' she, the Ancient-bodied, said. 

So now out of doors they two skinned it. They two held its body 
in many places. So when they tw T o were nearly through their task 
there was a pool of blood on the green hide. So then she, the 
Ancient-bodied, took up a handful of the blood and cast it on the loins 
of her grandson. "Ha 4 ha"," she, the Ancient-bodied, said, "now, 
verily, my grandson, thou becomest catamenial." "Fie upon it," said 
the youth, "it is not for us males to be so affected as a habit; but ye, 
ye females, shall be affected thus habitually every month." Now r , again 
he took up a handful of clotted blood and cast it between the thighs 
of his grandmother, and now, he said: "Thou, of course, verily, hast 



he'onwe' 

1 the place 

where 

he'onwe 4 

2 the place 

where 

w r aen". 

3 he it said. 

Da', 

4 so, 



thodino n4 sot'. Ne" 4 ho 4 

There 



there their lodge 
stands. 



kho" 

and 



a'e' 



naa n 'ie'; 



once so he it 

raore did; 

ieniu"ciot ne" ho 4 sot' ne V4 ho 4 wao'df. 

she is sitting the 'his grand- there he it threw. 

mother 

u Miawe n ' 4 hay' wa'a'ge 1 " ne" Eia'dage n "tci 4 . 

"I am thankful," she it said the 



ne V4 ho 4 

there 

VjrWa , 

"Here," 



o'ne n4 



now 



as'de' 

out of 
doors 



Deniienawa"kho n ' 



ne" gaia'da/'ge. Da', 



O the 



its bodv on. 



So, 



She Ancient-bodied 
One. 

ne" 4 ho 4 waniien"se'. 

there they (m.) it skin- They two one the 

ned. the other aided 

ne v no'ne 114 tho' 4 ha 4 e n iadienno"kde n ' 

that 



the now nearly they (m.) two it task 

will complete 

ga'hne'ga' ne" ga , cio'sa v ge ; ne" otgw 7 e n "sa'. Da', o'ne nw ne" 

6 it liquid the it green hide on the it blood. So, now the 



Eia'dage n "tci 4 o'dio n4 tcagak' ne" otgwe n "sa', kho" ne" ne Vfc ho 4 , 

the it blood, and the there 



{ She Ancient-bodied 
One 

waago'df 

8 she it threw 

waVge"' 

o she it said 

gwa'de'." 

10 my grand- 



she handful 
took up 

ne" hoa 4 sa v ge 4 

the his loins on 

ne" lege n "tci 4 : 

the She Ancient 

One: 

. L rr\ • v Lr 11 ^ « ~ir 

lcisnen , waen 

"Fie upon it," he it said 



ne 

the 

"0'ne n4 

" Now, 



hoilwan'de'. 

her grandson. 



"Ha 4 ha"," 

" Alas," 



wai'i 4 

of 
course 



ne 

the 



wa 4 sa"diaweiit, 

thou hast the menses 
(=dost abstain) 

haksa'dase"a 4 . " The nV e n4 , 

he youth. "Not it is 



ni"a 4 



ne 

11 we per- the 
sonally 



agwadji'na 4 ne'' 4 ho 4 naiawen"seg; i's de n 'gwae" ne 4 ' 

w r e males thus so it will be hap- ye though the 

pening; 

sweo n4 -shon"o n4 ne" 4 ho 4 ne n iawen"seg ne 4 ' swenni'da"-shon'." 

12 ye females thus so it will be hap- the each month just." 

pening 

O'ne" 4 onsaa'tcagak' ne 4 ' o'tgwa 1 o'ne" 4 di'q ne" 4 ho 4 wao'df 

13 Now again he it hand- the it clotted now more- there he it cast 

ful took up. blood over 

ne 4 ' deieo'gen 4 ne" ho'sot', o'ne" 4 di'q na'e 4 waen : "I's 

14 the between her the his grand- now more- verily lie it said: 'Thou 

thighs mother, over 



hewitt] SENECA VERSION 253 

now become eatamenial." So now, she, the Ancient-bodied, began to 
weep, and she said: "Moreover, customarily, for how long a period 
will it be thus as an habitual thing \ " Then the youth said: " [As many 
days] as there are spots on the fawn. So long, verily, shall be the 
time that it will continue to be thus." Now again she began to weep, 
the Ancient-bodied. So now she said: "It is not possible for me to 
consent that it shall be thus.'' "How many, moreover, then, shall 
they be \ " he said. "I would accept the number of stripes on the back 
of a chipmunk," she said. " So be it," said the youth. So then he said: 
"Customarily, four days shall a woman-being remain out of doors. 
Then, customarilj", as soon as she has washed all her garments, she 
shall reenter the place where they, her ohwachira a , abide." 

wai'i* na'e 4 o'ne" 4 o'sa"diaweiit." Da', o'ne"" o'dio^se^t'ho 1 

of verily now thou hast thy So, now she wept -i 

course menses." - 1 

ne" Iege" 4 'tei 4 , o'ne" 4 di'q wa'a'ge"': "Gain" di'q gen's 

the She Ancient- now more- she it said: "Where more- cus- 2 

bodied One, over over tomarily 

he" ne n ion , nishe"t ne 4 ' ne V4 ho 4 ne"io'den'oiig r ( " O'ne" 4 ne 4 ' 

where so long it will the thus so it will continue Now the 3 

last to be?" 

haksa'dase"a 4 waeii": " Ne" ne 4 ' he" ni'ion 4 ne" niiodia"gwiT 

he youth heitsaid: "That the where somanyit the so many it spots 4 

is has 

ne 4 ' djisda'thiefi'a 4 . Ne" 4 ho 4 na'e' ne"ion'nishe't ne V4 ho 4 gen's 

the spotted fawn. There verily so long it will thus cus- 5 

last tomarily 

ne n io'den'ong." O'ne" 4 a'e' o'dio n4 se"t'ho' ne 4 ' Iege" 4 'tci 4 . Da', 

so it will continue Now once she wept the She Ancient- So, 6 

to be." more bodied One. 

ne" ne 4 ' wa'a'ge"': " Da'a'o" 4 ne 4 ' agi 4 wani'at ne 4 ' ne" 4 ho 4 

that the she it said: "Itisnotpos- the I it will assent the thus 7 

sible to 

naia'we" 4 ." "Do', di'q noil 4 '?" waen". " Ne" di'q non 4 ' 

so it should come "How, more- perhaps?" heitsaid. "That more- per- § 

to pass." many, over over haps 

age'go' ne 4 ' djo'ho"gwais he 4 ' ni'ion 4 ne 4 ' oiano n "do nt ne 4 ' 

I it would the chipmunk where somanyitis the it is lined the 9 

accept 

ga'sweW'ge 4 ," wa'a'ge" 1 . " Nio"," waeif' ne 4 ' haksa'dase"a\ 

its back on," she it said. "So be it," heitsaid the he youth. 10 

Da', ne v waen": "Ge'i 4 gen's ne"io'da' as'de 4 gen's ne" 4 ho 4 

So, that heitsaid: "Four cus- somanyit will out of cus- there \\ 

tomarily be days doors tomarily 

e"ie*dion'dak. O'ne" 4 ganio" gen's gagwe'go" 4 e n ieno n 'ae" fc hon' 

one will continue Now so soon cus- it all one will wash \*2 

to be. as tomarily them plurally 

ne'' goVionnias'ha' o'ne" 4 gen's de"die'io"' he'onwe 4 

the one's raiment now cus- thenceone will the place ]_3 

tomarily come indoors where 

henni'Mio"* ne" ago'watci'ia'." 

they fm. j are the her ohwachira." 

abiding 

a See first note on page 255. 



254 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



So .some time afterward she, the Ancient-bodied, said repeatedly: 
'"And there .shall be mountains, seemingly, over the surface of the 
earth here present." And now, verily, it did thus come to pass. 
""And. too, there shall be rivers on the surface of the earth." again 
she said. Now, of -course, truly it did thus come to pass. 

Now the youth said: "Now I think that thou and I should return 
home: that thou and I should go to that place Avhich my mother has 
made ready for us; that there thou and I should remain forever." 
u So be it," she, the Ancient-bodied, said. 

So then it was true that his grandmother and he departed. So then, 
verily, they two went up on high. So this is the end of the legend. 



1 
2 
3 

4 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Da' 

So. 



o'ne nC 



gain'gwa' 

somewhat 



naioii'nishe't o'ne nt ne" Eia'dage n "tci' 



so long it lasted 



now 



the 



She Ancient-bodied 
One 



ioii'do 11 *: iw E n ionondade'niong gwa" kho" he*' ioendjada'die'." 

she kept "There will be mountains seem- and where it earth is present." 

saying: standing, ingly 

0'ne nt do'ge n s ne" 4 ho 4 na n Vwe nt . kC Ne v -kho ; ne" e n ge lU hon- 

Now it is a fact thus so it came to "That and the it river will be 

, pass. 

de'niong . he" ioefidja/'ge 4 ," waVge n '-kho* a'e\ 

present where it earth is present," she it said and another 

plurally 

ne vc ho 4 do'ge n s ne" 4 ho' na n Vwe n '. 

thus it is a fact thus so it came to 

pass. 

0'ne ,u ne" haksa'dase^a' waeif': 

Now the he youth he it said: 



time. 



O'ne 1 

Now 



wai'i' 

of 
course 



"Q/ n gn< 

' ' Now 



I sup- 
pose 



ne 

the 



1 

we 



aesedia'den'df . Ne vt ho' hae"ne' he'onwe' diiagode'sa"o Ilb ne" 

There thou and I the place there she is ready the 

should go 

Ne Vw ho' daemiMiondak 

There thou and I should be 



thou and I should 
return home. 



no-<ie nC 



the place 
where 



aio'i'wadadie'." 



my 
mother. 

waage 

she it said 



it should be a con- 
tinuing matter." 



"Nio"," 

"So be it," 



ne" 

the 



Da', 

So', 



Eia'dage n "tci\ 

odied 

waia"dendi' 



She Ancient-bodied 
One. 



do'ge n s 

it is a fact 



they two 
departed 



ne 

the 



ho'sot'. Da'. 



his grand- 
mother. 



So, 



o ne 

now 



n. 



na'e' he'tge"" wa"ne\ 

verily up high 

Da', 



"'ho' 



[So, 



ne 

there 



they two 
went. 

nigagai'is. 

so it legend 
is long.] 



A MOHAWK VERSION 

In the regions above there dwelt man-beings who knew not what it 
is to see one weep, nor what it is for one to die; sorrow and death were 
thus unknown to them. And the lodges belonging to them, to each of 
the ohwachiras" [families], were large, and very long, because each 
ohwachira usually abode in a single lodge. 

And so it was that within the circumference of the village there 
was one lodge which claimed two persons, a male man-being and a 
female man-being. Moreover, these two man-beings were related to 
each other as brother and sister; and they two were dehnino'taton 6 
[down-fended]. 



Ratinak'ere' 

They (m.) dwell 



aio n •shent'ho , 

one should weep, 
lament 

rotino n 'so'to n ' 



ne 

the 

no'k' 

and 



e'neke 11 

place above 

o'nr 

also 



ne ne 

ithe that) 
who 



ia" de'hatiiente'ri' 

not they (m.) it know 



ne 

the 



aiai'*heie\ 

one should die. 



Ne' 

The 



o'nr 



ne 

their (m. ) lodge stand the 
one by one 

ta 4 hno TlV e n 's 

besides eus- 

tomarilv 



also 

kano ni sowa'ne n< 



ne'ne' 

the 
that 

ne' dji' 

the where 



it lodge large 
(is) 

rati'tero 11 ', 

they (m.) 
abide, 



a'se'ke' 1 *' 

because 



ska c hwadjirat'sho n ', 

one it ohwachira each 

(is) 

kano ni se's ne' dji' 

it lodge long the where 

(isi 

ie'hwadjirowa'ne n s akwe'ko" e n 's skano n4 sa t 'ne c ie'tero n '. 

one's ohwachira large (it all) cus- one it lodge in they (indef.) 

(are) plurally whole, tomarily abide. 

Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' nikana/ta' skano n4 'sa 4 iakaonkwe'taie n \ 

The so then the where so it village one it lodge they (indef.) have 

large (is) (is) person(s) 

no'k* iakon'kwe*, nen' ta'hno 11 " iate n no'se n ' c ha 4 

and she a man- now besides they two brother and 

being, sister are 

te b hnino'tato n '. 



ron'kwc' 

he man- 
being ( is) 

ta'hno 11 *' 

bevjcles 



nen' 

now 



they (m.) two down- 
fended are. 



6 



"An ohwachira in its broadest and original sense denotes the male and female offspring of a woman 
and their descendants in the female line only. In its modern and narrowed meaning it is equivalent 
to family; that is, a fireside group, usually composed of a parent or parents and offspring. 

&The epithet (in the dual form) dehnind'taton is descriptive of the requirement of an ancient 
custom now almost, if not wholly, obsolete among the Iroquois. It consisted in the seclusion of a 
child from the age of birth to puberty from all persons except its chosen guardian. The occasion 
of this seclusion was some omen or prodigy accompanying the birth of the child, which indicated 
that the child was uncanny, possessing powerful orenda, or magic power. It seems that children 
born with a caul were thus secluded, mid the presence of the caul itself may have given rise to the 

custom. Persons thus secluded were usually covered with corn husks in some nook whence they 

came forth only at night in the care of their guardian. Moreover, the down of the spikes of the 
cat-tail was carefully sprinkled about the place of seclusion, the disarrangement of which would 
indicate an intrusive visit. Hence the epithet "down-fended," which is the signification of the 
Amerindic epithet. 

255 



256 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



In the morning, after eating their first meal, it was customary for 
the people to go forth to their several duties. 

All the lodges belonging to the inhabitants of this place faeed the 
rising and extended toward the setting sun. Now then, as to the 
plaee where these two down-fended persons abode, on the south side 
of the lodge there was an added room wherein dwelt the woman-being; 
but the man-being lived in an added room on the north side of the 
lodge. 

Then in the morning, when all had gone forth, the woman-being 
habitually availed herself of this opportunity to pass through her 
doorway, then to cross the large room, and, on the opposite side of 
it. to enter the place wherein abode the man-being. There habitually 
she dressed his hair, and when she had finished doing this, it was her 



Ne' 

1 The 

e'tho'iie 1 

)l at that time 

Ne' 

3 The 



ka'tf 

so then 



nen 

now 



e n 's 

custom- 
arily 

e s 



ne 

the 



nen' 



orho n 'ge'ne ; wa'hatikhwen'ta'ne' 

it morning in 



they (m.) (ceased from food) 
had eaten 



waeiaken'seroif. 



i 

8 

9 

10 

11 
V2 
13 
14 
15 



custom- they (indef.) went out 
arily of doors individually. 

ke n 'i'ke n ' ratinak'ere' ' ne' 

this is it they (m.) dwell the 



dji' tkara 4 kwi'neke n 's 

where there it sun rises 

nitioteno n< saiera'ta'nio n \ 

thus there they (z.) self lodge 
severally faced. 

Ne' ka'tf ke n 'i'ke n 

The so then 

te/hni'tero 11 '. 



no'k 4 

and 



dji' 

where 

ne' 

the 



rotino n 'so'to n ' akwe'ko" 

it all 

' (is) 

dji' ia'tewatchot'ho's 

there it sets 
(immerses itself^ 



their (m.) lodge 
stand one bv one 



where 



this it is 



they two (m.) 
abode. 

niie'tero 11 ' 

there she 
abode 

nonka'ti' 

side of it 



ne' 

the 



ne' 

the 



ne' ron'kwe'. 

the he man- 

being (is). 

Ne' ka'tf 

The so then 

orho n 'ge'ne' 

it morning in 



leiono n<, 'sonte , 

There it lodge 

possesses 

iakon'kwe 4 , 

she man- 
being (is), 

dji' ieiono n "sonte' 

there it lodge 

possesses 



te^nino'tato^ 

they two down- 
fended are 

e n tie"ke c 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



at the south 
(midday at) 

no'k' 

and 



where 



na'kano n "sati ; e" 

such it lodge there 

side of ( is) 

ne' ron'kwe ' 

the he man- 

being (is) 

e" ne' nonka'ti' 

there the the side of it 



non'we' 

the place 

non'we' 

the place 

othore'ke' 

at the north 
(it cold at) 

ren'tero n ' 

he abode 



e n 's 



custom 
arily 

i'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 



ne 

the 



neii' 



tontakanho'hi'ia'ke', 

thence she crossed the 
threshold, 

ia w honta'weia , te , dji' 

thither she it entered where 



e s ne 

custom- the 
arily 

kano n 'sowanen'ne' 

it lodge (room) large into 



akwe'ko" wa , eiaken'sero n, 

they (ir 
of do 

iakon'kwe' 



(it all) 
whole 



they (indef.) went out 
of doors severally 



she man- 
being (is) 

e" 

there 



non'we' 

the place 



ia'hokerothi'ie' ne' dji' niio're' 

thither she his the where so it is far 

hair handled | is time i 



then'tero n ' ne' 

there he the 

abides 

e n 's wa , ka t 'sa\ 



custom- 
arily 



she it finished. 



ne 

the 



nonka'ti' 

the side of it 

roii'kwe 4 . 

he man- 
being (is). 

e'tho'ne* 

at that 
time 



ne 

the 



nen' 

now 



e n s 

custom- 
aril v 

E" 

There 



neii' 

now 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 257 

custom to couie forth and cross over to the other side of the lodge 
where was her own abiding place. So then, in this manner it was that 
she daily devoted her attention to him, dressing and arranging* his hair. 

Then, after a time, it came to pass that she to whom this female 
person belonged perceived that, indeed, it would seem that she was in 
delicate health; that one would indeed think that she was about to 
give birth to a child. So then, after a time, they questioned her, 
saying: "To whom of the man-beings living within the borders of 
the village art thou about to have a child?" But she, the girl child, 
did not answer a single word. Thus, then, it was at other times; 
they questioned her repeatedly, but she said nothing in answer to their 
queries. 

At last the day of her confinement came, and she gave birth to a 
child, and the child was a girl; but she persisted in refusing to tell 
who was its father. 



te n tkaia'ke n 'ne' ta'hno 11 ' e" iensewata'weia•te , dji/ noiika'tf ne' 

thence she (z.) will besides there thither she it will where the side of it the 1 

come forth reenter 

a'oiVha' tiio'nakte'. E*' ka'tf ni'io't ne' niia'tewe'ni'sera'ke' 

it (she) her- there her own Thus, so then so it the each it day in number (is) 

self mat (room) is. stands 

no' te'ho'snie' ne' rokerothi'ia's. 

the she him the she his hair O 

attends to handles. 

No'k* ha'kare* ka'tf nen' ne' akaonkwe'ta* wa'oiit'toke' ne' 

And after a while so then now the her (indef.) parent she (indef.) the 4: 

(is) noticed it 

ia*' ne*'-ke n4 ffnio" sken'no n ' te'iako'n'he' ne' akoieif'a'. 

not that is it indeed well in not she lives the her offspring. 

health 



Sit 



2 



Aien're' e n iakoksa'taien'ta'ne'. No'k' ha'kare' ka'tf neii 

One would she a child will have. And after a while so then now 

think (therefore) 

wa'konwari'hwanon'to n, se' o n "ka' ne' dji' nikana'ta' ne' 

she her questioned who the where so it village the * 

(it is) (is) in size 

ratinak'ere' ne' ratiteron'to 11 ' ne' rotiksa'tfiienta'sere'. No'k' 

they (m.) dwell the they (m.) abide the they (m.) are about to But o 

severally have child. 

ia 4 ' skawen'na* thaofitaionta'tf ne' eksa'a". E 4 ' ka'tf ni'io't 

not one it word she it answered the she Thus so then so it 9 

(is) back child. stood 

oia' skonwari'hwanonton'nf . LV othe'no n ' thaken'ro !l \ 

it (is) she her questions repeatedly. Not anything she (z.) it would ^ 

other say. 

No'k* ha'kare' nen' ia , akote i niseri"he's< / nen' waiikoksff- 

But after a now her day arrived for her now she became J-l 

time 

taien'ta'ne', ta'hno"" iakon'kwe 4 ne' eksa'a" (eksa')". O'k* o'ne 114 

possessed of a and she a man- the shea Only now 1-^ 

child, being (is) child. (it is > 

dji' ni'io't ia*' thaionthro'rf o nC 'k{r ro'ni"ha'. 

where BO it not she it would tell who he it is father ±o 

stood (it is) to (her i. 

"This is ;i contracted form of the preceding word and is very much used. 

21 ETH— 03 IT 



258 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

But in the time preceding the birth of the girl child this selfsame 
man-being at times heard his kinsfolk in conversation say that his sister 
was about to give birth to a child. Now the man-being spent his time 
in meditating on this event, and after awhile he began to be ill. And, 
moreover, when thelnoment of his death had arrived, his mother sat 
beside his bed, gazing at him in his illness. She knew not what it 
was; moreover, never before had she seen anyone ill, because, in 
truth, no one had ever died in the place where these man-beings lived. 
So then, when his breathing had nearly ended, he then told his mother, 
saying to her: "Now, very soon shall I die." To that, also, his 
mother replied, saying: "What thing is that, the thing that thou 
say est? What is about to happen?" When he answered, he said: 
"My breathing will cease; besides that, my flesh will become cold, 

No'k' omen'to 11 ne' dji' niio're' ne' nen' sha'eimak'erate' 

-1 But before, in the where so it is the now when she is born 

front of it distant 

ne' eksa"a' ke n, i'ke nC ron'kwe fc rothon'te' e n 's ne' raonkwe'ta' 

-^ the she this it is he man- he heard it custom- the his people 

child (is) being (isj arily (relatives) 

ne' iakothro'rl' ne' dji' iakoksa'taienta'sere' ne' iate n no'se n "ha'. 

o the they (indef.) are the where she child is about the they two brother and 

telling it to have sister are. 

Nen' ne" renno nw ton'nio ni . Ha'kare' nen' tonta'sawe 11 ' nen' 

4 Now that it he was thinking After a time now thence it began now 

(is) about it. 

wa i hono nw hwak'te n '. Ne' o'nf ne' ciia'ka'mewe' ne' e n; re n 'he'ie' 

5 it caused him to be ill. The also the there it brought it the will he die 

(it was time for it) 

fi ne' ro , niste n "ha' raonak'takta' e' 4 ie'tero 11 ', teiekan'ere' ne' 

the his mother his mat beside there she abode, she it looked at the 

* dji' ' rono n mwak'tani\ la" teieiente'ri; ia" o'nf noiiwen'to 11 

where it causes him to be ill. Not she knows it; not also ever 



8 



teiakotka/'tho 11 ne' aiakono n4 hwak'te n ', a'se'ke 11 " ia" se" 

she has looked at it the it would cause one to be ill, because not as a mat- 

ter of fact 

q nonwen'to" o n "ka' teiakawe n 'he'io nt ne' dji' ratinak'ere'. Ne' 

ever someone one has died the where they (m.) dwell. The 



10 



12 

13 

14 



ka'tf ne' nen' o nw hwa"djok ia't^matonri^seratkon'te 11 ' nen' 

so then the now very soon thither his breath will remain away now 



-•I wa'shakawe^'ma'se' ne' ro'niste n "ha', wa'heii'ro 11 ': "Nen' 

he her addressed the his mother, he it said: "Now 



o n 'hwa"djok e n ki"heia\" Ne' o'nf ne' ro-niste n ' 4 ha' wa'i'ro 11 ': 

very soon I shall die." The also the his mother she it said: 

"O" ne' na'ho'te 11 ' ne' dji' na'ho'te 11 ' sa'to"' ? O" ne" 

"What the kind of thing the where kind of thing thou it art What that 

fisit) (is it) saying? (is it) 

ne n ia'wenne' ? " Ne' o'nf ne' tonta'hata'tf wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

BO it will take place?" The also the thence he replied he it said: 

"E n wa k 'tkawe' ne' dji' katoiirie v se', ta ; hno n " e n kawis'to'te' 

15 "It will cease, the where I breathe, am besides it will make it 

will leave it breathing cold 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



259 



and then, also, the joints of my bones will become stiff. And when I 
cease breathing thou must close my eyes, using thy hands. At that 
time thou wilt weep, even as it itself will move thee [that is, thou wilt 
instinctively weep]. Besides that, the others, severally, who are in 
the lodge and who have their eyes fixed on me when I die, all these, I 
say, will be affected in the same manner. Ye will weep and your 
minds will be grieved.*' Notwithstanding this explanation, his mother 
did not understand anything he had said to her. And now, besides 
this, he told her still something more. He said: " When I am dead ye 
will make a burial-case. Ye will use your best skill, and ye will dress 
and adorn my body. Then ye will place my body in the burial-case, 
and then } T e will close it up, and in the added room toward the rising- 
sun, on the inside of the lodge, ye will prepare well a place for it and 
place it up high." 



ne 

the 



kieron'ke 4 , 

my flesh on, 



neii' 



Ne' 

The 



ta'hno 11 " 

besides 

o nr 

also 



e n io'hnir"ha'ne' 

it will become hard 



ne' dji' 

the where 



ne 

the 



nen' 



e^wa/'tkaVe' ne' 



(now) 
when 



it will cease, 
will leave it 



the 



tewaksthonteroii'nio 11 '. 

I am jointed severally, have 
joints. 

dji' katon'rie'se' te n skeron'weke' se'snon'ke 4 e ni sats'te'. E'tho'ne' 

where I breathe, must thou close my thy hand with thou must At that 

eyes use it. time 

o'k' the n tewenno IU 'to n \ No'k 4 ho'nr ne' 

must thou weep just it will come of its own And also the 



nen' te n saAshe n 'tho' 



now 



it will come of its own 
accord. 

otia*ke>'sho n ' ne' kano n "sako nt e n ie'teroii'take' ne' te n iekan'erake' 

others each of the it house in will they abide the they it will look at 



ne' nen' e n ki"heie', akwe'ko 11 sha'te n iawen'ne' 

the (now) will I die, it all 



(now) 
when 

ta'hno 11 '' 

besides 

ne' 

the 



likewise it will happen 
too 



te n sewa i shent'ho , 

must (will) ye weep 



e n sew{rniko ni ra'kse n '." 

will your minds be grieved." 



No'k' 

And 



• ^ LI 

ia 

not 



ki" 

i 

think 



ro*niste n ' k ha i 

his mother 



thiieiako , niko Iu raienta , 'o u 

thither it she understood 



ne 

the 



othe'no 11 ' 

anything 

dji' 

where 



wa/hefi'ro n \ 

he it said. 



Nen' 

Now 



wa' shako 'hro'rf. 

he it told her. 



na'ho'te 11 ' 

kind of thing 
(it is) . 

na'ho'te 11 ' 

the kind of 
thing 

e n waki 4 he'io n ' 

it will have caused 
me to die 

ne' e n *skwaia'ta'seron'm 

the will ye my body finely array. 



ta'hno nV se n "ha' 

besides somewhat 

farther 

Wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

He it said : 



i'sf 

yon- 
der 



non' we ; 

the place 

"Ne' 

"The 



dji' 

where 

neii' 

now 



e^sewaroiito'tseron'nf, 

will (must) ye make a case, 



ne 

the 



-• 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 

e n 'skwaia*ti'ta", no'k w ho'nf e'tho'ne' 

ye my body will and also at that 

place in fit). time 

ne' dji' tkara k kwi'neke n \s nonka'ti" 



nen' 



e n tisewateweien'to n ' 

will ye it do with care 

oronto'tsera'ko 114 

it case in 



e n tisewanon'teke', ta'hno 11 " 

will ye it cover, besides 



the 



side of it 



where thence it sun comes 

out (east) 

kano n 'sako n " nonka'ti' e n sewakwata'ko' 

it room in the side of it will ye it prepare well 



ne' dji' ieiono n "soiite', 

the where there it possesses a 
room (lodge) 

e'neke' ,b ( v, scw;Viv"Y > 

high up will ye it place." 



3 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



260 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

So then, verily, when he had actually ceased breathing, his mother 
closed his eyes, using* her hands to do this. Just as soon as this was 
accomplished, she wept; and also those others, including all those who 
were onlookers, were affected in just the same manner; they all wept, 
notwithstanding that never before this time had they known anyone to 
die or to weep. 

Now then, indeed, they made him a burial-case; then there, high 
up in the added room in the lodge, they prepared a place with care, 
and thereon they put the burial-case. 

And the girl child lived in the very best of health, and, besides 
that, she grew in size very rapidly. Moreover, she had now reached 
that size and age when she could run hither and thither, playing about 
habitually. Besides this she could now talk. 

To'ke n ske' ka'tf ne' nen' dji' ia'thatonri'seratkon'te 11 ' ne' 

■*• In truth so then the now where thither his breathing did the 

depart 

o ro'niste n "ha' wa'thonwaroii'weke' iesno n "ke' wa'onts'te'. Ne' 

his mother she his eyes closed her hands on she it used. The 



3 

4 

5 

6 



9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

U 
15 



ka'tf he' kara'tie' wa'tio IU shent'ho , no'k' ho'nf ne' otia'ke"sho n ' 

so then there it it accorn- she wept and also the others each of 

panied 

ne' dji' ni'ko n; ne' teiekan'ere' o'k c sha'tia'wenne'; akwe'ko 11 

the where so it is in the they it looked at just equally it happened; it all 

number 

wa'tio n 'shent'ho'; ne'ne' ia" nonweii'to 11 te'hatiieiite'ri ne' 

they wept; the that not ever they (m.) it know the 

o'beii'to 11 ' dji' niio're' ne' e'tho'ne' ne' o n "ka' o'k ; aiai"heie' 

before where so it is dis- the at that the someone only one should 

tant time die 



7 ne' ^e n "s ne'ne' aio n 'shent'ho\ 

the or the that one should weep. 



x Nen' ka'tf to'ke^ke'' wa 4 honwaronto , tseron'nio n ', neii' o'ni 

Now so then in truth they (m. ) case made for him, now also 



¥) 



x.-rr 



taionteweien'to 117 ne' dji' wa'honwaia'ta'seroii'ni'. E'tho'ne' neii 

they (indef.) it did the where they (m.) his body finely arrayed. At that now 

with care time 

oronto'tsera'ko 114 wa'honwaia'ti'ta'. E'tho'ne' neii' ne' ' dji' 

it burial case in they his body placed. At that now the where 

time 

ieioteno n "sonte' kano ni 'sako n4 nonka'tf e'neke 114 wa'hati"re n '. 

there it has a room it house in side of it high up they it placed, 

attached 

No'k' ne' eksa'Tt' akwa" o'k 4 sken'no 11 ', neii' ta'hno 11 " 

But the she a child very only well, now besides 

io'sno're' ne' dji' iakote'hia'ron'tie'. No'k' ne' neii' e" 

it is rapid the where she is increasing in size. But the now there 

citiako'ie 11 ' ne' nen' e'rok tcietak'he's, iakotka'ri'tseroiini'ha'tie'se', 

thence she the now every- she runs about she goes about making amusements 

arrived where repeatedly, for herself, 

nen' o'nf iontfi'tf. 

now also she talks. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



261 



Suddenly those in the lodge were greatly surprised that the child 
began to weep. For never before had it so happened to those who 
had children that these would be in the habit of weeping. So then 
her mother petted her, endeavoring to divert her mind, doing many 
things for this purpose; nevertheless she failed to quiet her. Other 
persons tried to soothe her by petting her, but none of their efforts 
succeeded in quieting her. After a while the mother of the child 
said: "Ye might try to quiet her by showing her that burial-case 
that lies up high, yonder, wherein the body of the dead man-being 
lies." So then they took the child up there and uncovered the burial- 
case. Now of course she looked upon the dead man-being, and she 
immediately ceased from weeping. After a long time they brought 
her down therefrom, for she no longer lamented. And, besides this, 
her mind was again at ease. 



Wa'ontie're^ o'k 4 ne' 

They were sur- just the 

prised 



kano ni 'sako nC 

it house in 



nen' wa'tio n4 shent'ho' ne' eksa'a*'. Ne'ne 4 ia" noiiwen'to 11 



ie'tero 11 ' (ieteron'to 11 ') 

one abides they abide 

one by one 



now 



she wept 



the 



The that 



not 



the ever 



e 

thus 



she a child 

is 

thontaio'to^ha'tie' ne' iakoksa'taien'to n ' ne' taio n4 shentho"seke\ 

hither so it has been the they have children the they should cry as a habit, 

coming individually 

Nen' ka'tf ne' o'ni'ste^'ha' wa'tiakorho'ton'nio 11 ', wa'tiako'niko"*- 

Now so then the its (z.) mother she her comforted, she her mind 



rawen'rie' 

diverted. 



O'ia o'k< 

Other just, 

(it is) 

thaon'to n ' 

it sufficed 



ne 



la" ki" 

Not it 

seems 

tciontatarho'toii'ni', 

again one her comforts, 



na'tetioie're 114 

y so she 
do 

taionto'tate'. 



repeatedly so she it the 
did do 



aiako , niko ni raweii'rie\ 

might she her mind diverted. 



ne 

the 



ia* 

not 



she it would cease 
from. 

ki" tewa'to n 's 

it suffices 



0'ne ni 

Now 



ha'kare' 

after a time 



nen' 



ne 

the 



it 
seems 

akoksteff'a 4 

she elder one 



O la- 
other 

(it is) 

taionto'tate'. 

she it would cease 
from. 



o'k 4 

just 

No'k< 

And 



wa'i'ro n ' 



iaietchina tori' 'ha'se' 



thither ye it should show 
to her 

raia/ti 4 



ne 

the 



1 SI 

(far) 
vonder 



" Aietciiate'nien'te 11 ', 

she it said: "Ye her should try there, 

e'neke 114 tkaronto'tsera/'here' ne' 

high up there it burial-case lies the 



dji' 

where his body 
it fills 

tarat' ; he n ste' ta 4 hno nV wa'kontinontek'sr. Nen' wa"hf wa'ontkat'ho' 



ne' rawe nc he'io ni ." E'tho'ne' katf nen' iaakotiia'- 

the he is dead." At that time so then now thither they 



besides 



upbore her body 

rawe u, he'io n . 

he is dead. 



Now 



verily 



she it looked ;it 



ne 

the 



Ne' 

The 



dji' teio n 'shent'ho's. 

where she was frying, 

weeping. 

tontaiakotiia'tat8'ne n 'te'. 



they it uncovered. 

ka'tf ne' ok'sa' o'k 4 wao^'tka'we' \w f 

so then the at once just she ceased from il the 

Akwa" ka'tf ke n " na'he", 

so then this length of time now 



o'ne n< 



Very 



nen' 



ia 

not 



.' 



thence they her body no) 

down brought, 

ne' e" ni'io't skriTno"' t<'ienno n "tofi'nio nw . 

the thus so it (it is) well again she is in mind. 

stood i thinks iteratively ) 



tha'tetcio lU shent'ho*s. Ne' 

not she is weeping. The 



o'nf 

also 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 



262 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [Era. ann. 21 

It was so for a very long* time. Then she began to weep again, 
and so, this time, her mother, as soon as possible, took her child up 
to where the dead man-being- lay, and the child immediately ceased her 
lamenting. Again it was a long time before one took her down there- 
from. Now again she went tranquilly about from place to place 
playing joyfully. 

So then they made a ladder, and they erected the ladder so that 
whenever she should desire to see the dead man-being, it would then 
be possible for her to climb up to him by herself. Then, when she 
again desired to see the dead person, she climbed up there, though she 
did so by herself. 

So then, in this way matters progressed while she was growing to 
maturity. Wheneyer she desired to see the one who had died, she 
would habitually climb up to him. 

Akwa" wa 1 kari"hwes nen' a're' tonsaio nc shent'ho\ Neil ka'tf 

1 Very it matter long now again once again she wept. Now so then 

became 

nofi'wa' ok'sa' o'k' ne' o'niste n "ha' ia'hontatia'tarat'he n ste , ne' 

9 ' 

-" at this time at once just the its (her) mother thither she upbore her body the 

ontatieif'a' ne' dji' tka'^here' ne' rawe n 'he'io ni , ne' o'nf ok'sa' 

3 her offspring the where there it lay the he is dead, the also at once 

on it 

o'k w wa'tionto'tate , ne' dji' teio ni shent'ho\s. Akwa" ka'tf a're' 

4: just she ceased from it the where she is weeping. Very so then again 

ke n " na 4 he", nen' a're' tontaiontatia , tats'ne n 'te\ Neii' a're' 

5 this. length of now again thence again they her body Now again 

time, down brought. 

sken'no 11 ' thitcakotka'ri'tseronni'ha'tie'se\ 

6 well, con- again she herself goes about amusing, 
tentedjy 

Nen' ka'tf e'tho'ne' nen' wa'hatinekoton'nf ne' o'nf 

7 Now so then at that time now they made a ladder the also 

(onekota) 

wa'hatinekoto'te n \ Ne' ka'tf ne' kat'ke 4 te n iakoto ni hwen'tcio"se' 

$ they set up the ladder The so then the whenever it will be needful for her 

(onekota.) 

ne' aiontka'tho , ne' rawe n4 he'io nw e n wa'to n ', ki", ne' akaon'ha"a' 

Q the she should look the he is dead it will be I be- the she herself 

at it possible, lieve, 

ie"ierat'he n '. Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' a're' tonsaiakoto lU hwen'tcio"se 1 

^() thither she will The so then the now again again it was needful for her 

ascend. 

ne' a k honwa'ke n, ne' rawe n 'he'io n ' ia'erat'he" 1 ki" akao ,u ha"a'. 

the she should see him the he is dead thither she I be- she herself. 

climbed, lieve, 

E" ka'tf niio ; to ,u ha'tie' ne' dji' iakote'hia'ron'tie'. Kat'ke' 

^2 Tims so then so it continued to the where she continued to in- Whenever 

be crease in size. 

te n iakoto n 'hwen'tcio"sc' ne' aiontka"tho' ne' rawe Il me'io nt 

1 '->. she will need it the she should look the he is dead 

J at it 



14 



&'erat'h& n ' ki" 6 n 's. 

thither she i custom- 

climbed, think, arily. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



263 



In addition to these things, it was usual, when she sat on the place 
where the burial-case lay, that those who abode in the lodge heard 
her conversing, just as though she were replying to all that he said; 
besides this, at times she would laugh. 

But, when the time of her maturity had come, when this child had 
grown up, and she had again come down, as was her habit, from the 
place where the dead man-being lay, she said: " Mother, nry father 
said" — when she said "my father," it then became certain who was 
her father — "'Now thou shalt be married. Far away toward the 
sunrising there he lives, and he it is who is the chief of the people 
that dwell there, and he it is that there, in that place, will be married 
to thee.' And now, besides this, he said: 'Thou shalt tell thy mother 
that she shall ±111 one burden basket with bread of sodden corn, putting 



Nen' ta'hno*" 

Now besides 



ne' e n 's ne' 

the custom- the 
arily 



neii' e" ieietskwa/'here' ne' dji' 

now thus there she sits up high the where 



tkaronto'tsera"'here , iakothoii'te" 

there it burial case lies up they it heard 



e n 's 

custom- 
arily 



ne 

the 



kano n "sako nc ie'tero"' 



it house in 



they (indef.) 
abide 



ne' iako"thare 5 ne' 

the she is conversing the 

rawe n 'he'io nt no'k' 

he is dead but 



dji' 

where 



o'nf 

also 



ni'io't ne' aonta'ho'tha'rake' 

so it the thence he would be 

stands talking 

aontaiakori'hwa'serakwen'ha'tie', 

thence she continued to reply, 



ne' 

the 



neii' 

now 



ta'hno 11 " 

besides 

No'k' 

But 



sewatie're 

sometimes 



nen' 



ne 

the 



taiakoie'sho 11 '. 

thence she would 
laugh. 

nen' ciia'ka"hewe' nen' sha'oiite'hia'ro 11 ' 

there it arrived now there she matured 



now 



ke n 'i'ke ni 

this (here) 
(it is) 

eksa"a 4 ne' nen' a're 1 tontaioiits'ne nt te' ne' dji' tka"here' ne' 

she a the now again thence she descended the where there it lies the 

upon it 



child 

rawe n 'he'io ni 

he is dead 



wa'i'ro*': 

she it said: 



u Isten"ha' 

"Oh, Mother, 



(isda"), a wa'hen'ro 11 ' ne' 

he it said the 



rake'ni"ha' (ne' dji niio're' wa'i'ro 11 ' 

(the where so it is far she it said 



rake , ni' ; ha < 



e'tho'ne' neii' 

now 



he my father (the where so it is far she it said he my father at that 

(is.) (is) time 

wa'kato'ke n 'ne' o n "ka' ronwa'ni"ha' ne' eksa"a): 'Neii' e n 'sania'ke'. 

it became known who he her father (is) the she a ' Now thou shalt 

(as true) (it is) child (is) marry. 



I'no n4 

Far (far 
away) 

ne'ne' 

the that 

Nen' 
Now 

ne'ne' 

the 
that 



ne' dji' tkara'kwi'neke n 's 

the where there it sun rises 



noiika'ti' e" 

side of it there 



thonwakowa'ne 11 ' ne' 

there he their chief (is) the 



thatinak'ere' 

there thev dwell 



ne' e" 

the there 



ta'hno"" 

and 



wa'hefi'ro 11 ': 

he it said: 



thanak'ere"', 

there he dwells, 

e n seni'niake'.' 

thou and he shall 
marry.' 

sa , niste n 'ii{V 

thv mother 



' E nc she'hro'iT ne' 

' Thou her shalt tell the 

akwa" e n tioiiteweien'to n \ ka'hi'k te n ie'ieste' ne' kane n iia- 

very she shall do it the best it fruit she it shall the 



she shall do it the best 
possible. 



she it shall 
mix with it 



it corn 
softened 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 

14 



a This is a shortened form of the next preceding word. 



2<>4 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



forth her best skill in making it, and that she shall mix berries with 
the bread, which thou wilt bear with the forehead strap on thy back, 
when thou goest to the place where he dwells to whom thou shalt be 
married.' " 

Then it was that her mother made bread of corn softened by 
boiling, and she mixed berries with the corn bread. So then, when it 
was cooked, she placed it in a burden basket, and it tilled it very full. 

It was then, at this time, that the young woman-being said: "I 
believe I will go and tell it to my father." It was then that she again 
climbed up to the place where the dead man-being lay. Then those 
who were in the lodge heard her say: " Father, my mother has finished 
the bread." But that he made any reply to this, no one heard. So 
then it was in this manner that she conversed there with her dead 
father. Sometimes she would say: "So be it; I will." At other times 



nawe n "to n ' 

by boiling 



(?kane n 'sto"hare k ) e n iena'taron'nr, iontke"tats a't'here' 



it corn washed 



she bread shall make, 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



e n kana'no n ' 

it it >hall fill 

then'tero 11 ' 

there he abides 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 

nawe n "to n4 , 

5 b; r boiling, 

sha'ka'ri' e" 

Q when it^was there 
cooked 



ie nt satke"tate' 

thither thou shalt bear 

it on thy back by the 

forehead-strap 

e n seni'niakeV 

thou he shall marrv.' " 



ne 

the 



neii' 



one bears it on 
the back by the 
forehead strap 

dji' 

where 



ie n "se' 

thither 

thou 
shalt go 



it basket 



non'we' 

the place 



nen' 



ne' oniste n "ha' 

the its (her) mother 



wa'ena'taron'ni' ne' kane iu ha- 



she it bread made 



the 



it corn 
softened 



akwa" 

very 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



tewa'hiaies'to 11 '. 

one it has mixed 
with fruit. 

wa'ake'ta iontke'tats'tha a'thera'ko 11 ' 

she it placed one uses it to bear it on it basket in, 

in it the back by the forehead strap 



ne 

the 



nen' 



akwa" 

very 



wa'ka'na'ne'. 

it filled it. 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



neii' 



ne' rake'ni"ha'." 

9 the he is my father." 

tka'mere' ne' 

][() there it lies the 

upon it 

ne' kano n4 'sako ni 

\\ the it lodge in 



ne' eia'tase"**, 4, 

the she new-bodied 
one (is) 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



wa'i'ro 11 ' 

she it said: 



Ie nt shi'hro'rr ki" 

I think, 



"There I shall 
tell him. 



nen' 



now 



ionsaierat'he n ' dji' 

thither again she where 
ascended 



non'we' 



place 



wa'ena'tari'sa' 

22 she it bread has 
finished 

ne" o n4 'ka' 

]o } that anyone 

one 

sewatie're 11 ' 

|zj. sometimes 



ne 

the 



rawe n me'io n ' 

he is dead. 

ie'tero 11 ' 

they abide 

isteff'a'." 

my mother." 



Ne' 

The 



o'nf 

also 



ne' iakothon'te' 

the they it heard 

"Rake v ni' nen' 

" He my father now 

(is) 

No'k c ne' aonta'hota'tike' ia 4 ' na" 

And the he should have replied not that 

thing 



dji' 

where 



wairo 

she it said: 



teiakothonte"o ni 

one it has heard. 



E 4 ' 

Thus 



ka'tf 

so then 



wa'i'ro"': 

she it said: 



"Io"," 

" Yes," 



sewatie're 11 ' 

sometimes 



ni'io't tiiako"thare\ 

so it is just she was 

(stands) talking, 

nen' taiakoie'sho 11 '. 

now there she would 

laugh. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VEKSION 



265 



she would laugh. So after a while she came down and said: "My 
father said: ' To-morrow very early in the morning thou shalt start.' 

So then, when the next day came, and also when they had finished 
eating their morning meal, the young woman-being at this time said: 
"Now I believe I will start; but 1 will also tell my father, I believe." 
At this time she now went thither where stood the ladder, and, 
climbing up to the place whereon lay the burial-case of the dead man- 
being, she said: '"Father, I shall now start on my journey." So then 
again it was from what she herself said that it was learned that he was 
her father. 

It was at this time that he told her all that would befall her on her 
journey to her destination, and, moreover, what would happen after 
her arrival. So then, after she again came down, her mother took up 
for her the burden basket which was full of bread, and placed it on 



Ha'kare' 

After awhile 



ka'ti' 

so then 



nen' 



tontaiontsne n "te' 

thenceagain she 
descended 



ta k hno n " 

besides 



"Wamen'ro"' 

" He it said 

orho n 'ke"dji\" 

it morning early." 

Ne' ka'ti' 

The so then 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



rake' ni' 4 ha" 

he my father 
(is) 



e n ioVhe n 'ne' 

it day will dawn 



neii' 



wa'i'ro 11 ' 

she it said: 



e n ka fc ten'ti' 

shall I start 



nen' 



t ^5 

o ni 



ne 

the 



nen' 



sa^hatikhwen'ta'ne' 

again they finished eating 
their food 

ne' eia"tase' wa'i'ro 11 ': 

the she the she it said: 

new-bodied one, 

ie n 'shi 4 hro'ri' ki" 

thither I him I 

will tell, think, 

niionsa'ie"' dji' 

just there again where 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



she went 



non'we' 

the place 



sha'or'he n "ne' ne' 

when day dawned the also 

(daylight came) 

or c ho n 'ke"ne t wa'thontska''ho n ' e'tho'ne' 

it morning in they fed themselves at that time 

"Nen' ki" e n ka'ten'tf; no'k' o'nr nen' 

"Now, I I will start; but also 

think, 

rake'ni' 4 ha 4 ." 

he mv father." 
(is) 

tkaneko'tote' 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



neii' 

now 



are 

again 



now 

e" 

there 



there it ladder 
stands 



dji' non'we' 

where 



wa'i'ro 



tharonto'tsera"here' ne' 

place there he a burial-case the 

lies upon it 

': "Eake"ni' nen' e n ka'ten'tf." 

she it said: " He my father now I will start." 

ionthro'ri ; ne' aka'o ,u ha' ne'ne' ro'ni'ha'. 

she it tells the she herself the that he her father (is) 



ta'hno 11 " 

besides 

rawe ,u he'io nt , 

he is dead, 



ia'erat'he 1 " 

thither she it 
ascended 

tamno' 1 " 

besides 



Ne' 

The 



E'tho'ne' akwe'ko n wa\shako'hro'ri' ne' 

At that time it all he it told her the 



ne' dji' niio're' 



niie ,u hen'ie n ' no'k c ho'nf 

also 



the when- go it is far so thither she will go and 

ne' nen' sha'tontaionts'ne n 'te' 



w he re 

ne' 

the 



ka'ti' 

so then 



S n i 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



nif. 



neiawe sero 

so it will happen 
serially 



ien'ionwe'. 

there she will 
arrive. 



ka'tf 

so then 



the 



now 



when thence she descended, 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 



nen' 



Ne' 

The 

ne' 

the 



o'niste nu ha 4 pen' wa'tiontate"kwe n ' 

its (her) mother now she it raised up for her 



ne' iontke'tats'tha' a't'here' 

the one uses it to bear it on it basket 
the back by tin- forehead -trap 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

V2 

13 
14 

15 



266 



1R0QU0IAN COSMOLOGY 



[•ETH. ANN. 21 



the back of the young woman -being, to be borne by means of the fore- 
head strap, and then the } T oung woman-being went forth from the 
lodge and started on her journey, the path extending away toward the 
sunrising; and thither did she wend her way. 

So it was surprising to her what a short distance the sun had raised 
itself when she arrived at the place where her father had told her 
there was a river, where a floating log served as a crossing, and at 
which place it was the custom for wayfarers to remain over night, as 
it was just one day's journey away. So the young woman-being now 
concluded, therefore, that she had lost her way, thinking that she had 
taken a wrong path. She then retraced her steps. Only a very short 
distance again had the sun gone when she returned to the place 
whence she had started, and she said: U I do not know but that I 
have lost my way. So I will question my father about it again." She 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 

13 



kana'tarana'no 114 ne'ne 4 

it full of bread (is) the that 



eia'tase' 



wa'ontat'therake"tate' neii' 



now 



she new- she her caused to bear it on her 

bodied (is) back by the forehead strap 

ta 4 hno n " ia'eia'ke n 'ne' nen' wa'o n4 ten'tf dji' tkara 4 kwi'neke n 's 

and hence she went now she started where there it sun habitually 



forth 

imotha 4 haiera'to n4 e 4 ' niia 4 ha'e n '. 

so it itself road faces there just thither 

she went. 

Ne' ka'ti' ne' ione'hra'kwa't 

The so then the it is wonderful 



comes out 



no'k 4 e 4 ' ia'ha'on'we' dji' 

and there there she arrived where 



non we 

the place 



niiore"a 4 

so it is little 
distant 

4 



iotera 4 kwakarata'to n4 

it sun had raised itself 



ne 

the 



ro'ni"ha 4 ne' 

he her father the 

(is) 

tkfVhio IU hata'tie , wa"ta' karon'to' ne' dji' teieia 4 hiak'tha'. 

there it river extends maple it tree floats the where they use it to cross 

along 

e n 's non'we' iaoiinon'wete', 

custom- the place there one would stay 

arily overnight, 

niwatha'binon'tserese'. Nen' 

so it journey is long. Now, 



— I v r> L 

ra we 

he it has 
said 

E 4 ' 



a'se'ke 114 ' 

because 



the stream. 

sewe 4 hni"sera 4 

one dav 



There 

dji' 

where 



ka'tr 

so then 



ne 

the 



eia'tase' 



she new- 
bodied one (is) 



ori'hwi'io' wa'eia'ta"to n 'ne', a wa'e n4 're' to'ka' non'wa' 



it is true 
matter 

hane'ra'ke'. 

mistook. 



she her way has lost, she it thought perhaps this time 



wae re 

she it thought 

wa'tekha'- 

I it path 



ke nV 

here 

ne' 

the 



o'k 

only 

dji' 

where 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 

niio're' 

so it is 
distant 



ka'ti' 

so then 



nen 

now 



saio nC 'kete'. 



she started 
back. 

niiotera'kwa'ten'tio nt 



Nakwa' 

The verv 



oii'wa' 

this time 



so it sun had moved 



no'k 4 

but 



io n4 sa'ionwe' 

there again she 
arrived 



tiiako 4 ten'tio 114 

thence she started 



ta'hno 11 " 

and 



^1 ' t n't 

wa r ro : 

she it said: 



"To'ka 

"Perhaps, 



non'wa' 

this time 



wa'kia'ta 4 'to n 'ne'.* E n sheri'hwanon'to n 'se' ka'tr 

I my way have I him will again ask so then 

mistaken. 



ne' rake'ni"ha 4 . 

the he my father 

(is). 



a Literally, she lost her body. 



& Literally, I lost my body, 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 267 

thereupon climbed up again to the place where her father lay in the 
burial-case. Those who were in the house heard her say: "Father, I 
came back thinking that, perhaps, I had lost my way, for the reason 
that I arrived so quickly at the point thou describedest to me as the 
place where I should have to remain over night; for the sun had moved 
scarcely any distance before I arrived where thou hadst told me there 
would be a river which is crossed by means of a log. This, then, is 
the aspect of the place whence I returned." At this time, then, he 
made answer to this, and she alone heard the things that he said, and 
those other people who were in the lodge did not hear what things he 
said. It is told that he replied, saying: "Indeed, thou hadst not lost 
thy way." Now it is reported that he said: "What kind of a log is it 
that is used in crossing there?" She answered, it is said: "Maple is 



E'tho'ne' ka'tf neii' ioiisaierat'he' 1 ' dji' noii'we' tharonto'- 

At that time so then now thither again she where the place there he lies 

ascended 

tsera"here' ne' ro'ni"ha'. lakothonte'nio"' ne' kano n "sako n ' 

a burial-case the it her father Thev severally heard it the house in it 

(is). 

ieteroii'to"' ne' dji' wa'i'ro 11 ': "Rake"ni', tontaka"kete' so'djr 

they one by one the where she it said: "He my father, thence I turned back for (too 
abide much) 

wa"kere' to'ka' noii'wa' wa'kia'ta"to n ' ne' dji' so'djf io'sno're' 

I thought it perhaps this time I have strayed the where for (too it is rapid 

much) 

e" la'ha'kewe' dji' niwato n 'hwendjio'te n ' ne' dji' tak'hro'ri' 

there there I arrived where such land kind (is) of the where thou didst 

tell it me 

dji' noii'we' ie n keiinoii"hwete', a'se'ke 11 ' ia" othe'no 11 ' akwa" 

where place there I will stay over because not anything very 

night, 

teiotera'kwa'teii'tio u ' no'k' e" ia'ha'kewe' ne' dji' tak'hro'ri', 

it sun had moved and there there I arrived the where thou didst 

tell it me 

tka'hio n 'hata'tie' karonta'ke' teieia'hiak'tha'. E" ka'tf ni'io't 

there it river extends (the) log on one uses it to cross There so then so it is 

along the stream. 

dji' noii'we' tontaka"kete'. E'tho'ne' ka'tr ta'hari'hwa'sera'ko' 

where place thence I turned back. At that time so then thence he made answer 



thou hast strayed." Now, he it said, it is said: " What such it tree kind of 



ne' akaon"ha' o'k' iakothon'te' dji' na ; ho. , te n ' wa'hen'ro 11 '; ia" 

the she herself only she heard it where such kind of he it said; not 10 

thing 

ne'ne 4 otia'ke"sho n ' ne' kano nC 'sako nc ie'tero"' teiakothoiite"o tu 

the that it other every one the house in they it (indef.) they it did hear 11 

abide 

ne' dji' na'ho'te 11 ' wa'hen'ro"'. Wa'hen'ro"', ia'ke 11 ': "Ia"te n ' se" 

the where such kind he it said. He it said, it is said: "Not at all in- 12 

of thing deed 

tesaia'ta'to n "o n '." Neii' wa'hen'ro 11 ', ia'ke nl : "O" na'karonto'te"' 



13 



ne'ne' karon'to' ne' dji' teieia'hiak'tha'?" Wa'i'ro"', ia'ke n ': 

the that it tree floats the where one uses it to cross the She it said, it is said: 14 

stream?" 

"Wa"ta' na'karonto'te n ' ne' dji' teieia'hiak'tha', no'k' o'ho"sera' 

"Maple such it tree kind of the where one uses it to cross but itbasswood lo 

the stream, 



268 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



the kind of log- that is used at the crossing, and the log is supported 
by clumps of young saplings of basswood and ironwood, respectively, 
on either side of the stream." He replied, it is said: "That appears 
to be accurate, indeed; in fact, thou didst not lose thy way." At this 
time, then, she descended and again started on her journey. 

And again, it seems, the sun had moved only just a little before 
she again arrived at the place whence she had returned. So she just 
kept on her journey and crossed the river. 

So, having gone only a short distance farther on her wa} T , she heard 
a man-being in the shrubbery say therefrom: "Ahem ! " She of course 
paid no attention to him, but kept on her way, since her father had 
told her what would happen to her on the journe}\ Thus, in this 
manner, she did nothing except hasten as she traveled on to her des- 
tination. Besides this, at times, another man-being would say from out 



ta 4 hno n " skaroiitakas'ta 4 nakaroiito'te 11 ' oterontoiinr v a 4 iotho 4 'ko- 

and ironwood (durable such it tree kind of it sapling it clump 



ironwood (durable 
it tree) 

toii'nio n ' tedjia'ro 114 

2i stands one both 

by one 



Wa 4 hen'ro n \ 



ia'ke 11 ': 

it is said: 



He it said, 

se" tesaia'ta 4 toff'o n4 ." 



noiika'ti 4 

sides of* it 

"Ne" 

"That 



e 4 ' 

there 



ka'tf karontawe'thaV'ho 11 '." 

so then one has infixed the log." 



there, 



in- 
deed 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



ki", tkaie 

I be- 
lieve, 

ka'ti' 

then 



rnin'yy 

there it is 
correct 

nen' 

now 



se 



v. 



ia"te n ' 

not at all 



indeed; 

tontaients'ne n4 te' 



thence she descended 
again 



thou hast strayed 
(lost thy body)." 

no'k 4 a're' tciako'ten'tio"'. 

and also again she started away. 

Nakwa 4 ' ki" a're' o 4 sthon' 4 ha 4 o'k 4 thiiotera'kwa'ten'tio 114 no'k 1 



The very 



;■'' 



I again 
believe 

io n 'sa/ionwe 



it small (is) 

dji' 



na " e 

that there again there she where 
one arrived 

e're ni ci'ie"' wa , tieia' 4 hia'ke\ 

8 beyond there she she crossed the stream. 



only 



non' we 4 



it sun has moved 



but 



place 



tetiakok'to ,u , o'k 4 ka'ti' 

thence she had only, so then 

returned, 



9 
10 
11 
12 



kept going 

la 4 ' ka'tf so'djf i'no nt thiieiakawe'no 114 nen' ka'tf iakothoii'te' 

Not so then so very far thither had she gone now so then she H hears 

(too much) 

roii'kwe 4 o'ska'wako 11 ' ta'hata'ti' 

he a man- it shrubbery in thence he 

being (is) spoke 

ka'tf othe'no 11 ' thiieiakotsteris'to 11 . 

so then anything thither did she heed 

give. 

ro'ni"ha' te'shako'hro'ri 4 dji' e 

he her had told it where there so it will happen 



a'se'ke" 4 ' ne' 

because the 



ta'hen'ro 11 ': "Hen'm." la 4 ' 

thence he it "Ahem." Not 
said : 

Iako'tention'ha'tie' nen' ne", 

She kept on going now that, 



ne'Mawen'ne'. 



E 4 ' 

Q 

'> Thus 



ka'tf 

so then 



he her 
father 

ni'io't 

so it 

stood 



ne 

the 



iontha'hi'ne'. 

l*i she her path moved 
along. 



Ne' 

The 



() 111 
also 



o'k 4 

only 



ne 

tiie 



ne 

the 

o'ia 

other 



iako 4 storon'tie 1 



she hastened 
onward 

e n 's 



ne 

the 



o'k b e" s ne 

only custom- the 
arily 



ron'kwe 4 

he a 
man-being (is) 



dji' 

where 

ne' 

the 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



269 



of the shrubbery: "Ahem!" But she kept on her course, only 
hastening her pace as much as possible as she continued her journey. 
But when she had arrived near the point where she should leave the 
forest, she was surprised to see a man-being* coming toward her on the 
path, and he, when coming, at a distance began to talk, saying: 44 Stand 
thou, for a short time. Rest thyself, for now thou must be wearied." 
But she acted as though she had not heard what he said, for she only 
kept on walking. He gave up hope, because she would not even stop, so 
all that he then did was to mock her, saying: " Art thou not ashamed, 
since the man thou comest to seek is so old?" But, nevertheless, she 
did not stop. She did not change her course nor cease from moving 
onward, because her father had told her all that would happen to her 
while she trudged on her journey; this, then, is the reason that she did 
not stand. So then, after a while, she reached a grassy clearing — a 



o 4 ska'wako n4 

it shrubbery in 



tonta'hen'ro 11 ' : 

thence he it said : 



"Hen'm." 

"Ahem." 



No'k 4 

But 



ni'io 4 t nitiakoie're 11 ' ne' o'k 4 

the only 



so it 
stood 



so she continued 
to do 



ne' iakostoron'tie' 

the 



she hastened 
onward 



kato'ke 114 

it unchanged 

(is), 

dji' 

where 



ne 

the 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tr 

so then 



ne' 

the 



ka'tr 

so then 



kot'ha'ha'kwe^'ha'tie'. 

it path continues to travel 
onward. 

ia'taier'ho'tka'we' wa'ontie're 114 o'k' 

thither side she it forest she was surprised only 
would leave 

ke 4 'sho n ' ta're'. Ne' ka'tf ne' she'ko 114 

on along thence he The so then the still 

is coming. 

no'k 4 ta 4 ho 4 thara'tie\ ra'to"': " 



neii' 

now 



ak'ta' ne' 

nearly the 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 

teia- 

she 



neii' 

now 



ne 

the 



ron'kwe' o'ha'ha'- 

he a man- it path 

being (is) 

niio're' ta're' 

short so it is thence he 

way distant is coming 

Tes'ta'ne' na 4 he v a 4 . Satoiiris'he 114 , 



ke n "a 4 



and 

neii' 

now 

ne' 

the 



thence he came he it is " Stand thou, 

talking, saying: 

n4 'te 4 tesa w hwishe n4 he'io n4 ." 



a short length 
of time. 



Thou thyself rest, 



O 

probably thou art weary (thy 

strength is dead)." 

ia 4 ' teiakothon'te', ne' o'k 4 

not she it hears, the only 



No'k 4 

And 



nakwa 4 ' dji' 

the very where 



ne' iako 4 tentioii 4 ha'tie\ 

the 



she keeps on going 
onward. 



ni'io't 

so it 
stood 

Wa'- 

He 



he n, nikon'ria'ke' 

failed in his purpose 
(he his mind broke) 

sashakote fc ha , ta'nio n ' 

he taunted her with shame 
repeatedly, 

ne' wa 4 tsenien"te\" 

the 



la" 

not 



thou him goest to 
seek." 

nitiakoie're" 4 

so she continues 
to do 

se" wa"hi' 

indeed verily 



se" 

indeed 

ra'to 11 ': 

he it said : 

No'k 4 

And, 



tha'taieta"ne'. 

there she did stand. 



No'k 4 

But 



ne 

the 



o'k 4 

only 



ne 

the 



44 la 4 ' tesate' 4 he n4 se' e 

"Not 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 

iako 4 tention 4 ha'tie', 

she keeps on going 
onward, 

te 4 shako 4 hro'ri 4 dji' 

he it her told where 



art thou of thyself thus, 
ashamed 

ia 4 ' tha'teiakota"o n4 . 

not there she did stand. 



" nihoksteii"a' 

so he old (is) 



a 4 se'ke n4 ' 

because 



ro'ni"hii' 



ne n iawe 



r xn<r c < 



he her 
father 



Kato'ke 114 , 

One certain 
way 

akwe'ko 11 

it all 



ne 

the 



dji' e 4 ' 

where there 



sero 

so it will happen 
serially 

e n iontha 4 hi'ne', ne' ka'tf kari 4 hon'ni- ia 4 ' tha , teiakota"o n4 . No'k 4 

she will be travel- the so then it it causes not she did stand. And 

ing, 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
V2 
13 
U 



270 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

clearing* that was very large — in the center of which there lay a 
village, and the lodge of the chief of these people stood just in the 
middle of that village. Thither, then, to that place she went. And 
when she arrived at the place where stood his lodge, she kept right 
on and entered it. In the center of the lodge the tire burned, and on 
both sides of the lire were raised beds of mats. There the chief lay. 
She went on and placed beside him her basket of bread, and she said: 
44 We two marry." So he spoke in reply saying: "Do thou sit on 
the other side of the fire." Thus, then, it came to pass, that they two 
had the fire between them, and besides this they uttered not a word 
together even until it became dark. Then, when the time came, after 
dark, that people retire to sleep habitually, he made up his mat bed. 
After finishing it he made her a mat bed at the foot of his. He then 
said: " Thou shalt lie here." So thereupon she lay down there, and he 

ha'kare' nen' iaVhenta'ra'ne"' ka'hentowa'ne 11 '. Sha'teka'hent'he 11 ' 

after a now thither she it field it large field. Just it field in the 

time reached (is) middle of 

e 4 ' tkana'taie 11 ' ta'hno 11 " ne/ roiiwakowa'ne 114 nakwa 4 ' sha'teka- 

there there it besides the their chief - the very just it village 

village lies in the middle 

nat'he 114 noii'we 4 ni 4 hono n4 'sote'. E" ka'ti' niia'ha'e 11 '. Ne' nen' 

3 of place there his lodge There so then thither she The now 

stands. went. 

ka'ti' dji' ia 4 ha"onwe' ne' dji' rono n4 'sote' o'k 4 ei'ie 11 ' ta 4 hno n " 

4: so then where there she the where his lodge stands only just she besides 

arrived kept going 

ia'honta'weia'te'. Sha'tekanoVhe 114 niiotek'ha' ta 4 hno n " tedjia- 

O thither she entered it. Just in the middle of there it burns and on both 

the lodge 

ro n4 'kwe n4 na'kadjie n ' 4 hati 4 kanak'taie 11 '. E'tho 4 raia'tion'nf, 

6 , sides such it the fireside of it couch (or bed) There his body lay 

lay. supine, 

o'k' ci'ie n ' wa'honwa , theraien' 4 ha'se' ne' kana'taro n k ta'hno 11 " 

7 just just she she set the basket for him the it bread and 

kept going 

wa'i'ro"': u Wa'onkeni'niake'." Ta'hata'tf ka'ti' wa'hen'ro 11 ': 



8 



11 



she it safd: " Thou and I marry now." He replied so then he it said 



"E're 114 na'kadjie n ' 4 hati 4 kasatie 11 "." E" ka'ti' na'a'we 11 ' wa'tni- 

^ "Yonder such it fire side of there do thou There so then so it they it 

sit." happened fire had 

djie n ' 4 honte n ' ta'hno 11 " ia" he n 'ska' thateshoti c 'thare' o'k 4 e 4 ' 

10 between them besides not one did they talk together only there 

(it is) again 

hia'okara^hwe'. Ne' ka'ti' ne' dji' neii' ia'ka' 4 hewe' ne' dji' 



it became evening. The so then the where now it was time the where 



nitio'kara"o n4 ne' nen' dji' niiako'ta's nen' wa'hatefinitska- 

12 there it is far in the now where there they go to now he prepared for 

the evening sleep customarily himself 

ra 4 seron'nf. Wa'ha"sa' e'tho'ne' nen' wa'shakotska'r 4 ha 4 se' dji' 

13 his mat. He it finished at that now he it mat her spread for where 

time 

ia'te 4 ha 4 si'taie n '. Ne' ka'ti' wa'hen'ro"': kt Ke n " e n4 sa'rate'." 

11 there his feet lie. The so then he it said: "Here thou shalt lie." 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 271 

also la} T down. They did not lie together; they only placed their feet 
together [sole to sole]. 

And when morning dawned, they two then arose. And now he 
himself kindled a lire, and when he had finished making the lire he 
then crossed the threshold into another room; he then came out bear- 
ing an onora [string of ears] of white corn. He said: " Do thou 
work. It is customary that one who is living among the peopla of 
her spouse must work. Thou must make mush of hulled corn." So she 
thereupon shelled the corn, and he himself went to bring water. He 
also got a pot, a pot that belonged to him, and that was very large. 
He poured the water into the pot and hung it over the fire. 

And when she had finished shelling the corn, she hulled it, parboiling 
the corn in the water. And when the corn was parboiled, she then 
poured the grains into a mortar. She then got the pestle from where 

E'tho'ne' ka'tf neii' e" wa'on'rate' no'k' ho'nf ne' raoii"ha' 

At that so then now there she lay down but also the he himself 

time 

wa'ha'rate'. la 4 ' te'honnara'to 11 ', ne' o'k' ne' wa'tiara'sitarl'ke 1 . 

he lay down. Not they did lie together, the only the they joined their feet 

(sole to sole). 

No'k' ne' nen' ca'or'he n "ne' nen' wa'hiatkets'ko'. Nen' ne' 

But the now it became day- now they two raised Now the & 

light themselves. 

ra'o n 'ha' wa'hate'ka'te'. Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' ca'hadjie n 'hi"sa' 

he himself he it fire kindled. The so then the now he it fire finished 



ra'o n 'ha' wa'ha'hnekako"ha' ta'hno 11 " ia'hana'dja'ko' ne' raon'ta'k 

he himelf he water went to fetch besides there he it kettle got, the his pot 



e'tho'ne' ia'tha'nho"hiia'ke' ca'tonta'haia'ke n 'ne' skano'ra' one 11 - 

at that time thither he it threshold thence he came forth one string it white 

crossed again of corn 

stakeii'ra' shanore n 'ha'wf . Nen' wa'hen'ro 11 ': "Saio"te n '. 

grain he string of corn Now he it said: "Do thou labor. O 

brought. 

Iakoio"te' e n 's ne' ie'hne n 'hwa"she n '. E n sdjiskon'nf kane n 'hana- 

One labors custom- the she lives in the family of Thou must make it corn softened • 

arily (her) spouse. mush (soaked) 

we n "to n '." E'tho'ne' ka'tf nen' wa'ene n staron'ko', no'k' ne' 

by parboiling." At that time so then now she it corn shelled, but the ^ 



9 



kanadjowa'ne 11 ', ta'hno nV wa'ha'hneki'ha're 11 '. 

it kettle large and he it liquid hung (over 10 

the fire). 

No'k' ne' nen' ca'e's'a' wa ene n staron'ko' e'tho'ne' wa'- 

And the now wherein she she it corn shelled at that 11 

finished it time 

ene n stana'we n 'te' no'k' ne' nen' ca'kane n stana'we n ' e'tho'ne' 

she it corn softened by but the now wherein it corn became at that 12 

parboiling soft by parboiling time 

nen' ka'nika"tako n ' ia'ene n sta'wero n ', nen' ia'ecica'tota'ko' nen' 

now it mortar in there she it corn now she it pestle took from now 1«3 

grains poured, an upright position 

o'nf wa'et'he'te'. E n 'ska' o'k' taiecica"te n 'te' no'k' wa'ethe'se- 

also she it pounded. One only, she it pestle and she finished 14 

just brought down 



272 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



it stood, and pounded the corn to meal. She brought the pestle down 
only once, and the meal was finished. The chief marveled at this, 
for he had never seen one make meal in so short a time. When she 
finished the meal, the water in the pot which he had hung" over the 
fire was boiling. She, thereupon, of course, was about to put the 
meal into it, but he said: "Do thou remove thy garments." So she 
then divested herself of her garments. She finished this work, and 
then put the meal into the water. Now she stirred it, using a pot 
stick for the purpose. But the man himself la}' alongside on the mat 
bed, having his eyes fixed upon her as she worked. So, of course, as 
the mush continually spattered, drops of it fell continually in divers 
places on her, all along her naked body. But she acted just as 
though she did not feel this. When the mush was sufficiently cooked, 
her whole naked body was fully bespattered with mush. At this 
moment he himself now removed the pot from the fire, and then, 
moreover, he opened a door not far away and said: "My slaves, 



1 

2 
3 
1 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
18 



ri"sa\ 

it meal. 



Wa'rori'hwane'hra'ko' ne' dji' 

He it matter marveled at the where 



ia" nonwen'to 11 ' 

not ever 



te 4 hotka"tho ni ne' 

he it has looked at the 



niio'sno're' 



nen' 



Neil' 

Now 



ca'ethe'seri^sa' 



wherein it meal she 
finished 



aiethe'seri c 'sa'. Ne' ka'tr ne' 

so it is rapid one it meal could finish. The so then the 

nen' teio'hnekon'tie'se' ne' rona'dji"hare\ 

the he kettle has hungup, 



now it boils (casts liquid to 

and fro) 

wa"hf nen' ie n iethe'sero"hwe', wa 4 hen'ro n ': u Satseronnia'- 

verily now thither she it meal will he it said: 



thither she it meal will he it said: "Do thou thy 

immerse, garments 

cion'ko'." E'tho'iie 1 ka'tf nen' wa'ontseronnia ; cion'ko\ Wa'e'sa' 

remove." At that time sothen now she her garments removed. She it 

finished 

e'tho'iie' nen' ia'ethe'3ero' t hwe- nen' teionwen'rie' ka'serawen'rie' 

now thither she it meal now she it stirred it pot stick 



at that 
time 

ionts'tka 1 . 

she it use's 



thither she it meal 
immersed 



No'k 4 ne' 

And the 



te'shakokan'ere' 

he her watched 



neii' 

now 



ra'o nt ha' 

he himself 

iakoio"te'. 

she is working. 



kanakta'ke 4 

it couch on 



Ne' 

The 



ka'ti' 

so then 



ne' thaia'tion'nf 

the there his body lay 
supine 

ne' dji' watdjis- 

the where it 



kwatoii'kwas iako'stara'ra'sero 11 ' ne' ie t haie n4 sa'ke"sho n '. Nakwa" 

mush sputters it drop impinges the her naked body on along. The very 

on her serially 

dji' ni'io't ne' ia" teiakoterieii'tare'. la'tkaie'rf wa'kadjis'kwari' 

where so it is the not she it knew. It sufficient it mush was cooked 

(stands) (is) 

nen' ne' nakwa" o'k 4 dji' niiehaie n "sa' iodjis'kware'. E'tho'ne' 

now the the very just where so her naked it mush is present. At that 

body large (is) time 

nen' ra'o n4 ha' wa'hana'dji'hara'ko', nen' ta'hno 11 " ke nV non'we' 

now he himself he unhung the kettle, now and here the place 

(besides) 

ia'haVhoton'ko' ta'hno n " wa'hen'ro 11 ': "Aketsene n "sho n ' ka'sene 4 ." 



there he moved the 
door-flap aside 



and 



he it said: 



"My slaves each one 



do ye two 
come." 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 273 

do ye two come hither.' 1 Thereupon thence emerged two animals; 
they were two large dogs. He said: "Do ye two wipe from along* 
her naked bod} r the mush spots that have fallen on her." Thereupon 
his slaves, two individuals in number, and besides of equal size, 
went thither to the place where she was standing. Now, of course, 
they two licked her naked body many times in many places. But, it is 
said, their two tongues were so sharp that it was just as if one should 
draw a hot rod along over her naked body. It is said that wherever 
they two licked the blood came at once. So it is said that when they 
two had finished this work, she stood there bathed in blood. He 
thereupon said: "Now, do thou dress thyself again." And she did 
redress herself. But, it is said, he said to his two slaves: "Come, 
my slaves, do }^e two eat, for now the food that was made for you is 
cooked." So then the two beasts ate. And when thev two had 



E" ka'tf takeniia'ke n 'ne' teknikowa'ne"' e'r'ha'r. Wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

There so then thence they two they two large are dog(s). He it said: 1 

came forth 

"Sasenira'ke'f (?onsasenira'ke'w) rt ie'haiensa'ke''sho n ' iodjiskware'- 

" Do ye two wipe it her naked body on along it mush is be- 2 

away again spattered 

nio 11 '." E'tho'ne' ne' raotsene n 'o'koifa' tekeniia"she' nen' 

sever- At that the his slaves individually they two individ- now 3 

ally." time uals in number 

ta'hno 11 " dji' na'tekenikowa'ne 11 ' e" niia'ha'kene' ne' dji' 

and where so they two (are) large there just thither they the where 4: 

two went 

i'tiete', nen' se" o'k' wa"hf wa , akoti 4 haie n "sakanent'ho n \ E" se" 

there she now in- only verily they her naked body licked repeatedly. There in- 5 
stood, deed deed, 

ia'ke 11 ' niionen'na''sate't dji' ni'io't ne' ioronwaratari"he n ' e" 

it is said, so their tongues sharp where so it is the it rod hot (is) there u 

(are) 

naontaie'sere' ie'haie n 'sa'ke''sho n ', ne' e n 's ia'ke 11 ' ne' dji' 

so it one would her naked body along on, the custom- it is said, the where * 

draw along arily, 

non'we' nakaka'nonte' nakwa" o'k' e" kanekwe n 'sara'tie'. Ne' 

the place so they licked the very just there it blood came along The 8 

with it. 

ka'tf ia'ke 11 ', ne' nen' ca'keni"sa' nakwa 1 ' o'k' thidjene- 

sothen, it is said, the now they two it the very only she blood 9 

finished (just) stood 

kwe n "sote'. E'tho'ne' nen' wa'hen'ro 11 ': "Nen' sasatseroii'ni'." 

forth. At that now he it said: "Now do thou thyself 10 

time dress again." 

E'tho'ne' nen' saiontseron'nf. No'l" ne' raotsene n 'okon"a' 

At that time now she herself again And the his slaves individually 11 

dressed. 

wa'ren'-ha'se', ia'ke"': "Aketsene n 'okon"a', hau", tedjitska''ho ,u . 

he it said to them, itissaid: "My slaves individually, come, do ye two eat. 12 



Nen' wa"hf wa'ka'ri 4 ne' ietchikhoimien'ni'." E'tho'ne' nen' 

Now, verily it is cooked the she you two food has At that time now 13 

prepared for.' 

" This is the more correct form of the preceding term. 

21 etii— 03 18 



274 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



finished eating, he said to them: "Now do ye two reenter the other 
room." Thereupon they two reentered the other room, and moreover 
he shut them up therein. 

Then, it is reported, he said: "It is true, is it not, that thou desirest 
that thou and I should marry? So, now, thou and I do marry." 

So then the things that came to pass as they did during the time 
she was there were all known to her beforehand, because her father 
had indeed foretold all these things to her; hence she was able with 
fortitude to suffer the burns without flinching, when the mush spat- 
tered on her while she was cooking. If she had flinched when the drops 
of hot mush fell on her, he would have said to her: "I do not believe 
that it is true that it is thy wish that thou and I should marry." 
Besides this she bore with fortitude the pain at the time when the two 



wa'tkiatska'ho 11 '. 

they two (anim.) ate. 



No'k 4 ne' nen' ca'kenikhwen'ta'ne' 

And the now they two it food finished 



wa'heil'ro 11 ': 

he it said: 



"Nen" 

"Now 



ska'n'ho"hati 4 



ioiisasadjiata'weia'te'. " 

thither again do ye two enter." 



E'thone' nen' 



beyond it door- 
flap 

ska'n < ho"hati' ionsakiata'weia/te\ nen' ta'hno 11 " ionsashako'n'ho'to 11 '. 



At that 
time 



beyond the door- 
flap 

E'tho'ne'. 



thither they two entered, 

ia'ke 11 ' 



and 



nen' 



it is 
said. 



At that time, 

nitisa'niko n; hro'te n ' 

so thus thy mind (is) 
kind of 

ni'niake'." 

marry." 



wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

now he it said: 

ne' aionkeni'niake'. 

the thou-I should marry. 



thither again he them 
shut up. 

u To'ke n ske' wa"hi' e" 

" It is true verily thus 



Nen' 

Now 



ka'tf 

so then 



wa'onke- 

thou-I do 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



ne 

the 



dji' 

Avhere 



na'awe n "sero n ' 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



na'he" e" 

length of there 
time 



ieia'ko. 

8 there she 
arrived. 

ro'ni"ha' 

t/ he her father 



Akwe'ko 11 ' 

Whole 

(all) 

akwe'ko 11 ' 

all, 



so it happened the where now 

iteratively 

o'hen'to 11 ' tiiakoterien'tare', a'se"ke n " 

there she it knew of, because 



beforehand 

(in front) 

se" 

indeed, 



ne 

the 



te'shako'hro'ri' ne' 

he her told the 



kari'hon'ni' 

it it caused 



10 

11 

12 
13 
14 



she herself nerved to 
endure it 



wa'ekwe'ni' wa'onta'kats'tate' 

she it was able 
to do 

kwaton'ko' 

spattered on 

iakoto n "no n ' 

shrunk from 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



niio'tari"he lU 

so it hot (is) 



dfakodjis- 

" it her mush 



ne' nen' ciiakodjisko"ho n< 



the 

ne' 

the 



a'hawen'ke', ki": 

he would have I be- 
said, lieve: 

aionkeni'niake'." 

thou-I should marry." 



now 

nen' 

now 

" la" 

"Not 

No'k' 

And 



she it mush boiled, 

ca'ako'stara'ra'ne' 

it drop her adhered to 



a'se'ke 11 " 

because 



to'ka' aonta- 

if she it had 



ne' iodjiskwatari"he lU 

the it mush (is) hot 



to'ke n ske' 

it is true 



e" 

thus 



oni 

also 



ne 

the 



tetisa'niko n 'hro'te n ' ne' 

such there thy mind is the 
kind of 

dji' wa'oiita'kats'tate' ne' 

where she herself nerved the 

to endure it 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 275 

dogs licked the mush from her body. If she had flinched to the point 
of refusing 1 to finish her undertaking, it is also certain that he would 
have said: ci It is of course not true that thou desirest that thou and 1 
should marry." 

And when his two beasts had finished eating, he then, it is said, 
showed her just where his food lay. Thereupon she prepared it, and 
when she had completed the preparation thereof, they two then ate 
the morning meal. 

It is said that she passed three nights there, and they two did not 
once lie together. Only this was done, it is reported: When they two 
lay down to sleep, they two placed their feet together, both placing 
their heads in opposite directions. 

Then, it is said, on the third morning, he said: "Now thou shalt 
again go thither to the place whence thou hast come. One basket of 
dried venison thou shalt bear thither on thy back by means of the f ore- 

nen' ne' shonsaiakotidjiskokewa'nio 11 '. To'ka' aorltaiakoto n "no n ' 

now the again they (two) it mush in many places If she it had shrunk from 1 

wiped off of her. 

ne' dji' ne' aiakokara c ren''o n4 ne' ki" o'nf ne' a'ha'wenke': 

the where the she it would have heen the, I be- also the he would have 2 

in fear of lieve, said: 

" la" wa/'hi' to'ke n ske' te'se're' aionkeni'niake'." 

" Not verily it is true thou it desirest thou-I should marry." 



No'k' ne' nen' ca'kenikhweii'ta'ne' ne' raotsene n 'okoii"a' 

And the now they two their food finished the his slaves individually 



(elsewhere) heads rest. 

Ne' ka'tf ia'ke"' ne'ne' o'r'ho n 'ke'ne' nen' wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

The so then it is said, the that morning in now he it said: 



e'tho'ne', ia'ke 11 ', nen' wa'shakona'ton"ha'se' dji' non'we' ^ 

at that time, it is said, now he her it showed to where place 

nikake"ro n ' ne' rao'khwa'. E'tho'ne', neii' wa'ekwata'ko' dji' ft 

so it is piled the his food. At that time now she it made ready where 

niio're' wa'e'sa' nen' wa'tiatska"ho n ' ne' oVho n 'ke'ne'. 

so it is dis- she it fin- now they two ate the it morning at. * 

tant ished 

'A"se n< ia'ke 11 ' na'onnon'wete' ta/hno 11 " ia" e n "ska' te'honna- 

Three, it is said, so she stayed over the and not one they did lie * 

night (time) 

ra'to" 4 . Ne' o'k c e n 's ia'ke 11 ' ne' wa'tiara'sltari'ke' ne' dji' 

together. The only custom- it is said the they their feet joined the where o 

arily 

wa'hoti'ta'we', tenidjia'ro 111 " e're 11 ' noiika'ti' ia'teniatkon"hen'. 

they slept, both they two yonder side of it there they two their lO 



11 



"Nen' e" ie nC se"se' ne' dji' non'we' tisa'ten'tio n ". Sewa'the'rat 

"Now there there again the where the place just thou didst depart. One it basket 12 
thou shalt go 

ne' ion tke 'tats' tha' o'sken'nofito' 1 ' tekaia'taneta"kwe n< io'wa'rat'he 11 ' 

the one uses it to carry it deer one its body has unlined it meat (is) dry 13 
by the forehead strap (from fat) 

ie n4 se'satke 4 'tate'. E n khe'wara'nonte' ne' sonkwe'ta'. No'k' ho'ni 

thither thou it wilt bear I them meat will give the thy people. And also 14: 
by the forehead strap. 



276 



1ROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETK. ANN. '21 



head strap. I will give some moat to thy people. Moreover, 
the entire village of people with whom thou dwellest in one place 
must all share alike in the division of the meat when thou arrivest 
there." 

Thereupon, it is told, he climbed up above and drew 7 down quarters 
of meat that had been dried. It is. said that he piled it very high in 
the lodge before he descended. He then put the meat into her 
burden basket until it was full. Then, it is told, he took up the 
basket, and he shook the basket to pack the meat close. It actually 
did settle so much, it is told, that there was but a small quantuy 
[apparently] in the basket. Now r , he again began to put meat into the 
basket. It was again tilled. And he again shook it to cause it to 
settle, and again it settled until it occupied but a very small space in 
the basket. Thus he used all the meat thrown down, and yet the 
basket was not full. Thrice, it is told, he drew down the quarters of 



ne' o'k c iekanatakwe'ko ,u ne' ska"ne' 

the only just it village whole the 



one in 

(place) 



tisewanak'ere' akwe'ko n( ' 

just there ye dwell all 



sha'te^ia'wenne' e'^hatiia'kho"' ne' oVa'ro"' ne' nen' ie n 'se"sewe'". 

equal it shall happen they (m.) it the it meat the now 



they (m.) it 
will share 



there thou wilt 
arrive."' 



E'tho'ne', ia'ke n \ neii' ia i harat'he n, e'neke"" ta'ha/wa'rani i 'se- 

At that time, it is said, now thither he climbed high (place) he quarters 



4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 
12 

13 



re n 'te' ne' io'wa'rat'he 111 . A'e're" 4 , ia'ke n \ na/otoiiwes'ha'ne' ne' 

of meat the it meat dry (is). Far yonder, it is said, it pile became large the 

got down 

kano ni 'sako n ' 

it lodge in 



ne 

the 



nen' toiita fc hats'ne nt te'. E'tho'ne' nen' ako'the- 

now thence he descended. At that time now he her 



ra'ko* 4 

basket in 



ne 

the 



u 



e 

there 



wa'ha'wa'ra'ta' dji' 

where 



wa'ka'na^ne'. 

it it filled. 



ioiitke'tats'tha' 

one uses it to bear it by there he placed the meat 

the forehead strap ' in (it) 

E'tho'ne' ne' ia'ke n \ wa'tha'thera/'kvve' ta c hno nV 

At that time the, it is said, he it basket took up and 



niio're' 

so it is 
distant 



ws^tha'therakaren < 'ro n ' ia'ha'djio'roke'. 



he basket rocked from 
side to side 



he it caused to settle 
down. 



onta'djio'roke', nakwa" o'sthon"ha' o'k 4 

it itself settled, the very it small is only 



To'ke n ske\ 

It is true, 

te'tkare'. 



tonta'hata"sawe n1 

there again he began 



ne 

the 



there it is 

present 

(is left). 

a'thera'ko"'. 

it basket in. 



Neii' 

Now 



ia'ke 11 ', 

it is said, 

a're' 

again 



Saka'na'ne' 



Again it became 
full 



a're\ 



a re 

again 



nakwa" 

the very 



sa'ha'wa'ra'ta' 

again he it meat 
put into 

E'tho'ne' nen' a're' sa 4 ha'djio'roke' ne' 

once At that time now again again he it caused to the 

more. settle 

o'sthon' 4 ha' o'k* te'tkare'. E" thiia'ha's'a'te' ne' 

it small is only there it re- Thus, until he used it all the 

mams ^is 
left). 

teiona b non"o n '. 'A"se iu , ia'ke"' na'ha'teratste' ta'ha'wa'rani'sere^te'. 

it it filled. Three, it is said, so he repeated it he got down quarters of meat. 



oVa'ro"' 

it meat 



ia" 

not 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



277 



meat, and each time, it is said, did the meat nearly till the lodge. Not 
until then was the basket tilled. So then, when the basket was full, 
it is told, he said: "When thou arrivest there, thou and the inhab- 
itants of the place must assemble in council, and the meat shall be 
equally divided among you. Moreover, thou must tell them that they 
severally must remove the thatched roofs from their lodges when the 
evening darkness comes, and that they must severally go out of them. 
And they must store all the corn [hail] that will fall in the lodges, 
for, indeed, verily, it will rain corn [hail] this very night when thou 
arrivest there. So now thou must bear on thy back by means of the 
forehead strap this basket of dried venison." Thereupon he took up 
the basket for her, and he said: "Thou must carefully adjust the 
burden strap in the proper place, because it will then not be possible for 
thee to move the burden strap to a new place, no matter how tired soever 



Tho'-hj 



;t 



e s. 



ia'ke 11 ', wa'ka'na'ne' ne' dji' nikano n "sa'. On'wa' 



Nearly usually, it is said, 



it it filled 



the where 



so it lodge 
large (is). 



Just now 



wa'ka'na'ne'. Ne' ka'tf ne' neii' ca'ka/na'ne' e'tho'ne', ia'k6"\ 



it it filled. 

WiVhen'ro"' : 

he it said: 

ienak'ere' 

thev dwell 



The so then 

"Ne' 



the 



neii' 



The 



now 



ie nC se"sewe' 

there thou wilt 
arrive 



just it was filled at that time, it is said, 

e"ietchiiatkennis'a"te' ne' 

the 



they you shall assemble in 
council 



ta'hno 11 " e n ietchiiak'hon' 4 ha'se' 

and they it shall divide among 

you 

akwe'ko n \ Ta'hno 11 " 

all. And 



ne 

the 



o'wa"ro ni , 

it meat, 



sha'te n iawen'ne' 

equal so it will 
happen 

e n io n skwa'ron'ko' ne' dji' iakono nw so'to n ' ne' neii' e n tio'kara'hwe' 



e n ietchi'hro'ri' ne' 

will one-vou tell the 



will they remove bark- 
roofs 



the where 



I ^5 

0111 

also 



ne 

the 

ne' 

the 

se" 

in- 
deed 

ne' 

the 



ke n 'i'ke n< 

this it is 



their lodges stand 
severally 

ne' e n ieiakerr'sero n \ 

the they will go out of do< »rs. 



the 



again will it become 
dark 



o'ne n ste' ne' kano n "sako n( 

- it corn) the it lodge in 

hail 

wa"hi' 

verily 



Ne' akwe'ko 114 e n ionteweien'to n ' 

The . all they it will care for 

e n kake'ron'ta'ne', a'se'ke 11 " ne' 

it will pile up, because the 



ne 

the 



o'ne n ste' 

(it corn) 
hail 

ie n 'se"sewe\ 

there thou wilt 
arrive. 

o'skennon'to"' 

it deer 



e n ioken'nore' 

will it rain 



ne'ne 4 dji' wsl'son'tate 1 



the 
thai 



where 



it night (is 
extant 



Nen 

Now 



ka'tf 

so then 



w&'te 'shako' thera''kwe n ' 

he it basket for her took up 

weien'to"' dji' nofi'wi 

with care where place 



ne 

the 



io'wa'rat'he 11 '." 

it meat (is) dry." 

o'ni' wa'hen'ro 11 ' 

also he it said: 



i< v, 'se*sata , therakc*'tat< 1 ' 

thither again thou wilt bear (it) 

basket on thy back by the 

forehead strap 

E'tho'ne' 



urn' 



At that time 



ne n watke'to"hetste', 

it forehead strap will pa^s. 



'Akwa" kasate- 



do thon it do 



•• Very 

a'se'ke 11 " 

because 



ia 

nut 



in- 
deed 



e're 11 ' 

in an- 
other 
place 



thaske'ta"kwi'te' iaweron'ha'tie" to' na'te n shwi'she n "heie' 



thou it it forehead 
st rap shalt mo\e. 



it matters not how so thou wilt die jn thy 

strength become 

wearied 



1 

2 
3 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 

14 



278 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



thou mayest become, until thou indeed arrivest there. Now, at that 
time thou must remove thy burden." So then, when she had com- 
pleted her preparations, she adjusted the burden strap so that it 
passed over her forehead at the fittest point. She then said: i4 Now 
I believe I have completed my preparations, as well as chosen just 
where the burden strap shall pass." Thereupon he released his hands 
from holding up the basket for her, and now, moreover, she started 
on her journey homeward. 

Now, moreover, the basket she carried on her back was not at all 
heavy. But when she had gone perhaps one-half of the way back on her 
journey, the burden began to be heavy in a small measure. Then, as 
she continued her journey, it gradually became heavier. The instant 
she reached the inside of the lodge, the burden strap became detached 
and the basket fell to the ground, and the dried meat fell out of it. 
The meat filled the space within the lodge, for did she not bring much 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



dji' 

where 



nno re 

so it is 
distant 



se" 

indeed 

' Ne' 

The 



wa"hf 

verily 

ka'ti' 

so then 



ie n 'se"sewe'. 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



nen' 

now 



there thou wilt 
arrive. 

ne' dji' nen' wa'eweiennen'ta'ne' 

the where now she task completed 



e n 'se i satke'ta"sf." 

thou wilt take it from 

bearing it on thy back by 

the forehead strap." 

waekwata'ko' dji" non'we' ne n watke'to' c hetste' wa'i'ro 11 ': " Nen', 

the place there it forehead strap she it said: "Now, 



she it adjusted with where 
care 



there it foiehead strap 
will pass 



ki" 

Ibe- 
liev-j, 



wa'keweienneii'ta'ne' dji' 

I it task have completed where 



non'we 4 

the place 



ne n watke'to"hetste'. " 



E'tho'ne' wa'ha 4 'tka'we' 

5 At that time he it let go 



there it forehead strap will 
pass." 

ne' dji' ro'therakara'tato 114 ta'hno 11 " 

the where he it basket held up and 



e'tho'ne' nen' saio n 'ten'ti'. 

at that time now she started home- 
ward. 



Nen' 

Now 

To'ka' 

if 



ta 4 hno n " ia" 

and not 



othe'no 11 ' teiok'ste' 

anything it heavy is 



o n "te' sha'tewa'sen'no 11 ' dji' niio're' 

perhaps just it (is) middle where 



saionta'therake "tate'. 

again she it basket bears on her 
back by the forehead-strap. 

niieiakawe'noii nen' 



so it is 
distant 



just there she had 
gone 



now 



tonta"sawe n ' o'sthon' fc ha' wa'oksten"ne'. Ne' ka'ti' ne' dji' 

there it began it (is) small it heavy became. The so then the where 

niiako'tention'ha'tie' taiokstefi"sere'. Ia'tkaie'rf 

it became heavier It sufficient is 

increasingly. 

ton'tke'totari"si' ta'hno 11 " e'ta'ke' ia c ho n 'the- 

and down, on there it 



just so she traveled along 

ionsaiera'ta'ne' nen' 



kano nC 'sako n ' 

it lodge in 



there again she now 

stood 

raien'ta'ne' ta'hno 11 " 

basket fell and 



it forehead-strap 
became unfastened 



down, on 
the ground 

onweron'ta'ne' ne' io'wa'rat'he 114 . 

it spilled the it meat dry (is). 



wa'ra'na'ne' ne' dji' niionak'ta' ne' kano n4 'sako n \ 



with meat 



the where 



so its room 
large (is) 



the 



it lodge in. 



Wa'ka'- 

It it rilled 

E'so' se" 

Much indeed 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



279 



meat on her back? For thrice, is it not true, he had pulled down 
meat in his lodge when he was putting- the meat into her basket at the 
time when he was making- up her burden ? It was then that she told 
them that the}" must remove the thatched roofs from their lodges 
when it became evening. 

Then she said: "He has sent you some meat. Now then, rny kins- 
folk, take up this meat lying in the lodge." Then at that time her 
people took up the dried meat, and so they all carried it away. She 
then said: "Ye must remove the thatched roofs from the lodges that 
severally belong to you the first time ye go to sleep, because my 
spouse has sent word that he will give you some white corn [white 
grains] during the time that ye will again be asleep. It will rain 
white grains while ye again are asleep." So, when it became dark, 



wa"hf 

verily 



ne' djiako'wa'rake 4 'te', a'se'ke 114 ' 'a"se n ' se" wa' 4 hf 

the she meat bore on her back because three indeed verily 

by the forehead-strap, 



na'hakar'hate'nf ne' 

so many he turned the 
(or threw) it down 

ako'thera'ko 114 ne' 

her basket in the 



"sako n< 



his lodge in 



ne 

the 



nen' 

now 



nen' 

now 



sashako'rie'non'nie 11 '. 

he it her burden made for. 



ca'ha'wa'ra'ta' 

since he meat placed 
in it 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



neii' 

now 



wa'ont'hro'rf 

she it told 



ne 

the 



no n "so'to n ' 

lodges stand 
plurally 

E'tho'ne' 



ne 

the 



neii' 

now 



e n io n4 skwa 4 hron'ko' 

they will (must) take off 
the bark-roof plurally 

e n io'kara 4 sne' 'ha w . 



ne 

the 



it will become some- 
what dark. 



At that 
time 



ne 

the 



wa'i'ro"': ' E'tchisewa'waranonte nt, ha'tie'. 

" He meat you has sent along to. 

ke n 'i'ke n; 



she it said : 

kwano nC kwe'o'ko n ' 



dji' 

where 



Nen' 

Now 



ne 

the 

ka'tf 

so then 

iako- 

their 



ka'tf 

so then 



ye my kindred 
severally 

kano lU 'sako n '." Ta', 

it lodge in." So, 



te'sne'kwe' 

do ye it take up 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 



neii' 

now 



ka'wa'rake"hro n ' 

this it (is) it meat lying in a 

pile 

ne' akaonkwe'ta' 

the her kindred 



nen' 



now 



wa'tie ; kwe' ne' io'wa'rat'he 11 '. 

they it took up the it meat dry (is) . 



ia'e"hawe', e'tho'ne' 

thither they at that 

it bore away, time 

dji' sewano n 'so'to n ' 

where your houses stand 
one by one 

a'se'ke 11 " rawen'ha'tie' 

because he it said along, 

sent word 

sewane Il 'stanon'te'. 

will give. 

e n tcisewenta'seke\ " 

again ye will sleep." 



nen' 



ne 

the 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



ne 

the 



nen' 

now 



akwe'ko 11 ' 

all (it is) 



wairo"': u E n tcia c skwa 4 hroii'ko' ne' 

she it said: " Ye will remove it bark- the 

roof plurally 

e n twatie're n 'te' nen' e n sewen'ta'we', 

it will be the first now ye will sleep, 



ne 

the 



teiakeni'tero 111 one nC staken'ra' 

it corn white 



one I with whom 
abide 



One^staken'ra 4 

It corn white 



e n ioken'nore' dji' 

it will rain where 



e n ietchi- 

he you corn 

na"he' 

it lasts 
(so long) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



280 TEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [Era. ann. 21 

it showered corn [hail] during the entire night, and so 1^ this means 
they had much grain [hail] when day dawned. 

Then, in truth, they removed the roofs from their several lodges, 
and they retired to sleep. So, when they awakened, in truth, then 
there was very much corn [hail] lying in the lodges. The white corn 
[grain] lay above one's knees in depth. Thus lay the white corn, for 
so long as they slept it showered white corn [grain]. The reason 
that he gave her people corn was because he had espoused one of 
their people. 

After a suitable time she started back, going to the lodge of her 
spouse. Verily she again made the journey in the same time that it 
took her the first time she went thither. So then, when she arrived 
there, she of course at that time related to him all that had happened 

Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' taiokara'*hwe' waoken'nore' o'ne ni ste' 

-*■ The so then the now then it became it rained it corn 

dark (hail) 

a'sontakwe'ko 11 '. E" ka'tf nontontie'ra'te' wa'rotine^staka'te^'ne' 

^ it night entire. There so then it did it by this their corn (hail)became 

i means abundant for them 

ne' nen' ca'oVhe 11 '. 

the now it (became) 

morning. 

To'ke n ske' ka'tf wa'on'skwa'hron'ko' neii' e'tho'ne' wa'ho- 

1 It is true so then they removed bark- now at that they 

roof plurally time 

ti'ta'we'. Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' shonsa'hatl'ie' to'ke n ske' ka'tf 

& fell asleep. The so the now again they awoke it is true so then 

then 

iawe'towa'ne 11 ' kano nw 'sako 114 ka'ie"'. E'neke 11 ' na'akok wits' 'hati 4 

O it is a quantity it lodge in it lay. Above so one's knee side of 

great 

e", ni'tio' ne' one nC staken'ra' a'se'ke ni/ dji' na/'he' roti'ta's 

there so it is the it corn white because where it lasts (so they slept 

deep long) 

e" na/'he' one n 'staken'ra 4 iokeii'noro nt . Ne' tiiori"hwa' wa'sha- 

there it lasted it corn white it has rained. The it is reason he it them 



7 

8 

9 

10 



ka/o 11 ' ne' o'ne n 'ste' ne' akaonkwe'ta' ne' dji' rotinia'ko' 1 ' 

gave to the it corn the her kindred the where they (are) 

(hail) .married 

ne' raonnonkwe'ta', ta'hno 11 " ne"tho' ni'hatiri'ho'te 11 '. 

the his kindred, and such so their custom was. 



Akwa" e'tho' dji' na"he' neii' saio n 'ten'tf , e s/ saie n "te' 

11 Very enough where it lasts now (again she started) there again she 

she went home went 

ne' dji' thono n "sote' ne' ro'ne'. E" ki" a're' na'me' tonsaj.- 

12 the where there his lodge the he her There, I again it lasts again she 

stands spouse. believe, up 

ontha' fc ha'kwe' dji' ni'io't ne' tiiotiere lU 'to Ilw e" ca'e n4 'te\ Ne' 

lo her journey took where so it the so it was first there where she The 

stands went. 

ka'tf ne' nen' ciionsa'ioiiwe'. Ta', e'tho'ne' wa/'hf nen 



~/ 



14 
15 



so then the now there again she So, at that verily now 

arrived. time 

sa'honwa'hro'rf akwe'ko 11 ' dji' na , awe n "sero n1 ne' dji' saie- 

again she him told it all where it happened serially the where again 



hewitt] MOHAWK VEESION 281 

to her during her journey to and from home. Of course they two 
now abode together, for the reason, of course, that they two were 
espoused. 

After a time he then said: " 1 am ill." So then, his people marveled 
at what he said, for the reason that they did not know what it was for 
one to be ill. So, therefore, at the time when they comprehended 
what had occurred in regard to him, they, of course, individually, 
as was customary, studied the matter, and informed the man who was 
ill what to do. It would seem, one would imagine, that his illness 
did not abate thereby, even though many different persons made the 
attempt, and his recovery was yet an unaccomplished task. So thus 
it stood ; they continued to seek to divine his Word. Then, there- 
fore, when they failed to cure his illness, they questioned him, saying: 
"How, then, perhaps, may we do that thou mayest recover from thy 



kwafc'ho'. Ta', nen' ne"tho' ni'io't wa'mi' ska"ne' nitero"', 

she it visited. So, now thus so it verily together they two 

stands (at one) abode, 

ro'ne' se v wa"hi\ 

his spouse in- verily, 

(she is) deed 

A'kare' neii' wa'hen'ro"': " Wakeno"'hwak'tani\" Ta', e'tho'ne' 

After a now he it said: "I am ill." So, at that 

time time 

neiT ne' raonkwe'ta' wa'hotine'hra'ko' ne' dji' na'ho'te"' 

now the his people they marveled the where such kind -1 

of thing 

ra'to" 1 , a'se'ke"" ia" te'hatiiente'ri' o" ne' na'ho'te"' ne' 

he it said, because not they it knew what the such kind of the 

thing (itis) 

aiakone"4iwak'te"'. Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' nen' wa'hoti'niko n; hraien'- 

one should be ill. The so then the where now thev it understood 



ta'ne' dji' niioteri'hwatie're"' ne' rao"'ha'ke'. Nen' wa"hf 

where so it matter was done the he himself at Now verily 

(himself to) . 

shatiiatats'ho"' dji' e"'s ni'io't dji' te"'haia'to're'te' wa'ho'hro'rf 

they every person where custom- so it (is) where he it will judge of he him told 

one by one arily 

e n 's ne' rono"mwak'tani' ne' dji' na'ha'iere 1 . la" ho""te'-ke n " 

cus- the he is ill the where so he it should Not perhaps-is it 

tomarily do. 

ta'ho^)sa , hflie , wen'ta'ne , , wa'thontteniofi'ko' ia" ki" tewaa'to"'s 

again he recovered his health, they took turns plurally not, I it it is able lU 

believe, to do 

aonsa'haieVen'ta'ne'. Ta', e" ni'io't hote""niote' e'tho' honwa- _. . 

should again he recover his So, thus so it (is) he it feast holds there they 

health. 

wenni"'saks. Ne' ka'tf a'kare' ne' dji' nen' wa'honna'ta'ko' 

sought to -divine his The so then after a the where now they it failed to do 

Word continually. time 

ne' aonsa'honwatcon'to 11 ' e'tho'iie' nen' wa'honwari c hwanon'to ,,, sc*. 



12 
13 



i 

the again they his health at that now they him asked questions, 

restore time 

wa'honni'ro"': "0" ka'tf o n "te' naiakwa'iere' ne' aonsa'sie'- 

theyitsaid: "What so then may it so we it should the again thou 14 

be do shouldst 



282 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



fETH. ANN. 21 



illness?' Then he answered them, saying: "1 am thinking that, per- 
haps, I should recover from my illness if ye would uproot the tree 
standing- in my dooryard [on my shade], and if there beside the place 
from which ye uproot the tree I should lay myself in a position 
recumbent." 

So thereupon his people uprooted the tree that stood in his door- 
yard. This tree belonged to the species wild cherry [dogwood; in Tus- 
carora, Nakwenne n 'ienthuc], and was constantly adorned with blossoms 
that gave light to the people dwelling there; for these flowers were 
white, and it was because of this that the blossoms gave light, and, 
therefore, they were the light orb [sun] of the people dwelling there. 

So when they had uprooted the tree, he said to his spouse: "Do 
thou spread for me something there beside the place where stood the 
tree." Thereupon she, in fact, spread something for him there, and 



wen'ta'ne'?" 



recover thy 
health?" 

heii'ro 11 ' : 

it said: 

tota'ko' 

uproot 



Ta', 

So, 



e'tho'ne', 

at that time. 



ia'ke 



n* 



thota'ti' 

he replied 



" I'ke're' o uC 'te 4 

"I it think 



it is said, 

aonsakie'wen'ta'ne' 



ne 

the 



it may I would recover my 

be health 

akwateiino'sera'ke 4 i'ke 114 



ne 

the 

to'ka' 

if 



o'nF 

also 



wa 

he 



my yard in 



it is 



keVhite', 

it tree stands, 



aesewaron- 

you it tree 
should 

ta'hno 11 " e" 

and there 



ie^katia'tioii'nite' ak'ta' dji' non'we f ne n sewarontota'ko\" 

where the place ye it tree will uproot." 



there I my body supine 
will lay 



near 
beside it 



Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' 



So, 



at that 
time 



the 



raonkwe'ta' 

his people 



wa 4 hatirontota'ko' 

they it tree uprooted 



xn? 



8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 



ne' dji' raotenno'sera'ke', o'ra'to nia na'karonto'te 

the where his yard in, it wild such it kind of 

cherry tree (is) 

tiio'tko"' iotci'tcoiite' ne', ia'ke 11 ', teio'swathe'ta"ko ll< 

always, 
continuously 

e" 

there 



ne' keVhite' 

the it tree 

stands 

ne' keVhite' 

the 



it tree 
stands 



the, it is said, 



it bears flower 
as part of itself 

ratinak'ere'; a'se'ke 11 " 

they r dwell; because 



it causes it to be light 
thereby 

kenra'ke" ' 



ne 

the 



it white (is) 



nikatcitco'te 11 ' 

such it flower 
kind of (is) 

xni 



aori"hwa' teio'swat'he' ne' aotci'tca' ne' dji' kenra'ke 11 

its cause it (is) light the its flowers the where it (is) white 



dji' 

where 

ne' 

the 

ni'io't. 

so it (is), 
stands. 



Ne' 

The 



na 

that 
it is 



raotira"kwa' ne' e" 

their it sun (is) the there 



non'we 4 

place 



ni'hatinak'ere'. 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



ne' ro'ne': 



the 



ne 

the 
'There 



nen' 



ci c hotirontota'kwe ni 

they had uprooted the tree 



just there they 
dwell. 

wa'shakawe 11 ' 'ha'se' 

he her it said to 



his 
spouse: 

kwe'." E'tho'ne' 

stood." At that time 



dji' keV'hlta'- 

where it tree 



ia'takitskar"ha'se' ak'ta' ne' 

thither do thou me near be- the 

spread a mat for side it 

to'ke n ske' e" ia^honwe n tskar''ha'se', ta'hno 11 " 

it is true there there she spread a mat for him, and 



a Several different kinds of trees and plants are named by various narrators as the tree or pl«ut thus 
uprooted. Here the narrator intended the dogwood, although he gave the name for wild cherry. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



283 



he then lay down on what she had spread for him. And so, when 
he la} T there, he said to his spouse: "Here sit thou, beside my body." 
Now at that time she did sit beside his body as he lay there. He then 
said to her: "Do thou hang tlry legs down into the abyss." For 
where they had uprooted the tree there came to be a deep hole, which 
extended through to the nether world, and the earth was upturned 
about it. 

That, then, it is true, came to pass, that while he lay there his 
suffering was mitigated. Ail his people were assembled there, and 
moreover, the} r had their eyes fixed on him as he lay there ill, mar- 
veling at this thing that had befallen him himself; for the people 
dwelling here did not know what it is to be ill. So then, when he 
had, seemingly, recovered from his illness, he turned himself over, 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 

Ne' ka'tf 

The so then 



there 



i a' ha' rate' 

there he lay 
down 



dji' 

where 



non'we' 

the place 



wa i honwe n tskar"ha i se'. 

she him mat spread for. 



wa"hf ne' dji' 

verily the where 



neii' 



; ha/se' 



ne 

the 



to'ke n ske' 

it is true 

raia'tioii'nf 

his body was 
extended. 

a'se'ke 114 ' 

because 



ro'ne': 

his 
spouse: 

e" 

there 

Nen' 

Now 



"Ke n " 

" Here 

wa'on'tie' 1 ' 

she set herself 

wa'hen'ro 11 ' 

he it said: 



e" raia'tioii'nf 

there his body was 
extended 

sa'tie n < kia'tak'ta'." 



now 



wa'shakawe 11 '- 

he her it said to 



do thou beside my 

sit body." 

ne' dji' raia'tak'ta' 

the where his body 

beside" 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



ne 

the 



nen' 

now 



dji' 

where 



u Ia'tesatchi'no n<, te' o'shoii'wako 11 ',' 

it hole in," 



tens 

thick 



ne 

the 



"Thither do thou hang 
thy legs 

io'shoiiwe"o ni , ioto n 'hwendjiate'tha'ro ni ne' 

it became a hole, it tore up the earth the 

e 4 ' tiio n 'hwendjia'te'. 



there 



thither it earth stands 
forth. 



Ne' ka'tf wa' 4 hf 

The so then verily 



ne 

the 



dji' 

Avhere 



nen 

now 



e" 

there 



tok'te 11 ' 

diminished 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



ni'horo^hia'ke 114 . 

so he is suffering. 



raia'tion'nf 

his body was 
extended 

Akwe'ko 11 ' ne' 

It all the 



if 



e" iakotkenni"so n ' 

there they are assembled 

dji' rono n 'hwak'tanf 

where he is ill 



ne 

the 



onr 



te'honwakan'ere' ne' 



also they watched him 

rotiri'hwane 4 hrako"o IU 

they marveled at the matter 



the 



dji' nika'- 

where so it is 



nen' ton- 

now thence it 

raonkwe'ta' 

his people 

dji' ni'io't 

where so it is 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



niioteri- 

such it 
matter 



'hwatie're 11 ' ne' rao n 'ha'ke', a'se'ke n " 



had taken the himself to, 

place 

e'tho 4 thatinak'ere' o" 

there there they dwell 



what 
it is 



ne 

the 



because 

na'ho'te 11 ' 



ia" 

not 



ne 

the 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



neii' 



now 



a nio 



such kind 
of thing 

" sa'hriie'wen'ta'ne' 



te'hatiiente'ri 4 ne' 

they knew it the 

fiiakono u6 hwak'te n '. 

one should become ill. 



again he recovered 
his health 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



seem- 
ingly 

rono"*hwak'tani\ e'tho'ne' neii' wti'hatkar'hat'ho 1 ta'hno 11 " wa 

he is ill. At that time now he turned over and he 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15 



284 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[KTH. ANN. 21 



turning upon his side, and then, resting himself on his elbows, he at 
the same time looked into the hole. After a while he said: "Do thou 
look thither into the hole to see what things are occurring there in 
yonder place." He said this to his spouse. Thereupon she bent 
forward her body into the hole and looked therein. Whereupon he 
placed his fingers against the nape of her neck and pushed her, and 
she fell into the hole. Then he arose to a standing posture, and said 
to his people: "Now do ye replace the tree that } T e have uprooted. 
Here, verily, it lies." The}^ immediately reset the tree, so that it 
stood just as it did before the time they uprooted it. 

But as to this woman-being, she of course fell into the hole, and kept 
falling in the darkness thereof. After a while she passed through it. 
Now when she had passed through the thickness thereof to the other 



'hatia/tokonron'tate' ta'hno 11 " e'tho'ne' nen' wa'thathio'sotoii'nio 11 ' 

1 turned his body on its side and at that now he rested on his elbows 

time 

e ; ' ia'te'hakan'ere' ne' o'shoii'wako 11 '. A'kare' nen' wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

2 there thither he looked the it hole in. After a now he it said: 

' time 

"la'satkatW 

3 " Thither do thou the it hole in, 







ne' o'shon'wako"', o" na'ho'te 11 ' nitiotie're", 



Thither do thou 
look 



far 

yonder.' 



ia'tiontsa'kete' 

thither she bent 
forward 

ienia'ka' route' 



what 

is it 



such kind of there so it is 

thing doing 

ne' i'siV Ne' wa'shakon"ha'se 1 ne' ro'ne'. E'tho'ne' nen' 

: the far The he said to her the his At that now 

spouse. time 

oSshoii'wako 11 e" ia'teiekan'ere'. E'tho'ne' dji' 



it hole in 



there 



her nape of the 
neck (is) 



e" 

there 



thither she was 
looking. 

ia , the^misno n4 sa're n ' no'k' 

and 



At that 
time 



where 



there he placed his 
fingers 

ta'hno 11 *' o'shoii'wako 11 ' ia'eia"te n ' 

and it hole in 



ia* shako 'reke' 

thither he her 
pushed 

E'tho'ne' nen' sa'hatkets'ko' 

now again he arose 



At that 
time 



thither her 
body fell. 

ta 4 hno n " wa\shakawe n ''ha"se' ne' raoiikw 7 e'ta' : " Nen' saswaroii- 

and he said to them the his people: "Now again do ve 

set 

Re 11 " wa"hr ka'ie"'." E'tho'ne' 

Here verily it lies." At that 

time 



to'te 11 ' ne' 

9 up (the) the 



tree 



sewarontota'kwe 11 ", 

ye tree have uprooted 



nen' sa'hatironto'te 11 '. AkwiV o'k* he" ni'tcio't ne' dji' niio'- 

10 now again they it tree Verily just thus so it again the where so it 

setup. (is) 

ton'ne' are'kho' ei"hotirontota'kwe n \ 

11 was before they it tree had 

uprooted . 

Ne' wa"hi' ke n 'i'ke n " iakon'kwe' nen' wa"hr na" 

12 The verily tins it is she a man- now verily that 

being one 

te n "ne' o'shon'wako" 4 tiio'kara's wa'eia'ton'tie'. A'kare' nen' ia'tion- 

18 body fell it hole in there it is thither her body After a now thither 

dark floated. time she 

to"hetste' nen' wa'*hi' iaVia'ke n 'ne' ne' dji' nika't6ns ne' e" 

i.jisscd now verily thither she the where so it is trie there 



ne 

the 
that 



ia eia - 

thither 
her 



|»iisscd 
out of it 



thither she 
'■merged 



so it is 
thick 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



285 



world, she of course looked about her in all directions, and saw on all 
sides of her that everything was blue in color; that there was nothing 
else for her to see. She knew nothing of what would, perhaps, happen 
to her. for she did not cease from falling. But after a time she 
looked and saw something; but she knew nothing of the thing she 
saw. But. verily, she now indeed was looking on a great expanse of 
water, albeit she herself did not know what it was. 

So this is what she saw: On the surface of the water, floating 
about hither and thither, like veritable canoes, were all forms and 
kinds of ducks (w^aterfowl). Thereupon Loon noticed her, and he 
suddenly shouted, saying: "A man-being, a female one is coming 
up from the depths of the water." Then Bittern spoke in turn, 
saying: '"She is not indeed coming up out of the depths of the 
water." He said: ** She is indeed falling from above." Whereupon 



tiio n 'hwendjia'te'. Nen' wa"hi' watiofitka"thonnion"hwe , ta 4 hno uV 

Now verily she did look about in all and 



there it earth stands 
forth. 

waVke 11 ' 

She it saw 



a otne no o la 

Not anything other 



she did look about in all 
directions 

thfftetcio 4 kwata'se 4 ne' o'k 4 ne' oron' 4 !^ ni'io't. 

the only the it blue sky so it (is), 

stands. 

la" othe'no"- teiakoterien'- 

No1 anything she knows it 



/k- 
onlv 



just it it surrounds com- 
pletely 

thaiontkat' 4 ho'. 

she it could see. 



tare* o" ki" o'k 4 



only 



o n "te' 

perhaps 



what, I be- 
lieve, 

tkontfr'kwe' 1 * ieia'ton'tie'. 

continues her body is 

falling. 

ki", o'k' nitiotie're 114 . 

only so it is done (it 
state of things is). 

ho'te" ia'oiitkat'ho'. 

thither she it saw. 



ne n iakoia'ta'wenne', a'se'ke 11 " o'k 4 tiio- 

because only it 



I be- 
lieve 



so it her body will 
happen to, 

No'k 4 a'kare' nen' ia'oiitkat'ho' o 4 ' 

And after a now thithershe looked what 

time (to see) it is, 

la" othe'no"' teiakoterien'tare" dji' na 4 - 

Not anything she it knows where such 



kind of 
thing 

ia'teiekan'ere' no'k 4 ki" 



No'k" nen' se" wa"hi' 

And now indeed verily 



ne 

the thither she it saw 

na'ho'te"'. 



and 



believe 



ne 

the 



akao n "ha' 

she herself 



ka'hnekowa'ne" 4 

it great (water) 
liquid 

ia 4 ' teieiente'ri 4 

not she knows it 



ne 

the 



such kind of 
thing. 

Ne' ka'tf ne' 

The so then the 



ka'sora'tscra'ke'. 

kind of duck in number. 
wa'tlioiiefi're'te*. 

he shouted. 

No'k* e'tho'ne' 

And 



oiineka'ke 4 

it water on 



ioti 4 honwa , keronnionne , 'se' niia'te- 

all it 



they boats drift about plurally 
from place to place 

E'tho'ne' ne' Tconniataren'to?' ne' wa'hat'toke' 

the Loon the he it noticed 



At thai 
time 

waiien'ro' 1 ' 

he it said : 



44 0fi'kwe 4 ta'iS"' kanon'wako 114 ." 



at that 
time 



"A man- 
being 

Te'ka"ho n ' ta'hata'tf, 

Bittern he replied, 



kanon'wako n< 

it water in the 
depths of 



thonta'ie 11 '." Wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

thence does she He it said : 

conic." 



she is 
coming 

waiien'ro' 

he it said : 

"E'neke"' 

"Above 



it water in the 
depths of." 

: 44 Ia 4 ' se" 

"Not in- 

deed 

se" taieia'- 

indeed thence her 
body 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
U 



286 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

they held a council to decide what they should do to provide for 
her welfare. They finally decided to invite the Great Turtle to come. 
Loon thereupon said to him: "Thou shouldst float thy body above the 
place where thou art in the depths of the water." In the first place, 
the} 7 sent a large number of ducks of various kinds. These flew and 
elevated themselves in a very compact bod} 7 and went up to meet her 
on high. And on their backs, thereupon did her body alight. Then 
slowly they descended, bearing her body on their backs. 

Great Turtle had satisfactorily caused his carapace to float. There 
upon his back they placed her. Then Loon said: " Come, ye who are 
deep divers, which one of you is able to dive so as to fetch up earth?" 
Thereupon one by one they severally dived into the water. It was at 



ton'tie'." E'tho'ne' neii' wa 4 hatitcie n 'ha'ie n ' ne' dji' na'hati'iere' 

1 is drifting." At that now they held a council the where so they should 

time do it 

ne' dji' a'shakonateweien'to 11 '. Ia'thotirimwaien'ta'se' ne' 

2 the where they her should prepare for. There they decided for them- the 

selves 

Rania c te n 'ko'wa c ia 4 honwaro n 'ie n "hare', e'tho'ne' ka'ti' ne' 

O he Great Turtle thence they invited him, at that so then the 

time 

Tconniataren'to 11 ' nen' wa'hen'ro 11 ': "A'satia'takera''kwe' ne' dji' 

4 Loon now he it said: " Thou thy body shouldst the where 

cause to float 

ke n " si'tero"' kanon'wako 11 '." No'k' tiiotiere nt 'to n< ia'shakoton'- 

5 here thou art, it water And it is the first thither they them 

(sittest) depths of." thing 

nie'te' iotitio'kowa'ne 11 ' ne' sora'hokon"a'. Wa'tkonti'te 11 ' tii'hno 11 " 

O sent they are a large body the ducks plurally. They flew and 

wa'konthara'tate' ta'hno 11 " ionathwe'noiini'ha'tie' ta'hno nV ia'tia- 

7 they themselves caused and they themselves caused and thither 

i to ascend to be in a close body 

konate'ra'te' e'neke 11 '. E" taieia'ta/ra'ne' ne' konti'shon'ne'. 

o they her went above. There her body alighted the their backs on. 

to meet 

E'tho'ne' neii' skennon"a 4 tontakontsne n "te' iakotiia'te n "hawf, 

9 At that now slowly thence they descended they her body bore, 

time 

konti'shoii'ne' ieia'tara'tie'. 

their backs on her body rested 

coming. 

Ia'tkaie'ri' ne' Rania"te n kowa ; neii' roti'nowa'kera"ko n '. E'tho' 

11 Very correctly the he Great Turtle now he his carapace causes There 

to float. 

ra'nowa'ke 4 e" ia'akoti'tero 11 '. E'tho'ne' ne' Tconniataren'to 11 ' 

12 his carapace on there there they her At that the Loon 

set down. time 

wa'hen'ro 11 ': "Hau", ne' sewa'thonrio'kats'te's o n "ka' rokwe'nio 11 ' 

1" he it said : "Come, the ye stout-breathed ones who he is able to 

(is it) do it 

ne' e ni ha 4 thon'ro' e n4 ro nC hwendjiako"ha'?" Ta', e'tho'ne' 

14 the he will dive he earth will go to bring?" So, at that 

(into the water) time 

skat'sho 11 ' tonte'ra'te' wa'ho nt thonron'nio n '. E'tho'ne' Djienni'to' 

15 one by one thence it it did they dove into the water At that Beaver 

thereby one by one. time 



10 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



287 



this time that Beaver made the attempt and dived. The time was long 
and there was only silence. It was a long time before his back 
reappeared. He came up dead, his breathing having failed him. 
Thereupon they examined his paws, but he had brought up no earth. 
Then Otter said: "Well, let it be my turn now; let me make another 
attempt." Whereupon he dived. A longer time elapsed before he 
came to the surface. He also came up dead in his turn. They then 
examined his paws also. Neither did he, it is said, bring up any 
earth. It was then that Muskrat said: " 1 also will make the desperate 
attempt." So then he dove into the water. It was a still longer 
time that he, in turn, was under water. Then, after a while, he 
floated to the surface, coming up dead, having lost his breath. There- 
upon, again, they examined the inside of his paws also. They found 
mud. He brought up his paws and his mouth full of mud. 



wa/hate'nien'te 11 ' wa^ha'thon'ro'. Kan'^hwese' o'k' tha'teioten'toiini'. 



he it attempt made 

Wa'karf 'hwese' 

It was a long matter 

thonriok'te n '. 

breath gave out. 



he dived into the 
water. 



It was a long 
matter 



only 



it is very still. 



now 



neii' saio'nowa/'kera'kwe' rao Ili heio n 'ha'tie' wa'ha- 

he came up dead his 

ra'sno n 'so'ko nC ia" 

his hand in not 



again its back came to the 
surface 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 



wa'honne"sake' 

they it searched for 



Tawi'ne' 

Otter 



wa 4 heii'ro n ': 

he it said : 



i" 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 

noii'wa' skate'nieii'to 11 ' ' E'tho'ne' nen' wa'ha'thon'ro'. 

this time again I trv it." At that now 



ka' neka' tesro 11 ' h wend j ie n 'ha' wi 

anywhere (again) he earth brought. 

"To', 

"Well, 

Se n "ha' 

More 

o n4 ha'tie' o'ni' na" 

up dead also 



(the) 
that 

sake' ra'sno n 's6'ko nC . 

for his hand in. 

E'tho'ne' Ano'kie 114 

At that Muskrat 

time 

ka'ti' 

so then 



again I try it." At that 

let me try it time 

na'karf'hwese' nen' sa/hatia'ta'kera'kwe', 

so it (is) a long now again he his body floated, 

matter 

ne". E'tho'ne' o'ni' na" ne" 

that At that also (the) that 



At that 
one time 

LV ki" o" 

Not, I too 

think, 

wa'heii'ro 11 ': 

he it said : 



(the) 
that 



he dived into the 
water. 

rawe nC hei- 

he came 

wa'honne"- 

they it sought 



na' 

(the) 
that 
a tv 

"I 



ne" tesro Iu hwendjie n4 ha'wi'. 

that he earth brought back. 

o'ni' e n waka'ta'ko'." Nen' 

also I will attempt the Now 



wa'ha'thon'ro'. Se n ' ; ha' 

he dived into the More 

water. 



na 

that 



ne 

the 
that 



I will attempt the 
hopeless." 

if 



wa'kari"hwese' 

it matter was a long 



ro 4 thonro"ho n '. No'k' a'kare' 

And 



nen' 



he has dived in the 
water. 



io n 'ha'tie' 

up dead 



o ni 

also 



na 

that 
one 

a're' wa'honne c 'sake' 

again they it sought for 



after a 
time 

ne". 

the 
that. 



sa'hatia'ta'kera'kwe' rawe lU he- 

his body again floated he came 



Wa'hathofirio'kte 11 '. 

His breath gave out. 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 



nen' 



ra'sno^so'ko"'; wa'hatitsen'ri' onawa'tsta' 

his hand in ; they it found it mud 



ra'tca'ne n "hawe', no'k' o'ni' ronhoskwa'n'honte' ne' 



he it handful brought, and 



also 



he it mouthful had 



the 



onawa'tsta*. 

it mud. 



1 

2 
3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



288 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [Era. ann. 21 

It was then that they made use of this mud. They coated the edge 
of the carapace of the Great Turtle with the mud. Now it was that 
other muskrats, in their turns, dived into the water to fetch mud. They 
floated to the surface dead. In this way they worked until they 
had made a circuit of the carapace of the Great Turtle, placing mud 
thereon, until the two portions of the work came together. There- 
upon Loon said: " Now there is enough. Now it will suffice." 
Thereupon the muskrats ceased from diving to fetch up mud. 

Now. verily, this man-being sat on the carapace of the Great Turtle. 
After the lapse of sufficient time, she went to sleep. After a while 
she awoke. Now then, the carapace of the - Great Turtle was covered 
with mud. Then, moreover, the earth whereon she sat had become 
enlarged in size. At that time she looked and saw that willows had 
grown up to bushes along the edge of the water. Then also, when 



E'tho'ne' neii' ne" wa'honts'te' thi'ke n< onawats'ta'. Wa'ha- 

At that time now the thev it used this it is it mud. Thev 

that 

tinawatsta t r /c ho' ka'nowakta/tie' ne' Rania'te n ''kowa\ Nen' e n 's 

mud placed (smeared) it it carapace along • the he Great Turtle. Now cus- 

over it edge of tomarily 

o'ia' o'k' ne' Ano'kie 11 * sa'ha'thon'ro' wa'hanawatstako"ha'. 

other only the Muskrat again he dove he mud went to bring. 

into the water 

4. Sa'hatia'ta'kera'kwe' e n 's rawe n 'heio n; ha'tie\ E" thi'hatl'iere' 

Again his body would float custom- he came up dead. There so they it did 

arily 

5 dji' niio're' wa'thonte'nowata'se' ne' Rania'te n "kowa' wiVha- 

where so it is they it carapace made the he Great Turtle they 

distant a circuit of 

q tinawatstaVho', ia'tonsakiate'ra'ne'. E'tho'ne' ne' Tcoiiniatareii'to 11 ' 

it mud daubed there again they two At that time the Loon 

joined. 

7 neii' wa'hen'ro 11 ': ct Nen' e'tho*. Neii' e n kakwe'ni'." Neii' o'm' 

now he it said: 'Now enough. Now it will be able Now also 

to do it." 

g ne' ano'kie n 'hokon"a t wa'hoii c 'tka'we' ne' dji' ron'thonron'nio ni s 

the muskrats plurally they stopped work the where they dove into the water 

plural ly 

o ratinawa'tstako^he's. 

they mud went to bring up. 



10 



Nen' wa"hi' ke n 'i'ke ni iakon'kwe' e" ietskwa"here' Rania'- 

Now verily this it is she man-being there she sat he 

(is) 

1 < te n 'kowfr ra'nowa'ke'. Akwa" he"tho' dji' na'karr"hwese' 

Great Turtle li is carapace on. Very enough where so it was a long 

matter 

*o nen' ka'tr wa'ako'ta'we'. No'k' a'kare' neii' saie'ie'. Nen' 

now so then she fell asleep. And after a now again she Now 

time awoke. 

j^ ka'ti' o lU hwefi'djiff ioteVho'ro lU ne' ka'nowa'ke' ne' Rania 4 - 

Bothen it earth it covered itself the it carapace on the He 

14 te n4 'kowa', neii' ta'hno 11 " iote'hia'ro"' dji' niwato nC hwen'djia' ne' 

Great Turtle, now and it has grown where so it earth (is) large the 

-j~ dji' ie'tero"'. E'tho'ne' nen' wa'ontka/tho' o'se' iotkwiron'ni* 

where she sits. At that time now she it looked at willow it shrubs grew to 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



289 



she again awoke, the carcass of a deer, recently killed, lay there, and 
now besides this, a small fire burned there, and besides this, a sharp 
stone lay there. Now, of course, she dressed and quartered the 
carcass of the deer and roasted some pieces thereof, and she ate her 
fill. So, when she had finished her repast, she again looked about 
her. Now, assuredly, the earth had increased much in size', for the 
earth grew very rapidly. She, moreover, saw another thing; she saw 
growing shrubs of the rose-willow along the edge of the water. 

Moreover, not long after, she saw a small rivulet take up its course. 
Thus, then, things came to pass in their turn. Rapidly was the earth 
increasing in size. She then looked and saw all species of herbs and 
grasses spring from the earth, and also saw that they began to grow 
toward maturity. 



dji' tewatca'kta'tie'. Nen' ta'hno 11 " ne' shonsaie'ie' o'skennonto 11 " 

where it water at Now and the again she awoke it deer 

the edge of. 

e" kaia'tion'nf 



there 



its body lay 
extended 



a se 

new 



kar'io', 

one it has 
killed. 



neii' 



ta'hno 11 " 



now 



and 



there 



iotek'ha' 

it burns 



nikadjie n< "ha"a c , nen' ta'hno 11 " e' 



so it fire (is) small, 

Neii' wa"hf 



now 



and 



there 



ka'ie 11 ' 

it lies 



io'hio'thi'ie'. 



Now 


verily 


wa' 'Tif 


Olll 


verily 


also 



onen ia 

it stone it is sharp-edged. 

o'skennoiito 11 ". Nen' 

it deer. Now 

wa'tiontska"ho n V 



wa'tkonwaia'tari"te' ne' 

she its body (broke) the 

quartered 

wa'oiite'skoiiton'nio n \ Neii' o'ni 

she roasted for herself Now also she ate. 

several (pieces). 

Ne' ka'tf nen' ea'ekhwen'ta'ne' tonsaiontka'thonnion' c hwe'. Nen' 

The so then now where she her food again she looked around repeatedly. Now 



where she her food 
finished eatinsr 



ka'tf 

so then 



se n,i ha' 

more. 



iao ni hwendjiowa'nha7'o nc , a'se'ke 11 " 

it earth had grown large, because 

iote'hia'ron'tie' ne' o n 'hwen'djia\ Neii' ta'hno 11 " 

it is increasing in size the it earth (is). Now and 



io'sno're' 



it is rapid 

thika'te' o'ia' 



wa'e'ke n ' 

she it saw 



iotkwiron'ni' 



it itself shrubs 
made 

nikakwiro'te 11 ' ioton'ni'. 



ne 

the 



atca'kta'tie' 

water along 
edge of 



ne 

the 



other 
it is 

onekwe n "tara' 



it is differ- 
ent 



such it kind of 
shrub 



Ne' 

The 



O 111 

also 



ne 

the 



it itself 
grew. 

• v CI 

ia 

not 



tekan"hwes 

it (is) a long 
matter 



wa'ontkat'ho' 

she it saw 



it red color 



wa'ka'hio 11 ' 

it a stream 
caused 



hon^ko-te" nika t hio llt ha"a'. E" ka'tf ni'io't dji' wathawinon'tie'. 

to pass on its so it stream (is) There so then so it is where at different times (it 

course small. bears itself along 

severally). 

Io'sno're' ioto n 'hwendjiate'hia'ron'tie\ Neii' o'nf wa'ontkat'ho' 

It is rapid it earth is increasing in size. Now also she it saw 

niia'tekahofi'take' wa'tkonno n 'hwendjiot'ka'we' ne' o'ni' tontakoiit- 

all kinds it plants they left (it) earth the also they it 

in number 

'hontate'hia'ro' 1 *. 

plants increased in size. 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 



21 eth— OS- 



lO 



290 



IKOQUOJAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Now also, when the time had come for her to be delivered, she 
gave birth to a female man-being, a girl child. Then, of course, 
they two, mother and daughter, remained there together. It was 
quite astonishing how rapidly the girl child grew. So then, when she 
had attained her growth, she of course was a maiden. The} r two were 
alone; no other man -being moved about there in am T place. 

So then, of course, when she had grown up and was a maiden, then, 
of course, her mother was in the habit of admonishing her child, saj^- 
ing, customarily: u Thou wilt tell me what manner of person it is 
who will visit thee, and who will say ' customarily : 'I desire that 
thou and I should marry.' Do not thou give ear to this; but say, 
customarily: 'Not until I first ask my mother.- " 

Now then, in this manner, matters progressed. First one, then 
another, came along, severally asking her to become his wife, and she 



Ne' o'nf 



The 



also 



ne 

the 



iaka""hewe' neii' 

it is time there now 

it it brought 



wa'akoksa'taien'ta'ne' 

she child brought forth 



iakoii'kwe' 

she man-being 

(is) 

akoien"a'. 

she has a 
small one. 

ron'tie' ne' 

in size the 

nen' wa"hf 

now verily 



ne' eksa"a 4 . Nen' 

the she Now 

child (is). 

Akwa" ione'hra'kwa't 

Very it is marvelous 

eksa/'a'. Ne' ka'tf 

she The so then 

child (is). N 

eia'tase' on'to 11 '. 

she (is) maid it became. 



wa"hi' 

verily 



e" keni'tero 11 ' ne' 

there they two the 

abode 



losnore 

it is rapid 



ne 

the 



nen' 



dji' iakote'hia'- 

where she increased 

ciiakote ' hia ■ r ofi' tie' 

where she increased in size 



Iono n 'ha'tci'wa': ia" o n "ka' o'ia' 



They two (were) 
entirely alone; 



not 



any- 
one 



kanfeka' te'ie n 's ne' on'kwe". 

man-being. 



anywhere one moved the 
about 



Ta'. 

So, 



ne 

the 



ka'tf 

so then 



wa"hf ne' 

verily the 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



iakote'hia'ro 11 ' 

she grew up 



eia'tase' i'ke 11 '. 



she is maid 



it is, 



now 



wa"hf 

verily 



ne' o'niste^'ha* iontat'hro'ris 

the her mother she her tells 



other 
it is 



nen' 



ne 

the 



9 

10 



ontatien"a' 

her offspring 



ion'to 11 ' 

she it says 



e n 's: 



" E n sk 4 hro'ri' o 4 ' ni'haia'to'te"' 



what 



ne 

the 



to'ka' 

if 



custom- " Thou me what such he kind of 

arily: shalt tell body has 

e lU hia'kta"se' ne' e n *hato n ' w heke' i'ke'hre' aionkeni'niake'. 

he thee will visit the he will keep saying I it desire thou I should marry. 



11 

12 

13 
14 



r IV'sa' 

Do not 

'hro'ri' 

tell 



e n 'sathoii'tfite\ E n 'si'ro n ' e n 's: 



ne 

the 



thou it shalt con- 
sent to. 



Thou it wilt custom- 
say arily: 



isten"aV 

my mother.' " 



' Nia're'kwe' 

' Until first, 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 



e n khe- 

I lier will 



Nen' ka'ti' e w ' niio k to n 'ha'tie\ O'ia' o'k' 



e n 's 



is' re' wa'shakori- 



N'ow so then there 

'hwanonton'nio"' ne' 
questions the 



so it continued 
to be. 



Another only custom- again he 
it is arily comes 

e s 



a'hoti'niake'. Ne' e 4 ' ki" 



they should 
marry. 



The there, I custom 
believe, arily 



he her 

asks 

^ , • / n ? 

wa i ro : 

she it said: 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



291 



customarily replied: "Not until I first ask ruy mother." When she 
would tell her mother what manner of person had asked her to marry 
him, her mother would answer, saying customarily: "No; he is not 
the person." But after a while the maiden said: "One who has a 
deep fringe along his legs and arms paid a visit." The elder woman 
said: "That is the one, I think, that it will be proper for you to 
marry." Thereupon she returned to the place where the young 
man stood. She said: "We should marry, she says." The young 
man answered, saying: "When it is dark, I shall return." So 
then, when the appointed time arrived, he also came back. Then 
it was that he paid court to her. But, I think, they two, he and 
the maid, did not lie together. When she lay down so that she 



"Nia're'kwe' e n khe'hro'ri' ne' isten'a'." Ne' ka'tf 

" Until first I her shall tell the my mother." The 



w Tl/ 

e s 



so then custom- 
arily 



wa"hi' 

verily 



ne 

the 



neii' 



wa'ontat'hro'ri' 

she her told 



the her mother the 

to'te 11 ' ne' waSshakori'hwanonton'm' ne' a'hoti'niake' 



ne' o'nisteii"a c ne' dji' ni'haia' 

'e such he kir 
of body 

taieri'hwa* 



where such he kind 
of body 



has 



the 



he her has asked questions 



the 



sera'ko 1 e n 's ne' o'nisteif'a" 

replied custom- the her mother 
arily 

No'k c a'kare' nen' wa'i'ro" 1 

And after a noAV she it said 



wa'i'ro 11 ' 



e 's: 



they should 
marry; 

"la" 



after a 
time 

ron'kwe 4 



ne 

the 



she it said custom 
arily: 
t 



" Not 



ne 

that 
(one) 



she 

te'ke 11 '." 

it is." 



eia'tase': " Wa'hakwat'ho' ne' 

" He paid a visit the 



she maid 

(is): 



5 



teiotarota'tie' ne' ra'sina'ke', no'k' 

the his legs on, and 



it fringe showed 
along 



he man- 
being (is), 

tsa'ke'." Wa'i'ro 115 ne' akoksteii"a 4 : 



o '111' 

also 



ne 

the 



ranon- 

liis 



she elder one 
(is): 



nen' 



arms on. - ' She it said the 

e n seni'niake'." E'tho'ne' 

ye two will At that now 

marry.'' time 

ne' raneke n "ter<) n \ W'a'i'ro 11 ' 

the he young man. She it said 

(is) 

ia'ke 11 '." Tfrharrhwa'sera'ko' 

He replied 



"Ne" 

"That, 



ki" e n kaie'rite' 



believe, 



it will be 
proper 



ne 

the 



.*' 



e" sa'ie n "te' dji' noii'we' i'trate 

there again she where place 



again she 
went 



it is said. 

"Ne' 

"The 



ne' eia'tase' : 

the she maid 

(new-bodied): 

ne' raneke n4 'tero n ' 

the he young man (is) 



there he 

stands 

" Aioiikeni'niake', 

" Thou-I should marry, 



urn' 



f'"tio'karas e'tho'ne 



it will become 
dark 



at that 
time 



nen 
now 



ia'ka'*hewe' 

it arrived 

Nen' ka'ti' 

Now so then 

ra'to r * ne' 

lain Id- the 

gether 

taVe' ("'">' k;V 

sleep one lit is) 



dji' non'we' ni'hona'to 11 ' 

where the place just where he il 

appointed 

\\ ri*shakotehinato n "ha k se'. 

lie " courted " her, 



te n 'tke'." 

[ will come." 

e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 

No'k" 



wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

lie it said: 

Ne' ka'ti' ci- 

The so then there 



ka'ti' 

SO then 



And 



not, 



eia'tase". 



she maid 
I new-bodied 

ne' 

the 



Ne' 

The 



now 



sha'ontia'tion'nite' 

she lay supine 



raoien'kwire' 

his arrow 



ena'skwak'ta' 

herbreasl beside 



sa rawe . 

he again 
arrived. 

ki" te'honna- 



tliey two 

have 

< v 'iako'- 

she will 
waiia'ir"' 

lie it laid. 



believe, 

ne' 

the 



e 

i here 



1 

2 
3 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 

VI 

13 
U 
15 



292 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. ann. 21 

could sleep, he laid one of his arrows beside her body. Thereupon 
he departed. Then, at his return, he again took his arrow and 
departed again, carrying the arrow away with him. He never came 
back afterward. 

After a while the elder woman became aware that the maiden was 
growing in size, caused by the fact that she was pregnant. 

So when the day of her delivery had come, she brought forth 
twins, two male infants. But during the time that she was in travail, 
the maiden heard the two talking within her body. One of them said: 
"This is the place through which we two shall emerge from here. It 
is a much shorter way, for, look thou, there are many transparent 
places/* But the other person said: " Not at all. Assuredly, we 
should kill her by doing this thing. Howbeit, let us go out that other 
way, the way that one, having become a human being, will use as an 
exit. We will turn around and in a downward direction we two will 



F/tho'ne' nen' sa'ha'ten'tf. Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' shonsa'rawe' 

1 At that now again he de- The so then the now again he re- 

time parted. turned 

tonsa/ra'kwe' ne' raoien'kwire' nen' ta'hno nV sa'ha'ten'ti' ionsa 4 - 

2 he it took up the his arrow now and he again de- he it took 

again parted 

ha' 4 hawe' ne' raoien'kwire'. la" nonweii'to 11 ' tha'tethawe'non 4 . 

3 away with the his arrow. Not ever did he return (retrace 

him his steps). 

A'kare' ka'tf ne' akoksten"a 4 nen' wa'ont'toke' nen' 

-t After a so then the she elder one now she it noticed how 

time (is) 

iakote'hia'ron'tie' ne' eia'tase' ne' kari'hon'nf dji' iene'ro"'. 

5 she is increasing in size the she maid, the it it causes where she is preg- 

new-bodied is nant. 

Ne' ka'tf ne' nen' ciia'akoteni'seri''he'se' wa'akoksa'taien'ta'ne' 

6 The so then the now where her day arrived to her she became possessed of 

offspring 

te 4 nik /4 he n \ No'k 4 dji' na' 4 he' wa'mf nen' iakoreiVhia'ke 114 

7 they two are And where it lasts verily now she was in pain 

twins. (while) 

iakothon'te' ne' eia'tase' tet'hotl'thare' eia"tako n4 . Shaia'ta' 

g she it heard the she new- there they conversed her body in. He^one 

bodied (is) together. person 

ra'to n ': " Ke n " non'we 4 te n teniiake n "ta 4 kwe'. Se n "ha' ne' 

9 he it said: "Here (it is) the place thou I will use it to go out. More the 

niio'reV a'se'ke 114 ' satkat'ho 4 o'k' thiia'teio'swathe'nio 11 '." No'k 4 

t() soitislittie because do thou look just it is transparent in places." And 

distant 

ne' shaia'ta 4 ra'to 11 ': "Ia 4 'te n \ E n iethi'rio\ wa"hf na" ne". 

11 the heone heitsaid: "Notatall. Thou I will kill verily that the 

person her, one that. 

E" ki" nonka'ti 4 te n 'teniiake n4/ ta'kwe' dji' non'ka'ti 4 e n ieiake n4 'ta 4 kwe' 

L2 There, [be sideofil thou I will use it to go where side' of it one will use it to go 

lieve, out out 

ne' on'kwe 4 e n iakoto n 'o n4 ha'tie\ Te'Hiiatkar'hate'ni' e'ta'ke 4 nonka'ti 4 

[3 the man-being one having become it Thou I will turn our- down, side of it 

will come. selves around under 



hewitt] 



MOHAWK VEKSION 



293 



go." So then the former one confirmed what this one had proposed, 
when this one said: "Thus it shall continue to be." 

But, however, he now contested another matter. He did not com- 
ply when the second one said: "Do thou take the lead." He said: 
44 Not at all; do thou go ahead." So then it was in this manner that 
they two contended, and he who said: " Right in this very place let 
us two go straight out, for assuredly this way is as near as that," 
gained his point. Finally, the other agreed that he himself should 
take the lead. At that time, then, he turned about, and at once he 
was born. So at that time his grandmother took him up and cared 
for him. Then she laid him aside. At that time she again gave 
attention to her [the daughter], for now, indeed, another travail did 
she suffer. But that other one emerged in another place. He came 
out of her armpit. So, as to him, he killed his mother. Then, his 



niieniient'ne*." Nen' ka'tf ne' shaia'ta' wa'hari'hwa'ni'rate' ne' 

thither thou I Now so then the he one he it matter confirmed the 

will go." person 

dji' na'ho'te 11 ' ra'to 11 ': "Ne' e" naio 4 to n "hakeV , 

he it said: "The thus so it should continue 

to be." 

na'ho'te 11 ' tonsa'hari'hwake i 'nha , . la" 



non'wa' 

this time 



such kind of 
thing 



where such kind of 
thing 

No'k* o'ia ki" 

And other I be- 
rthing), lieve, 

te'kat'hon'tats ne' shaia'ta' dji' ra'to 11 ': 

he it consents to the he one where he it says 

person (is) 

shen't." E" ka'tf ni'io't dji' te k hotiri'hwa- 

do thou take There so then so it is where they two matter 
the lead." 

wa'hateri'hwatkwe'nf ne' 

he his point won the 



again he it matter debated for. Not 

"Fse', shen't." Ra'to 11 ': 

"Thou, do thou take He it says: 
the lead." 



"Ia"te n '. 

"Not at all. 

ken"he n ', 



debated 
(matter) 

non'we 4 

the place 



I'se', 

Thou, 

no'k' 

and 



i-a'to" 1 : 

he it says: 



"O'k 4 ke D " 

"Onlv 



ietiattakwari"sia , t 

hence let us two go straight 
out 



ne 

the 



wa"hi' 

verily 



niiore"a' na" 

it is not far that 



here 
it is 

V ?5 



ne 

the 

that. 



Ta', e'tho'ne* 



nen' 



So, 



at that time 



ne 

the 



shaia'ta ' 

lie one person 



wa'hathon'tate' 

he consented to it 



rao n,t ha' 

he himself 



e n 'ha''hente\ E'tho'ne' nen' 

he will take the At that time now 

lead. 

wa'henna'kerate'. Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' ro'sot'ha* wa'thonwaia'ta'kwe' 



wa'thatkar'hate'nl' ia'hakontatie"te' 

he turned himself around. he without 

stopping 



he was born. So. 

waiionwakwata'ko". 

she him cared well for. 

tonsaiontate'nia'ra'ne' 

again she her her hands set to 



at that time the 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 

a'se'ke 11 " 

because 



i'sf 

far 
yonder 

nen' 

now 



his grand- 
mother 

ia e ie . 

there she it 
laid. 

V r ' 

se a re 

indeed again 



she Ids body took ii|> 



E'tho'ne 1 

At ehat time 



a re 

again 



o ia 

othel 

it is 



tontaie- 

She had 



ro n 'hia'ke n \ 

travail. 

E'nho D 'ro'ko n< 

Her armpil in 



No'k' 

And 



ak'te' ne' 

aside the 

\v;l"haiak(" i '"'trrkw( / . 
lie it emerged. 



noil' we" 



wa*h;iiak< vi, 'tfrk\v<'" 

the place he it emerged by. 

Ta', wa'shako'rio' 

So. he her killed 



na 

that 

one 



ne 

the 
thai 



9 

10 

11 

L3 
14 



294 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN'. 21 



grandmother took him up and attended to his needs also. She com- 
pleted this task and laid him alongside of the one who had first come. 
So thereupon she devoted her attention to her child who was dead. 
Then, turning' herself about to face the place where she had laid the 
two infants, she said: " Which of 3 r ou two destroyed my child \ " One 
of them answered, saying*: "Verily, he himself it is, I believe.'' This 
one who had answered was a very marvelously strange person as to 
his form. His flesh was nothing but flint. a Over the top of his head 
there was, indeed, a sharp comb of flint. It was therefore on this 
account that he emerged by way of her armpit. 

But the flesh of the other was in all respects similar in kind to that 
of a man-being. He spoke, saying: "He himself, indeed, killed 
her." The other one replied, saying: "Not at all, indeed.-' He again 



ro'nistefi"a 4 . 

1 his mother. 



O 

2 too 



na" 



6 

7 

8 

9 

in 

11 

12 

13 



ne 

that 
one. 

tho 4 hen'to nC . 



the 
that 



E'tho'ne' wa'thonwaia'ta'kwe' wa'honwakwata'ko' 

At that time she his body took up she cared for him well 

Wa'es"a' nen' ska"ne ; wa'honwatiiatiofi'nite' ne' 

She it finished now one at (place) she lay their bodies extended the 



q thence he came 
° first, 

iakaon'he'io ni 

a she is dead 

ne n saiontie'ra'te' dji' 

K again she herself turned where 
toward it 



Ta' 

So, 

ne' 

the 



e'tho'ne' . 

at that time 

ontatien"a'. 

her offspring. 



neii' 

now 



wa'tiontate'nia'ra'ne' ne' 

she her her hands set to the 



E'tho'ne 4 

At that time 



nen' 



e* ' 

there 



nofl'we' 

the place 



ni'honwatiia'tioii'nito 11 ' 

she them laid extended 



nonka'ti' 

side of it 

ta'hno 11 " 

and 



wa'i'ro"': " O n "ka' ne' teseniia"she' 

she it said: " Who is it the 



wa'shako'rio' ne' kheien"a'?" 

he her killed the my offspring?" 



ye two individ 
uals 

Shaia'ta 6 ta'hata'ti' wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

He one ( thence he he it said: 

person answered 

Ke n 'i'ke n ' ta'hata'tf 

This it is thence he 

replied 

ni ; haia'to'te n '. Ao'sko"' tawi'skara' 

such his body' It is wholly 

kind (is) 

ta'tie' raonondjistakeii'iate' io'hio'thi'ie' tawi'skara' 

his head crest of it is sharp flint (crystal) 

it is 



ione'hra'kwa't 

it is marvelous 



flint (crystal) 
chert 



"Rao n "ha, ki", 

" He himself I be- 

(itis), lieve, 

rotonkwe'tatie'ro n ' 

his person ugly (is) 



ne 

the 



raoieroii'ke', 

his flesh on. 



wa"hi'." 

verily." 

ne' dji' 

the where 

Teiotaro- 

It has a ridge 
(along it) 

se". .. Ne" 

indeed. That 



wa"hi' 

verily 

No'k fc 

And 



kari'hon'nf ie'nhoro'ko"' 

it it causes 



ne' shaia'ta' 

the he one 

person 

Ta'hata'tf wa'heri'ro 11 ' 

Thence he he it said : 

replied 

'hata'tf ne' shaia'ta 4 

J[4 spoke the he one 

person 



wa'haiake n "ta'kwe'. 

her armpit in he it used to emerge. 

tkaie'ri' 



ne 

the 



it is 
correct 

u Rao n,t ha' 

"He himself 
(it is) 

wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

he it said : 



ne' on'kwe 1 ' ni'haieronto'te 11 '. 

the man-being 



such his flesh kind 
of is. 

wa'shako'rioV 



se" wa'snako'no . y Tofita- 

indeed he her killed." Thence he 

again 

"Ia"te n ' se"." Sa'hen'ro 11 ': 

"Not at all indeed." Again he it said : 



"It is for this reason that he is called Tawiskaro"', which is the Mohawk name for flint or chert.. 
Consult TheCosmogonic Gods of the Iroquois, Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., v. 44, pp. 241 and following, 1895. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



295 



said: "Indeed, he himself killed her.** Thus then, in this manner, the 
two debated. But he who was guilty of killing her did not swerve from 
his denial, and so then he finally won his point. Whereupon their 
grandmother seized the body of him whose flesh was verily that of a 
man-being and with all her might east him far into the bushes. But the 
other, whose flesh was flint, was taken up and eared for by her. And 
it was also wonderful how much she loved him. 

Now, in its turn, she again laid her hands on the flesh body of her 
girl child, who was verily now not alive. She cut oft' her head 
and said: "Even though thou art now dead, yet, albeit, thou shalt 
continue to have a function to perform." And now she took up the 
flesh bod}^ and hung it on a tree standing hard by her lodge, and she 
said: i% Thou shalt continue to give light to this earth here present. 
But the head also she hung in another place, and she said: u Thou also 



"Se v rao n/i ha' wri'shako'i'ioV E" ka'tf ni'io't wa'thniri'hwa- 

he her killed." There so then so it is they two it matter 



"Indeed, he himself 

(it is), 



ke 4 'nha. Thori*hwakonta ; 'ko n * dji' raton w hI' t ha , no'k' ho'ni' ne' 



disputed. 

shaia'ta* 

he one 
person 

tkwe'ni'. 

point 
won. 

tkaie'ri' 



He continued to assert it 



where 



dji' ka'ie 11 * ne' shako'rkr 

where it lies the he her killed 



he it denied and also the 

ne' ka'ti' wa/hateri'hwa- 

the so then he his (matter) 



E'tho'ne' ne' 

the 



it is 
correct 



At that 
time 

on'kwe : 

man-being 



roti'sot'ha' 

their grand- 
mother 

nrhaiero n 'to'te nt 



wa , thonwaia'ta"kwe' 

she his body took up 



ne'ne 4. 



such he flesh has 
kind of 



ta c hno nV 

and 



the that 

ia'tionte'shen'nia'te' 



she employed her whole 
strength 

o'hon'tako 11 ' ia'honwaia'ton'tf. No'k w ne' shaia'ta' ne' tawi'skara' 

it shrubbery in thither she his body And the he one the flint (crystal) 

* threw. person 

raiero n *tota"ko lU wathonwaia'ta'kwe' ne' wa'honwateweien'to"', 

he is fleshed thereby. she his body took up the she him cared for well, 

no'k' ho'nf akwa*' ione'hra'kwa' dji' ni w honwanoro n "khwa'. 

and also very it is marvelous where so she him holds dear. 



Neii' 

Now 



nonwa 

this time 



ne 

the 



ke 11 " 

here 

(it is) 



niionsaie'iere' ne' akoieron'ta' ne' 

the her flesh the 



so again she 
touched it 



ontatien"a'-ken w hrr ne' 

her offspring it was the 



wa"hi' nen' ia" tetciakon'^he'. 

verily now not still she lives. 



Wa'onta- 

She 



tenia' ria'ke' 

her head cut off 

so ni he'io n4 , 

thou art dead. 

wfitie"kwe' 

she it took up 



taiino M " 

and 

se n ' c ha* B" 

more, I 



wa'i'r 



she it said : 



o'k' 

just 



ne 

the 



believe, 

oierofi'ta* 

it flesh 



' ' Iawero ni ha'tie n % 

" Even though 
(no matter) 

e n 'sateri'h6n'takeV' 

thou it duty wilt have 
to perform." 

ne' akono n< sa'kta' 

the her house beside 



dji' 

where 



urn' 



Nen' ta'hno 11 " 

Now ami 



keV'hite' 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



it tree 

stands 



e" 

there 13 



waVha'iv' 1 ' 

she it hung up 



wa l ro : 



ta'hno 11 " 

and she it said : 

ke n " \vato nt hwendjia'te', no'k 4 ho'nf ne' onon'dji 4 ak'te' 

here it earth is extant, but also the Lthead elsewhere 



"Te n Wshwathe'to n ''hake' 

'•Thou it wilt continue to lighl 



ne 

the 

ne' 

tile 



11 

15 



296 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. anx. 21 

shalt continue to have a function. Thou shalt have less power 
to give light." Thus then she completed her arrangements for sup- 
plying herself with light. Now, assuredly, she had made fast the 
sun for herself, and also the moon. She imposed on them the 
duty of furnishing her with light for their part. Verily, indeed, it 
was the head of her girl child who was dead that she used to make 
the moon, but her bod} r she made into the sun. They were to be 
fixed always in one place, and were not to be moving from place 
to place. Now, besides this, she restricted them to herself and her 
grandson, saying: "We two, entirely alone, shall ever be supplied by 
this light. No other person shall use it, only we two ourselves." 

When she had now, indeed, finished all of her task, she was sur- 
prised by the moving of the grasses at the spot whither she had 
cast the other one of her grandchildren. He was alive; he had 

non'we k na'e'ha're 11 ' ta 4 hno n " wa'i'ro 11 ': 44 E n4 sateri 4 hon'take , o" 

1 the place she it hung up and she it said : " Ever thou it duty wilt have too 

to perform 

ni'se'. Ka'ro' ni'se' dji' ne n4 se'shats'teke' ne' dji' te 114 se 4 shwa- 

2j the Less the where thy power shall be the where thou it shalt cause 

thou. thou effective 

the"te n '." Nen' wa"hi' wa'eweiennen'ta'ne' dji' ne n io 4 to n ' 4 hake' 

3 to be Now verilv she it manner finished where so it will continue 
light." of it to be 

dji' te n iakot 4 shwathe"te n '. Neii' wa/'hi' iakotera'kwanentak'to 114 , 

4 where it her will cause it to be Now verily she has set up it sun for herself, 

light for. 

e n4 hni'ta' o'm', koiiwari 4 honta'ni 4 te^iako 4 shwathe'to n/4 ha\ke' na" 

5 it moon also, she her duties gave it will cause it to be light that 

one 

ne". Ne' se" wa'mi' ne' oiitatieii"a 4 ne' iakao n4 he'io nC 

6 the The indeed verily the her offspring the she is dead 
that. 

akorion'dji 4 ne' e n4 hni'ta' waakoii'nia'te', no'k 4 ne' akoie'ronta' 

l her head the it moon she used it to and the her flesh 

make it, 

kara 4 'kwa' na" ne". Tiiotko 11 " kato'ke 114 e n iora'nen'tako n ', ia" 

o it sun that the Always it is certain it will be attached, not 

• one that. way 

te^kia'tentie'seke'. Neii' ta 4 hno n " wa'oiitathwe'non'nie 11 ' wa'i'ro 11 ': 

1/ they two will travel about Now and she restricted them she it said : 

habitually. herself 

" Onkeno ni ha"a' te^ionkiat'shwathe'to n ''hake\ la" o n£ 'ka' ne' 

10 " Thou I only thou I will give light for us. Not anyone the 

o'ia/ thaionts'te', ne' o'k 4 ne' onkeno nC ha"a'." 

11 other one will use it, the only the thou I only." 

it is 

Nen' wa''hi' akwe'ko 11 ' wa'eweiennen'ta'ne' wa'ontie're 11 ' o'k 4 

12 Now verily it all she finished its manner she was surprised only 

of doing 

ka'ti' tetio 4 honti 4 sho lU 'khwa' dji' non'we' iemonwaiatoii'tio 11 ' 

13 so then there it grass moves to where the place there she his body threw 

and fro 

ne' shaia'ta' ne' ronwatere"a', ron"he'. la 4 ' te 4 hawe n4 he/io n4 , 

14 the he our the her grandson, he is " Not hehas.died, 

person alive. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



297 



not died; for she thought when she had cast him far away that he 
would, of course, die, but, howbeit, he had not died. He walked 
about there among* the bushes. But after a while he came thence 
toward the lodge of his grandmother, but she ordered him away, 
sa}dng: " Go thou far off yonder. I have no desire whatever to look 
on thee, for thou it is, assuredly, who hast killed ni}^ girl child. So, 
then, therefore, go thou far off yonder.'' Verily, he then went from 
there. But, albeit, he was moving about in a place not far from the 
place where the lodge stood. Besides this, the male child was in 
good health, and his growth was rapid. 

After awhile he made for himself a bow and also an arrow. 
Of course he now went about shooting from place to place. He 
went, indeed, about from place to place, for now, of course, the 
earth was indeed of considerable size. The earth, indeed, verily 



a'se'ke 11 " 

because 



wa en re 

she it desired 



d]i' 

where 



i'sf 



ie 4 hoil waia; toii'tio 11 ' 

there she his bodv cast 



e n 're n "heie' 

he will die 



far, 
yonder 

wiV'hi', no'k 4 ia 4 ' ki" te 4 hawe n4 he'io n \ E 4 ' hi'tre'sje' o'honta- 

verily, but not, I be- he has died. There 



And 

no'k 4 

and 



ko n4 'sho n \ 

it grass in. 
along 

ro 4 sot'ha*, 

his grand- 
mother, 

niia'ha'se 4 . 

thither do 
thou go. 

erake\ a'se'ke 114 ' 

see, because 



I be- 
lieve, 

No'k t a'kare' e 4 ' na'tonta're' dji' 



after a 
time 



there 



thence he 
came 



where 



there he 
moved about 

iakono n4 'sote 5 ne' 

her house stands the 



sa * h o n wane n nia' nf 

she him drove away again 



wa'i'ro n? 

she it said: 



1 ' Yonder 



noil' we' 

place 



la'' othe'no 11 ' tha'tewakato lU hwendjion'ni 4 ne' takonkan'- 

Not anything I am in need of it the I thee should 



1 se 

thou 



wa' 4 hf she'rio 4 

verily 



thou her 
didst kill 



ne 

the 



kheien"a 4 . 

my offspring. 



Wa's'. 

Go, 



nio" ka'tf, 

so be so then, 
it 

noiika'ti 4 ionsa're' 



l si 

far, 
yonder 



non'we' 



place 



the side 
of it 

ne' dji' 

the where 

raksff'fr 

he child 

A'kare' 

After a 
time 

kwire' 



again he 
went. 



kano n4 'sote' 



it house 
stands 



niia 4 ha'se 4 ." 

thither do thou 
go." 

No'k 4 e" ki" 

And there, I be- 
lieve, 

non' we 4 , 

place, 



To'ke n ske' ka'tf i'sf 



i re se 

he went 

about 

ta 4 hno n " 

and 



It is true 

ia 4 ' 

not 



i'no 

far 



so then far, 
yonder 
ni 



rota'kari'te' 

he was well 



te'ke 114 

it is 

ne' 

the 



lo'sno're 

it is rapid 



dji' rote k hia 4 rofi'tie\ 



where 



he is increasing 
in size. 



now 



wa 4 hata'ennon'ni' (? wamataennon'nie 115 )/ kaien'- 

it 



lie made a bow for 
himself 



arrow 



o'nf 

also 



wfrron'nF. 

he it made. 



Nen' 

Now 



is're' se*'. a 4 se'ke n4/ neri' se" 



again indeed, 
he went 



hecause 



now indeed 



wa' 4 hi' roie n 'e n4 ha'tie'se\ E'rok 

verily he went about Every 

Shooting it. where 

wa' 4 hi' akwa 4 ' ke n " niwato 11 - 

verily very here so it earth 



; hwen'djia\ Eote'hia'ron'tie' se" wa' 4 hi' ne' o n4 hwen'djia\ Ne' 

large (is). It continued to indeed verily the it earth. The 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



increase in size 



«This is the usual form of the nexl preceding term. 



298 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ass. 21 

continued to grow in size. So at times he would return to the side of 
the lodge. The other boy, his younger brother, looked and saw that 
he had a bow and also an arrow. Then he spoke to her, his grand- 
mother, saying: "Thou shouldst make for me a bow and also an 
arrow, so that I also should have them." So, thereupon, she made 
him a bow and also an arrow; and, then, therefore, they both had bows 
and arrows. 

So now, verily, they two wandered about shooting'. So then he 
whose body was exactly like that of a man-being" went in his shooting 
along a lake shore, even at the water's edge. There stood a clump of 
bushes there, whereon rested a nock of birds. He shot at them and 
they flew over the lake, but the arrow fell into the water. Thereupon 
he went thither to the water's edge, and cast himself into the lake; 
he desired to go and recover his arrow. So when he leaped into the 

ka'tf sewatie're 11 ' kano n \sak'ta sa're'te'. Wa'hatkat'ho' ne' 

so then sometimes house beside again he He looked the 

would go. 

shaia'ta' ne' ia'tate'keif'a' ro'en'naie 11 ' kaien'kwire' o'nf. Nen' 

2. he one the they two are re- licit bow has it arrow also. Now 

person lated as brothers 

wa'shakawe n "ha 4 se' ne'ne' ro'sot'ha 4 wa'heii'ro 11 ': "A'skwa'en- 

3 he her said to the that his grand- he it said: " Thou it bow 

mother shouldst make 

non'nie 11 ' no'k' o'nf ne' kaien'kwire', aonkien'take' o'nf nr'." 

4 for me but also the it arrow, I it should have also the I." 

Ta', e'tho'ne' nen' wamonwa"efmoiTnie u ' no'k* o'nf ne' 

O So, at that now she it him bow made and also the 

time 

kaien'kwire'. Ta', nen' wa"hf tenidjia'ro"' rona'en'naie 11 ' no'k' 

it arrow. So, now verily they both they bow had and 



1 



10 

11 

12 



o'nf ne' kaien'kwire'. 

also the it arrow. 



Ta', nen' wa' 4 hf te'honnataweii'rie', rotiie n 'e ni ha'tie'se\ Ta', 

So, now verily they traveled about, they went about So, 

shooting. 

ne' ka'tf ne' tkaie'rf on'kwe' nimaia to'te 11 ' dji' roie n 'e nt ha'tie'se', 

the so then the it is cor- man- such his body where he goes about 

rect being kind of (is) shooting, 

kaniatarakta'tie' i're' dji' teio'hnekak'te'. E" io'hiano fc 'kote' 

it lake along side of he where it liquid (water) ends There it clump of bushes 

walks (= water 'sedge). stood 

ta'hno 11 " e" ke n tho'kwa''here' tci'ten"a'. Wa t ha'ia'ke\ ta'hno 11 ' 

and there it bunch rested on bird. He shot, and 

kaniatara'ke' niiaka'tie' ta'hno nV aweii'ke' iti'ha'mo' ne' 

it lake on thither it and it water in there it im- the 

flew mersed itself 

raoien'kwire'. E'tho'ne' e" niia'ha're' dji' teiomnekak'ta' 

1^ his arrow. At that there thither he where it liquid (water) 

time went ends 

ra 4 hno nV o'k c ia'hatiaton'tf kaniatara'ke 1 , wa're're' onsekko"lm' 

1-1 and only, thither he his it lake on, he it intended I it will go after 

body cast again 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 299 

water, he did not feel that he had plunged into the water, because he 
fell supine on the ground. There was no water there. He arose 
and was surprised that a lodge stood there, and that he had arisen 
beside the doorway. He looked into the lodge and saw a man sitting 
therein. The man who was sitting in the lodge said: '"Enter thou 
here." So then he entered, and he who sat therein said: "Thou hast 
now arrived. I assuredly invited thee that thou shouldst come here. 
Here, then, lies the reason that I sent for thee. It is because I hear 
customarily the kind of language thy grandmother uses toward thee. 
She tells thee that she does not love thee, and the reason of it is that 
she believes that what Tawi'skaro"' customarily says is true. He says, 
customarily, of course, that thou killedst her who was the mother of 

ne' raoieii'kwire. Ne' ka'tf dji' nen' ia'thennitco n4 'kwa'kwe' 

the his arrow. The so then where now thither he leaped 1 

o'hneka'ke' ia 4 ' te 4 hotto'ke n ' ne' ia'ho'sko"o ni ne' o'hneka'ke 6 , 

it liquid on not he it noticed the thither he had the it liquid on, 2 

fallen into water 

a'se'ke' 14 ' o ni hweiidjia'ke* ia'hasha'ta'ne'. la" kan'eka' teka'hne'ko'. 

because it earth on there he fell Not anywhere it liquid con- 3 

supine. tained. 

Sa'hatkets'ko' nefi' wa'hatie're 11 ' o'k e" kano u "sote' dji' 

Again he arose now he was surprised only there it house where 4: 

stands 

kam'hoka'roiite' ak'ta' e" non'we' oiisa'hatkets'ko'. Neil' ia ; - 

it doorway is open nearby there place again he arose. Now there 5 

hatkat'ho' kano n4 'sako nC wa'ho'ke 11 ' ron'kwe' e" theii'tero 11 '. 

he looked it house in he him saw he man- there there he 6 

being (is) rested. 

Neil' wa'heii'ro 11 ' ne' kano IlC 'sako IU theii'tero 11 ': " Kasatau'eia'te'." 

Now he it said the it house in there he " Thence do thou 7 

rested: enter." 

Ta', e'tho'ne' neii' ifi4iatau'eia'te', tiVhno 11 " neii' wa'hen'ro 11 ' 



8 



5 
So, at that now there he entered, and now he it said 

time 

ne' theii'tero 11 ': "Neii', wa"sewe'. I" wa"hf ieko nC hnon'ko ni 

the there he "Now, thou hast I verily hence I thee sent ^ 

abides: arrived. for 

ne' aoiita"se'. Ke 11 " ka'tf kari'hon'ni' dji' ieko' u hnoii'ko nt 

the thou shouldst Here so then it it causes where hence I thee sent 10 

come. it is for 

a'se'ke 11 " wakathon'te' e n 's ne' sa'sot'ha 4 dji' nikari'ho'te 11 ' 

because I it hear custom- the thy grand- where such it matter 11 

arily mother kind of 

iako"thare' ne' ise'ke'. Iesa'hro'ri's dji' ia" teiesanoro ni 'khwa\ 

she speaks the thou (thee) She thee tells where not she thee loves (esteems), 12 

to. 

ne' tiiori"hwa dji' ne' tiiakawe 4 ta"ko ni ne' Tawi'skaro' 1 ' dji 

the just it it is cause where the so she it firmly believes the Flint (Crystal) where 13 

of 

na'ho'te 11 ' e n 's ra'to u \ Ra'to 11 ' e"'s wa"hf i'se' she'rio' ne' 

such kind of custom- he it says. He it says custom- verily thou thou her the 14 

thing arily arily (it is) didst kill 

ietchi'nisten"a i -ke u 4ia'. Ta', ia" to'ke n ske' te'kc"' dji' na'ho'te 11 ' 

she of you two was. So, not it is true it is where such kind of 15 

mother thing 



300 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



you two. Now, what he customarily says is not true, and the grand- 
mother of you two firmly believes the things that he sa} r s; so that is 
the reason that I desire that thou shouldst come hither. For the fact 
is, she discriminates between you two, loving him, but not thee. 
Here, then, I have made a bow and an arrow as well for thee. Here, 
then, take them." So thereupon he accepted them. They were 
marvelously fine in appearance. He said: u Thou must make use of 
these as thou goest about shooting, for sometimes thou hast asked 
thy grandmother to make thee a bow somewhat better than the one 
thou madest for thyself, yet she would, customarily, not give ear to 
it, and besides that she would habitually refuse, and then order thee 
away. She would customarily say: 'Go thou from here. I have no 
desire to be looking at thee, for thou art the one assuredly who killed 
my girl child.' Now this, customarily, was the kind of discourse 
she spoke. So now, then, another thing. Here, of course, are two 



3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



13 



14 



e n 's ra'to 11 '; no'k" ne' ietchi'sot'ha 4 ne' tiiakawe 4 ta"ko n 



and 



the 



your two grand- 
mother 



the 



ne' dji' 

so she it firmly believes the where 



cus- he it says; 
tomarily 

na 4 ho'ten' ra'to 11 '; ta', .ne" 'tiiori"hwa' wake'ro n4 ke 11 " e n te'se 4 te\ 

he it says; so, that so it reason I it pur- here thou wilt 

is posed come. 

no'k 4 

she one to the he him- she him loves, and 

other prefers self 

ia 4 'te n '. Ke 11 " ka'tf konia'ennonnien'ni 4 



such kindof he it says; so, that so it reason I it pur- 
thing is posed 

Ne' dji' teiakoti"he n4 rao n "ha' ronwanoro n4 'khwa'. 

The where she one to the he him- she him loves, 



ni'se' 

the 
thou 



not at 
all. 



Here 

it is 



kaieii'kwire'. 

it arrow. 



so then I thee it bow have made 

for, 

Ko 4 ' ka'ti'." Ta', e'tho'ne' 

so then." So, 



no'k' 

and 



O 111 

also 



ne 

the 



Here 

(it is) 



at that 
time 



wa 4 haie'na\ 

he it took. 



Akwa" ione4ira'kwa 4 t iora'se 4 . Wa'hen'ro n ': " Ne" e n4 sats'thake' 

Very it is marvelous it is fine He it said: 



it is fine 
in appearance. 



That 
one 



thou it shalt use 
habituallv 



ne' dji' saie n 'e n4 ha'tie'se', a'se'ke"" sewatie're 114 wa'sheri'hwanon'- 



the Avhere 

to n 'se' 

question 



ne 

the 



thou goest about 
shooting, 

sa'sot'ha 4 



1 lecause sometimes 



thou her askedst 



thy grand- 
mother 



ne 

the 



aioian'ereke' 

it would be 
good 

thaionthoii'tate' 

she it would consent 
to 



" 1'sf non' we fc 



dji' 

where 



ne 

the 

ni'io 4 t 

so it is 

ta'hno 11 " 

and 



aiesa'ennon'nien 5 



ne 

the 



se n "ha' 

more 



ia" 



ki" 



e n 's 



" Far 
yonder 



the place 



takonkan'ereke'. 

I thee should sec 



ia'ha'se 4 

tlic re do Not 

thou go. 

I'se' wa'mr 

Thou verily indeed 



she it bow should 
make for thee 

ne' satatsa'a'ni 4 , 

the thou thyself didst 
make for, 

aiesate'kwa'te'. 

she thee would 
order away. 

Ia 4 ' tha'tewakato n4 hwendjion'ni 4 ne' 



not, I custom- 

believe, arily 

Wa'i'ro*' e n 's: 

She it said custom- 
arily: 



I it desire, (it is needful for me; 



se" she'rio 4 ne' kheieffVi*. 



thou her 
didst kill 



the 



e n 's 



niieri'ho'te 11 ' dji' iako 4 'thare\ la' 



So, 



my off- 
spring. 

a're* 

now again 



the 

Ta', 

So, 



neiT 



o'ia\ 

other 

it is. 



thus cus- such her tale is where she is talking, 
tomarily 

Ke n " wa"hi' tekano n4 kwen"iake 4 tekonteron'weks o'ne? 4 ste 5 , ne' 

This verily two it ears of corn in number white = (shriveling) it corn the 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



301 



ears of sweet corn. These thou must take away with thee. One of 
the ears is not yet ripe; it is stiil in its milky state, but, as to the 
other, it is mature. Thou must take them with thee. As to the one 
in the milky state, thou must roast it for thyself; but as to the one 
that is mature, it shall be for seed corn." Thereupon, then, Avhen he 
had finished speaking, telling him all things, he said: "Here they arc, 
then." Whereupon he took them. 

It was at this time also that he told him. saying: "But, as to that, I 
am thy parent.'- That was said by him whose lodge stood there and 
who is the Great Turtle. Then the young man departed. 

So then when he had returned home in traveling, he would habitu- 
ally run along the lake shore and would say, customarily: "Let this 
earth keep on growing." He said: "People call me Maple Sprout 



ic n% se'shawe\ 



hence it thou 
shalt take. 



Ne' skaho n 'kwen' r iat 

The one it ear of corn not 



m" 



— ' ^f 1 _ 11 c 



teiotonni's'o 



se'ko 11 ' 

still 



it has ripened, 

^oka'sero'ta')" i'ke lU , ne' e n "ska' iotoiini's'o 114 

it is ripe 

e n4 satene Il4 s- 



na 



it milky is it is, and the one 

ne'ne' ie n 'ses'hawe'. Ne' oko n 'seron'ta' 



ne 

that 
one 

ton'te 11 ' 



the 

That 



the 
that 



na 

that 
one 

e n ieientho "thake' 

one will use it to plant 
(for planting)." 

wa 4 hari'ho'kte n ' 

he it matter ended 



ne". 

the 
that 



hence thou shalt 
take it. 

no'k ; 



The 



and 



ne 

the 



e n "ska ; 

one 



it is milky 

ne'ne' 



na 



ne 



If 11 



that the 

one that 

akwe'ko 114 

it all 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 
time 

wa'ho'hro'ri' 

he him told 



the 
that 

ka'tf 

so then 



neii' 

now 



thou thyself shalt 
roast corn for 

iotonni's'o 11 ' 

it is ripe 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



wa'hen'ro 11 ' : 

he it said: 



"Ko", 

" Here 

it is, 

Nen 

Now 



ka'tiV 

so then.' 

O 111 

also 



E'tho'ne' neii' wa'haie'na'. 

At that now he them 

time took. 

e'tho'ne' neil' wa'ho'hro'rf wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

now he him told he it said: 



a 



V 



at that 
time 



"I 

it is 



"ir 

na 

that 
one 



koiiiefr'aV Ne" na" wamen'ro 11 ' ne' e" ni'hono ,u 'sote' ne'ne' 



That 



that 
one 



this it is. 



I am thy 
parent." 

Hania k tc nt 'kowfr ke n 'i'ke n 

He Turtle Great 

ranek£ n "tero n \ 

he young man. 

Ne 7 ka'tf 

The SO then 



he it said 

\ Ta\ 

So, 



the there 



just his lodge 
stands 



e'tho'ne' nen' sama'ten'tf 

now 



at that 
time 



he started 
again 



the 
that 

ne 

the 



ne 
the 



nen 

now 



ciiehe'sro' 

there he reached 
home 



nen' 

now 



wa"hi' 

verilv 



dji' te/hota- 

where he 



wen'ric* 

travels. 



kaniatarakta'tie' 

it lake alongside of 



e n 's 

custom- 
arily 



niiiVhatak'he\ 

ust he would run. 



ra'to 11 ' 

he it says 



v u 's: 

custom 
arily: 



lote'hia'ron'tie 4 ne' ke n 'i'ke n ' ioto n 'hwen'djiatcY* nen' ta'hno' 1 ", 

the this it is it earth (is) present here," now and 



'• Let it increase in 
size 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
U 



"This is the usual form of the next preceding term. 



302 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN, 21 



[Sapling]." Verily, as far as he customarily ran, so far the earth grew 
anew, and, besides that, maple saplings customarily would produce them- 
selves. So then, it was his custom to do thus. On whatever side in 
turn he would run along the shore of the lake, just as far as he would 
run, just so far would this come to pass: new earth would form itself, 
and also maple saplings formed themselves into trees. He also said, 
customarily, as he ran along: "Let the earth increase in size'' and: 
"Maple Sapling will people habitually call me." Thus it was, by 
means of this kind, that the earth became enlarged to the size it now 
has when we look at the size of this world. 

So then, at this time, in turn, he formed severally the various 
bodies of the animals. Therefore, Sapling customarily would take 
up a handful of earth, and would cast it upward. Customarily, many 
hundreds of living things, as many as the handfuls he threw up, 



1 

2 
3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



u Wa 4 'ta' 

' ' Maple 



OterontonnF'a' ioii'kiats. " 



It Sapling (it itself 
made small tree) 



they me name 
habitually." 



Ne' ka'ti' 

The so then 



ne 

the 



dji' 



e n 's 



niia'hatak'he' e" he 11 /" 



so it is 
distant 



nen 

now 



so it is 
distant 



where cus- 
tomarily 

I'se' onto n4 hwendjion'nf, 

it itself earth made, 



e n 's 



>re' nua'nataR ne e ne/s no re 

so thither he ran there custom 

arily 

ta'hno 11 " wa"ta' oteroiitoiinr'a" 

and maple it sapling (it itself custom 

made small tree) arily 

ka'tf ni'haier'ma' dji' o'k' nonka'ti' e n 's nmVhatak'he' kania 

so then so it he does where only the side custom- so thither he ran it lake 

of it arily 



it new 

(is) 

onteronton'ni'. E'tho" 

it itself made into Thus 

tree. 



tarakta'tie' dji' 

alongside of where 



nno re 

so it is 
distant 



niia'hatak'he' e" he n 's 



so thither he ran 



there custom- 
arily 



na a we . 

so it 
happened, 



ne' 

the 



a'se' onto n mwendjion'nf, no'k 4 ho'nf ne' wa"ta' oiiterontoiinP'a'. 



it new 
(is) 

Ne' 

The 

ne' 

the 



w n 1 

e s 



it itself earth found, and 

raton'ne' 



also 



the maple 



it made itself into 
small tree. 



custom 
arily 



o ni 

also 



he went 
saying 

o n 'hwen'djia'," ne' 

it earth." the 



Ta\ e'tho' nitioiera'to n< 



So, 



thus 



so it did by means 
of this 



ne 

the 



o'nf 

also 



ne 

the 



nen' 



ratak'he':' " Iote'hiaroii'tie' 

now he ran : " Let it increase in 

size 

ne' " Oterontonni"a' ioii'kiats." 

the It Sapling one me calls 

habitually." 

dji' io n4 hwendjiiowa*irha"o nC ne' 

where it earth became large the 



dji' ni'io't ne' dji' tewakan'ere' ne' dji' niw T ato lU hwen'djia\ 



where so it is 



the where 



we it see 



the where so it earth large (is). 



TV, 

So, 



a nio 



ii' 



e'tho'ne' 

at that 
time 

Ne' 

The 



made 
plurally. 

wa'tha'tca'na'kwe' 

he it handful picked up 



ne 

the 

ka'ti' 

so then 



non'wa' kontirioVko 11 ' wa'shakotiiatoiini- 

this time they animals, he their bodies 

ne' Oteroiitoiinr'a 4 o lU hweii'djia' 

the It Sapling it earth 



no'k' 

and 



e'neke 114 

high up 



e n 's 



iamo'tf. 



there he it 
threw. 



EW 

Many 



custom- 
arily 

tekon'nia'we' a'e're" 4 e n 's wa'kontitienon'tie' dji' ni'ko 11 " ia'ho 

they went flying where so it thither 



e n 's 

custom- 
arily 

e"'s 

custom- 
arily 

i 



they hundreds 

(are) 



in all 
directions 



custom- 
arily 



where so it 

numbers 



HEwiTTj MOHAWK VERSION 303 

flew away in different directions. He customarily said: '"This shall 
continue to be your condition. When ye wander from place to place, 
ye must go in flocks." Thereupon a duty devolved upon this species 
of animals; for example, that they should habitually make roosts. 
Now, of course, different animals were severally asked to volunteer 
to aid man. Whichever of them would give ear to this, would say 
to it: "I, I think, will volunteer. 1 ' Thereupon they would custom- 
arily ask him, saying: "Well then, permit us to see in what w T ay 
thou wilt act when thou protectest thy offspring." The Bear, there- 
fore, volunteered. Now then he acted so rudely that it was very 
marvelously terrifying. The manner in which he would act ugly 
would, I think, kill people. Thus, indeed, he exhibited to them 
how he would defend his offspring. They said: "Not at all, we 
think, shouldst thou volunteer." Whereupon, of course, others 

tcanoii'ti'. Wa'hen'ro 1 " e n 's: "E", ni'se' ne n ioto n "hake' ne' 

he handfuls He it said custom- "Thus, the so it will continue the 1 

threw. arily: thou to be 

dji' te n tciatawenrie"hake' e n tciennitio'kwaratie'seke'." E'tho'ne 1 

where she will continue to travel ye will go about in groups (bodies)." At that 2 

time 

non'we' wa'onnaterimwaien'ma'se' ne' kontirioVko 11 ' o n<, 'ka' 

place it them duty became for the they animals who (it is) 3 

e n ie'na'kwa 4 r c ho"seke\ Nen' wa"hf ne' kontirio'o'ko 11 ' o'ia' o'k' 

one roosts will form. Now verily the they animals other only 

e n 's shonwari'hwanonton'ni' ne' a'hathonkar'ia'ke'. On"ka o'k' 

custom- he them duties assigns to the he should volunteer Who just K 

arily to do it. 

e n 's wa'hathontate' wamen'ro 11 ': "I" ki" e n kathonka'ria'ke\" 

custom- he would consent he it said : "I I I will volunteer to do it:" Q 

arily to it (it is) , believe, 

E'tho'ne' e n 's wa'honwari'hwanon'to n 'se' wa'honni'ro 11 ' e n 's: 

At that custom- they him asked they it said custom- 7 

time arily arily: 



.. 



4 



To', ka'tf iakwatkat'ho 4 to' ne n te ; 'siere' ne' nen' e ni sate- 

"How so then let us see how so thou wilt the now thou wilt § 

do it 

wirake-'nha\" O'kwa'ri', ki", wamathonka'rurke'. E'tho'ne 1 

thy young defend." Bear, I he volunteered (scored At that 9 

believe, stick) . time 

nen' wa'hateri'hwa'ksa'te'. Akwa" ione'hra'kwa't, teioteno n4 hi- 

now he his matter acted ugly. Very it is marvelous, it is aston- 10 

ani"to nC , iotte"ro n4 . AShako'i-io' ki" ne' on'kwe' dji' nama'iere' 

ishing, it is frightful. It one would I the man- where so he would H 

kill, believe, being act 

dji' wamateri'hwak'sa'te'. Nen' wa"hf wa'shakona'toii'ma'se' 

where he his matter acted ugly. Now verily they him showed 12 

dji' ne n tha'iere' ne' e n matewirake"nha'. Wa'honni'ro"': "la 1 '' 

where so he will act the he his young will defend. They it said : " Xot, 13 



ki" i'se' tha'sathonka'ria'ke'." Ta', nen' wa' 4 hi' o'ia o'k' 

I be- thou thou shouldst volunteer So, now verily other only 14 

lieve, to do it." it is 



804 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[F.TH. ANN. '21 



offered themselves as volunteers. Nevertheless, none were accepta- 
ble, because their methods of defending their offspring were terrible. 
So one after another volunteered. After a while the Pigeon said: 
"It is time now, I think, that, I should volunteer." Whereupon, 
assuredly, they said: "How then wilt thou do when thou protectest 
thy offspring? Let us see." Then Pigeon new hither and thither, 
uttering cries as it went. Then sometimes it would again alight on a 
bough of a tree. In a short time it would again fly, winging its way 
from place to place, uttering cries. So then the} r said: "Now, this 
will be suitable." At the same time they had lying by them a dish 
containing bear's oil; they therein immersed Pigeon, and they said: 
u So fat shall thy offspring customarily be." It is for this reason that 
the young of the pigeon are as fat as a bear usually is. 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



e n 's shothoiikaria'ko 11 '. la" ki v thakaie'rite' so'djf e n 's 



custom- again he volunteers, 
arilv 



weiennatsa'nT 

manner of acting 
(is) frightful 

ni'io't o'ia 

so it is other 
it is 

wa'heii'ro 11 ': 

he it said : 

wa'hoiini'ro 11 ': 

they (m.) it said : 



ne 

the 



Not, I it would be 

believe, correct 

wa ' hate wi rake ' ' n ha' . 



roti- 

their 



he his young would 
defend. 

o'k w shothoiikaria'ko 114 . 

only again he volunteers to 

doit. 



Ta'. 

So, 



because custom- 
arily 

e" ka'tf wa"hi' 

thus so then verily 



No'k c ha'kare' neii' ori'te' 

And after a now it pigeon 

time 



"Neii' ki" i" e n kathoiikar'ia'ke'." E'tho'ne' wa"hf 

"Now, I I, I will volunteer to do it At that verily 

believe, (score stick)." time 

'To', ka'tf iakwatkat'ho' dji' ne n te"siere' ne' 

so then let us see it where so thou wilt the 



so thou wilt 
act 



"How, 

neii' e nt satewirake"nha'?" E'tho'ne' neii' ne' ori'te' wa'katie"so n ' 

now the it pigeon 



thou thy young wilt 
defend ? ' ' 



At that 
time 



io'tharatie"se\ 

it went about 
uttering cries. 

kwaW. 

would alight. 



Sewatie're 11 ' 

Sometimes 



Na'he"a' 

In a short 
time 



O'k' 
only 



sakatie"so n ' io'thara'tie'se'. 

again it flew from 
place to place 

ie n kaie'rite'." 



it went about 
uttering cries. 

E'tho'ne' 



nen 

now 

e n 's 

custom- 
arily 

Neii' 

Now 



a re 

again 

no'k 4 

and 

wa/hoiini'ro 11 ': 

they (m.) it said : 



it flew about from 
place to place 

okwira'ke' shennits- 

it shrub again it 

(branch) on 

ha're' tonsaka'te 11 ', 

again again it would 

fly, 

"Nen' ne' 

"Now that 



it will be correct 



At that 
time 



nen' 

now 



roiinatek'saie 11 ' 



they a vessel for 
themselves have set 



"E" 

"Thus 



i'kare' e" ka'tf 

it con- there so then 

tains 

wfrhonni'ro' 1 ': 

they (m.) it said : 

en'okon"a-." (Ne' 

offspring." (The 

niionare"se n< dji' 

bo they fat (are) where 



ia'hoiiwa"sko' 

there they him 
immersed 



ne 

the 



ori'te', 

it pigeon, 



o fc kwa'ri fc 

it bear 



neii' 

now 



ken'ie' 

it oil 

ta'hno 11 " 

and 



e n 's 

custom- 
arily 



ni'se' 

the 
thou 



ne n ionare'se n ' 'hake' ne' 

so they will be fat the 



ka'tf kari'hon'nf 

so then it reason is 



ni'io't e n 's 

so it is custom- 
arily 



ne 

the 



ne 

the 



it bear 



ori'te' aotiwi'ra' 

it pigeon tlieir off- 

spring 

io're'se 114 .) 

it is fat.) 



shei- 

thy 

e" 

thus 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



305 



During this time Tawi'skaro" 1 was watching- what Sapling was 
doing. Thereupon he began to imitate him by also making animal 
bodies. But this work was too difficult for him to allow his doing- 
it correctly. He failed to make correctl} r the bodies of the animals 
just as they are. He formed the body of a bird as he knew it. So. 
when he had finished its form, he let it go, and now, I think, it flew. 
Forsooth, it succeeded in flying, but it flew without any objective 
point. And, I believe, it did not become a bird. Now then he had 
completed the body of what we know as the bat. So then, when he. 
Sapling, had completed in their order the bodies of the marvelously 
various kinds of animals, they began to wander over the face of the 
earth here present. 

Then, as Sapling was traveling about over the face of the 
earth, he, after a while, marveled greatly that he could not in any 



Ne' ka'tf 

The so then 



ne 

the 



Tawi'skaro 11 ' e" temakan'ere' ne' dji' ni'ha- 



tieV'ha' 

is doing 



ne' 

the 



Flint there 
(Ice, Crystal) 

Oterontonni''a'. Nen' 

It Sapling. Now 



ke're 



a3 



neii' 

now 



wa'haia'tonnia'nio 11 ' 

he their (z.) bodies plurally 
made 

wa h hono'ro n 'se' aonta t hoieri'to n 'hake' 

he it failed to do he it should have done 

correctly 

wa'haia'ton'nf ne' dji' 

he its body made the where 



he it watched 

ta'hno nV 

and 



o'nf . 

also. 



thew here 



so he 



wa' fc hi' 

verily 



ta/hona- 

he him imi- 
tated 

ne" no'k' 

that one and 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



Na" 

The 
that 

nikoiitiia'to'te n 'se\ 



Tci'ten"a< 

Bird 



so their kinds of body 
plurally. 

roterien'tare'. Ne' ka'tf ne' 

The so then the 



dji' 

where 



nen 

now 



he it let go, 



To'ke^ske 1 

It is true. 



• v Li 

ia 

not, 



ki" 



I be- 
lieve, 



wa 4 haia'tis"a' 

he its body 
finished 

ki v on'to 11 ' wa'tka'te"'. 

I be- it was it flew, 

lieve, successful 

tci'ten"a < 

bird 



he it knows. 

wa 4 ha"tka'we' 



teioton"o ni . 

it has become. 



O'k' 

Just 

Ne' 

The 



v ~ » I 

nen 

now, 

ke 11 " 

here 
it is 



wa'tka'te 11 '. 

it flew. 



ki" 

I be- 
lieve, 

thiia'ka'tie' no'k 

just thither it and 
went flying 



nofi'wa' 

this time 



ne' nen' 

the now 



ne' tewaiente'ri 4 iakoho nt 'tariks 

the we it know it bites one's ears 

(bat) 

OterontonnP'a 4 sa fc has"a' 



ne 

the 



It Sapling 



again he it 
finished 



wa"hf wa^haia'tis"*!' 

verily he its body 

finished 

konwa'iats. Ne' ka'tf 

they it call. The so then 

akwe'ko ni wa'shakoia- 

itall he made 



kontirio'o'ko"' 

they animal (are) 

wa' 4 hi' 

verily 



tonnia'nio"' ne' 

their body the 

plurally 

niiono n 'hwendjia'ke'. Nen' 

they lands (kinds) in nurn- Now 

ber (are.) 

io nt hweiidjia'te\ 

it earth present (is). 

Ne' ka'tf ne' Oterontonnfa' 

The so then the It Sapling 



ne 

the 



ione'hra'kwa't 

it is wonderful 



wa'tk'ontawen'rie' ne' 

they traveled about the 



ne 

the 



dji' io n 'hwendjia'te 1 

where it earth present is 

21 ETH— 03 



-20 



a'kare' 

after a 
time 



nefi' 



dji' te'hotawen'rie' 

where he traveled 

wa'hori'hwane'hra'ko' 

he matter was astonished at 



e so 

many 

dji' 

where 



ne 

the 

ia" 

not 



7 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

il- 
ls 



306 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

place still see the different kinds of animals. Thereupon he traveled 
about over the face of the earth seeking for them. He also thought, 
forsooth: "This is an astonishing matter; where, perhaps, have they 
gone — they, the animals whose bodies I have made? " So then, while 
he went from place to place, and while he was looking for the animals, 
he was startled. Near him a leaf made a noise, and looking thither 
he was surprised to see a mouse peering up there among the leaves. 
The mouse that he saw is called the Deer-mouse, and, of course, he had 
intended to shoot it, but the Deer-mouse spoke to him, saying: "Do 
thou not kill me. I will tell thee then where have gone those things 
thou art seeking, the animals." So then in truth he resolved not to 
kill it, and then he spoke and said: "Whither then have the animals 
gone?" Thereupon the Deer-mouse said: "In that direction there is 

kan'eka' thaofisa'ha'ke 11 ' ne' kofitirio'o'ko 11 '. Nen' wa"hi' 

1 anywhere again he them could the they (z.) animals Now verily 

see (are). 

wa'thatawefi'rie' wa'shakoia'ti'sake'. Ne' o'nf i're're': "Ha'nio" 

^ he traveled he their bodies sought The also he "Forsooth, 

to find. , thought: 

iori'hwane'hra'kwa't, ka," o n "te' niieione'nofi ne' ktieia"tis"o n ' 

*J it it matter astonishing is, where perhaps just there they the I their (anthr.) 

it is have gone bodies have formed 

ne' kontirio'o'ko 11 '?" Ne' ka'ti' wa"hf ne' dji' te'hotawefirie- 

4 the they (z.) animals The so then verily the where he went about 

(are)?" 

ha'tie'se' ne' dji' shaia'ti'saks ne' kofiti'rio' wa'hatie're n; o'k'. 

5 traveling the where again he their the they animals he was surprised just. 

bodies seeks to find (are) 

Ke 11 " nofi'we' e" wa'onera'tak'are' e" ia'hatkat'ho' wa'ha- 

6 Here the place there it leaf made a sound there there he looked he was 

it is 



7 



tie're 11 ' o'k' tcino'we 11 ' e" tofitke'to'te 11 ' onera"toko n '. Tso- 

surprised just mouse there it peeped up it leaf among. Deer- 

(it leaves among) 



tshot'ho 11 ' konwa'iats ne' tcino'we 11 ' wa'ha'ke"'. No'k' wa'^hf 

8 mouse they it call the mouse he it saw. And verily 



9 

10 

11 
12 
13 



na" raweron'ne' e nk ha'ia'ke' no'k 4 ki" tonta'tf ne' tcino'we"' 

that he had intended he it will shoot and, I be- thence it the 'mouse 

one lieve, spoke (to 

him) 



ne' o'nf wa'ken'ro 11 ': "To 4 'sa' takeri'io ; . E n ko n 'hro'ri' ka'tf 

the also it it said: "Do not thou me kill. I thee will tell so then 

do it 

ka" non'we' niieione'non ne' tcia'ti'saks ne' kontirio'o'ko 11 '." 

where the place there they the thou their bodies the they animals (are)." 

have gone seekest to find 

To'ke n ske' ka'tf wa're're' ia" thakri'io', nen' ta'hno"" ta'hata'tf 

It is true so then he it thought not I it should kill, now and he spoke 

wa'hen'ro 11 ': " Ka" ka'ti' niieione'non ne' kofiti'rio'?" E'tho'ne' 

he it said: "Where so then just there they the they animals At that 

it is have gone "are?" time 

+ a nen' wa'ken'ro"' ne' Tsotshot'ho"' tcino'we 11 ': "E" nofi'we' 

now it it said the Deer Mouse mouse: "There place 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 307 

a range of great mountains of rock. There in the rocks they abide, 
and are indeed shut up. If, when thou arrivest there, thou lookest, 
thou wilt see a large stone placed over the cavern, which stone one 
has used for the purpose of closing it up. It is Tawi'skaro"' him- 
self and his grandmother who have together done this; it is they 
who imprisoned the animals.'' So then, therefore, he went thither. 
It was true then that a stone lay over the place where was the open- 
ing into the rock; it was closed therewith. So he then removed 
the stone from it, and he now said: "Do ye all come forth. For, 
assuredly, when I caused you to be alive, did 1 intend that ye 
should be imprisoned here? Assuredly, I intended that ye should 
continue to roam from place to place over this earth, which I have 
caused to be extant/ 1 Thereupon they did in fact come forth. 
There was a rumbling sound, as their feet gave forth sounds while 

tiionontata'tie' otsten'ra 5 e" iotstenraka'ronte'-kowa'ne" 4 , e'tho 4 

just there it moim- it rock (is) there it rock cavern great (is) there 

tain stands extended 

otsteii'rako 11 ' iekonti'tero 11 ' kotim'ho'to 11 ' se". To'ka' nen' e" 

it rock in there they abide they are shut up indeed. If now there £ 

ie^'sewe' e ni satkat'ho' ke n tstenrowa'ne n< e" ka'^here' dji' 

there thou thou wilt look it rock large there it lies on it where 3 

wilt arrive 

iotstefiraka'ronte 5 ne" ka'n"hoto ,u 'kwe n \ Rao n ' 4 ha' ne' Tawi'skaro"' 

it rock cavern (is) the one it used to close it. He himself the Flint 4 

(Ice, Crystal) 

no'k* ne' rO'Sot'ha' ne' e" iii'hotiie're"' nin'ho'to 11 ' ne' 

and the his grand- the thus so they it did they two shut the 5 

mother them up 

konti'rio'." Ta', e'thoW nen' e 4 ' wa're'te'. To'ke n ske' ka'tf 

they animals So, at that time now there thither he It is true so then 

(are)." went. 

e" ke n tstenra"here' dji' non'we' dji' iotstenraka'ronte' 

there one it rock placed on it where place where it rock cavern (is) 7 



1 



6 



kan 4 ho'to n \ Ta', e'tho'ne' nen' sa'he n tstenra'hra'ko' nen' 

one closed it. So, at that time now again he rock took off now 8 

ta'hno"" wa'hen'ro 11 ': *•Tontasewaia'ke n, ne , akwe'ko"'. la" 

and he it said: " Hence do ye come forth it all. Not & 

se" wa'-'hf tewake'ro"' ne' dji' kion'he'to"' kent'ho fc -ke n " 

in- verily I it intended the where I thee caused to here, is it 10 

deed live 

e n \senirrhoto n ' 4 hake' (e n sewan 4 hoto nk 'hake , ).« Wake'ro' 14 wa"hf 

ye will remain shut up. I it intended verily H 

te"tciatawenrie"hake' ne' dji' wako n 'hwendjia'tate n \" Ta', 

ye will continue to travel the where I it earth made to be present." So, 1^ 

about 

e'tho'ne' nen' to'ke n ske/ tontakontiia'ke n 'ne\ Teio'to^hare'nio"' 

at that time now it is true thence they came forth. It sound spread forth 13 

ne' dji' wa'tiononniakfi're're' ne' dji' nen' tcotiiake n, o n 'ha'tie\ 

the where their feet (hoofs) sounded the where now again they were coming 14 

forth. 

"This is the usual form of the next preceding term. 



308 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



the}' kept coming forth. So, at this time, the grandmother of 
Tawi'skaro"' said: "What thing, perhaps, is now happening? There 
is a rumbling sound." She thus addressed her grandson, Tawi'skaro' 1 '. 
Before Tawi'skaro 11 ' could reply, she spoke again, saying: "It is true, 
undoubtedly, that Sapling has found them there where thou and I 
have the animals imprisoned. So then, let us two go at once to 
the place wherein we two immured them." Then at once they two 
went out, and without delay ran thither. So when they two arrived 
there, it was even so; the Sapling stood there, having opened the 
cavern in the rock, and verily a line of animals ever so long was 
running. The two rushed forward and took up the stone again, and 
again shut in those that had not come out, and these are animals great 
in size and now dwelling therein. 



4 
5 

6 



Ta', 

So, 



e'tho'ne' 

at that time 



nofi'we 4 



Tawi'skaro 11 ' ro'sot'ha' 



place 



na 4 ho'te n ' 

2 kind of thing 



o n "te 4 

perhaps 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

niioteri 4 hwatie're n4 

there it matter is being 
done ' 



his grand- 
mother 

ke n 'i'ke n4 

this it is 



*»0 • / n ^ 

warro 

she it said: 



"O" 

"What 



wa'honwe"' 'ha'se' 

She it him said to 



again he 
talked 

noii'wa' 



ne' ronwatere"a' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

the her grandson Flint. 

(Ice, Crystal.) 

tethota'ti 4 ne' Tawi'skaro 11 '. Tontaioiita'tf wa'i'ro 111 : 

the Flint. Thence again she she said: 

(Ice, Crystal.) talked 

ne' Oteronton'ni"a 4 ia 4 hatsen'rf 

the It Sapling there he it found where 



teio'to n ' 4 hare'," 

it sound is present." 

la" ha're'kho' 

Not yet 

44 Ori 4 hwi'io' 

"It is certain 



dji' noil' we 4 



this time 

n 4 ho'to n ' 

up 



ne 

the 



konti'rio'. 

they (are) ani- 
mals. 



Ne' 

The 



ka'tf 

so then 



iet'ene 4 dji' non'we' niiethin'ho'to 11 '." 

7 thither let where place there we them have 

us two go shut up." 

ia 4 niiake n4 ta'tci', 

o thither they two went the very just there 

out, 

nen' ia'ha'newe' 

«/ now 



nakwa" 

the very 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



nakwa 4 ' o'k 4 e 4 ' ia' tiara "tate' 

thither they two 
went running. 



niiethi- 

place there we 

them have 
shut 

iokonta'tie' e 4 ' 

at once there 

nen' iokonta'tie' 

now at once 

Ne' ka'tf dji' 

The so then where 



there they two 
arrived 



to'ke n ske' ka'tf e" i'rate' ne' Oterontonnf'a 4 , 

it is true so then there he stood the It Sapling, 



10 



sho'n'hoton'kwe' 1 ' ne' iotstenraka'roiite', ne" nakwa 4 ' o'k 4 he 4 ' 



he had opened closed 
place 



the 



it rock cavern (is), 



that 



the very just 



tha'tekanen'res 

1 1 there its line (is) long 



kontitakhenon'tie' ne' 

they were along running the 



ci-niia'takofita'tie' 



12 



tonsa'nitsten'ra'kwe' 

again they two stone took up 



they went without 
stopping 

tha'tetiotiiake n "o ni , nakwa" i'ke 114 

13 then they had come out, the very it is 



konti'rio'. 

they animals 
(are). 

sa 4 nin 4 ho'to n ' 

again they two it 
closed 



Nakwa 4 ' 

The very 



ne 

the 



kario'towa'ne n 'se' ne' 

it animal great (are) the 



yon- 
der. 

o'k 4 

only 

ia 

not 

ka'tf 

so then 



ne 

14 the 



o'k 4 he" 

just there 



niiesakon"hese'. 

just there again they 
live. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



309 



Sapling kept saying: " Do ye two not again immure them." Never- 
theless, Tawi'skaro"' and his grandmother just placed thereon other 
stones. So then the kinds of animals that we know are only those 
that came out again. 

So then it came to pass that Sapling, as he traveled from place to 
place, went, after a while, along the shore of the lake. There, not far 
awa} T , he saw Tawi'skaro" 1 , making for himself a bridge of stone [ice] 
across the lake, which already extended far out on the water. There- 
upon Sapling went to the place where he went on working. So then, 
when he arrived there, he said: " Tawi'skaro"', what is this that thou 
art doing for thyself ? " He replied, saying: " I am making a pathway 
for myself." And then, pointing in the direction toward which he was 
building the bridge, he added: " In that direction there is a land where 
dwell great animals of fierce dispositions. As soon as I complete my 



Ne'ne' 

The that 

Se"' k ha' 

More 



Oteroiitonni"a' ra'to"': 

It Sapling he it says: 

o'k' tontanitstenra're"' 

only they two rock laid on it 



c To k 'sa' 

"Do not 
do it 



sasenin^ho'to 11 '." 

again you two it close." 



ne' Tawi'skaro"' no'k' ne' 

the Flint and the 



ro'sot'ha', 

his grand- 
mother. 

konti'rio' 

they animals 

(are) 

Ta', 

So, 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

Ne' ka'ti' ne' dji' non'wa' niiono" 4 hwendjia'ke' ne' 

The so then the where this time so they lands (kinds) in the 



ne' tewaiente'ri' 

the we them know 



e 4 ' ni'ko"' 

thus so they 
number 



so they lands (kinds) in 
number are 

ne' tciiotiiaken"o nt . 

the again they emerged. 



ne 

the 



ha'tie'se' 

about 



ka'ti' 

so then 

a'kare' 

after a 
time 



wa 4 'hi' ne' Oterontonni"a 4 

verily the It Sapling 



dji' te'hotawenrie'- 

where he traveled 



nen' 

now 



kaniatarak'ta' 

it lake beside 



niia'ha're'. E" wa'hotka"' 

thither he There he him saw 
went. 



tho' ne' Tawi'skaro"' tha'onen'a' e're"' kaniatara'ke t 'sho"' otsten'ra' 



the 



already 



far 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

wa'hotaskonnia'ta 4 kwe nt ha'tie'. a E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



it lake on along 



thither he it bridge goes on making of it 
for himself. 



ne 

the 



it rock 
(ice) 

Oterontonni"a' e 



it 



nna 



ha're' 



thither he 
went 



dji' 

where 



non'we' 

place 



wa'hoio'ta'tie'. Ne' 

he working went ahead. The 



It Sapling 

ka'ti' 

so then 



nen' 



e w 

there 



ia'ha'rawe' 

there he arrived 



wa'hen'ro"': 

he it said: 



ne 

the 
it 



there 

dji' 

where 



" Tawi'skaro"', 

now there there he arrived he it said: "Flint, 

(Ice, Crystal) 

ni'satieVha'?" Ta'hari'hwa'sera'ko' wa fc hen'ro"': "Wakatha'honni- 

thou art doing?" Thence he replied he it said: 



O 

what 
(is it) 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 



ne 
the 10 



'ha'tie'." la'ha'tca'te"' dji' 

Thither he pointed where 



nofi'ka'ti' 

side of it 



"I road am making for 
myself." 

na'hoiera'to" 4 ha'tie' 



Wa- 
ne 



'hen'ro 11 ': 

it said: 



'There 



non'we' 

the place 



thither he his way was 
making 

tiio"'hwendjia'te' kontirio'towa'ne"'se' 

there it earth (is) they animals large (are) 

present 



11 

12 

13 



aThis incident shows definitely that Flint, or rather Ice-coated or Crystal, is the Winter power. 
There is here a substitution of rock for ice, just as there has been in the name of this important 
nature force. 



310 IROQUOIAN" COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

pathway to that other land, thereon will they habitually come over. 
Along this pathway will they be in the habit of coming across the lake 
to eat habitually the flesh of human beings who are about to be [who are 
about to dwell here] on this earth. " So then Sapling said to him: 
"Thou shouldst cease the work that thou art doing. Assuredly the 
intention of thy mind is not good." He replied, saying: "I will not 
cease from what I am doing, for, of course, it is good that these great 
animals shall be in the habit of coming hither to eat the flesh of human 
beings who will dwell here." 

So, of course, he did not obey and cease from building the bridge 
for himself. Thereupon Sapling turned back and reached dry land. 
So along the shore of the sea grew shrubs. He saw a bird sitting 
on a limb of one. The bird belonged to the class of birds that we 

koiiti t sero' i he ni se' e" non'we w tkanak'ere 1 . Kawenni'm nen' 

they fierce are there place there they So soon as now 

inhabit. 

e n katha'his''a' ne' nen' e" ieii'wawe' thi'ke nw tiio ,u hwendjia'te' 

■" I shall complete the now there there it will that it is there it earth stands 

my road ' reach 

e" te n tkonne'thake' o 4 ha'hake c 'sho n, te n kontiia t iak'seke , ne'ne' 

& there thence they will con- it path on along thence they will habitually the that 

tinue to come cross the stream 

e^tkonti'wa'hrakhe'seke' ne' on'kwe' a ionnakerat'he , ne' ke n " 

thence they meat will habitually the man-being they are about to the here 

come to eat inhabit it is 

k io n mwendjia'te'." Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' Oterontonni'a* nen' 

it earth is present." So, at that time the It Sapling now 



4 



6 



wa'nawe^'ha'se' ne' Tawi'skaro 111 : "A'sa^'tkaVe 4 dji' satie're' 14 . 

he it said to him the Flint: "Thou it shouldst where thou art at 

(Ice, Crystal) cease from work. 

m Ia° Wa"hf teioian'ere' dji' ni t sa'niko n4 hro'te n ^ ,, Ta'hari'hwa'se- 

Not verily it is good where so thy mind is shaped." He replied 



8 
9 

10 



ra'ko' wa'hen'ro 11 ': u la 4 ' thaka"tka'we, dji' na'ho'te 11 ' 

he ti said: "Not I it should cease where such kind of 

from thing 

nikatie'r' c ha'. loian'ere' se" wa"hf thoi'ke 11 ' koiitirio'towa'ne n, se' 

such I am doing. It is good indeed verily this it is they animals large (are) 

e n tkonti'wa'rakhe'seke' ne' on'kwe' ne' ke nV e n ienak'ereke\" 

thence they will habitually come the man-being the here they will continue 

to eat meat (human) it is to dwell." 

O'ne 114 wa' 4 hf ia" temothonta'to 114 ne' a^ia^tkaHve 1 ne' dji' 

Now verily not he it consented to the he it would cease the where 

from 

rota'skonni'ha'tie'. E'tho'ne' ne' Oterontonni"a c neii' sa'ha"kete' 

1-^ he it bridge is making for At that the It Sapling now again he turned 

himself. time back 

ao nt hwendjiathen"ke' ionsa'rawe'. Ne' ka'tf ne' kaniatarakta'tie 1 

13 it earth is dry at there again The so then the it lake it side of along 

(to dry land) he arrived. 

iokwirarat'ie', tci'tefi"a c wa'ha'ke 11 ' e ir kentskwa"here , okwira'ke 4 . 

24; it brush grew bird he it saw there it it sat on it branch on. 

along, 

a This refers to human beings, which, it was understood, were about to inhabit the earth. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



311 



are accustomed to call the bluebirds. Sapling then said to the Blue- 
bird: "Thou shalt kill a cricket. Thou shalt remove one hind leg 
from it, and thou shalt hold it in thy mouth, and thou shalt go thither 
to the very place where Tawi'skaro"' is working. Hard by the place 
where he is working thou shalt alight, and thou shalt cry out." The 
bird replied, saying: "Yo" [very well]." 

Thereupon it verily did seek for a cricket. After a while it found 
one, and killed it, too. Then it pulled out one of its hind legs and put 
it into its mouth to hold, and then it flew, winging its way to the place 
where Tawi'skaro"' was at work making himself a bridge. There it 
alighted hard by him at his task. Of course it then shouted, saying: 
"Kwe 4 , kwe% kwe 4 , kwe 4 , kwe'." a Thereupon Tawi'skaro 11 ' upraised 



Ne' dji' 

The where 



na'ho'te 11 ' 



kofiwa'iats 

one it calls 



Neii' 

Now 

ko'wa' 

Bluebird: 



such kind of 
thing 

ne' Oterofitofini"a 4 

the It Sapling 



ne 

the 



bird 



tci'tefi"a 4 Swiwi 4 ko'wa 4 .* 

Great Bluebird. 

ne' Swiwi 4 - 

the Great 



44 Tarak'tarak 

" Cricket 



e" sen 10 

thou it wilt 
kill 



wa 4 re""ha 4 se' 

he it her said to 

ta'hno 11 " 

and 



e""ska 



one 



nofi'we 



no'k' 

and 



ne' e"'sate 4 nhofi'ta' 

the thou it shalt hoid in 

thy mouth 

ne' Tawi'skaro"' wa 4 hoio'ta'tie' 

the Flint 

(Ice, Crystal) 

e 4 ' ie"'sennitskwa're"', no'k 

there there thou shalt sit, and 



place 



he" 

there 

akta"a' 

near by 



he goes on work- 
ing 

te"sa 4 hen're 4 te'." 

thou shalt shout." 



tci'tefi"a' 

bird 



wa'ken'ro"' : 

it it said: 



nefi' 



E'tho'ne 1 

At that 
time 

A'kare' nefi' wa'oia'tatsefi'rf ta 4 hno n " 



44 Io"." 

"So be it." 

to'ke"ske' 

truly 



wa'oia'ti'sake' ne' 

it its body sought the 



e"snitshota'ko' 

thou its thigh shalt 
take off 

ie""se' dji' 

there thou where 
shalt go 

dji' roio"te' 

where he is 

working 

Tonta'tf ne' 

It spoke in the 

reply 



tarak'tarak. 

cricket. 



After a 
while 

wa'o'iio'. 

it it killed. 



e'tho'ne 1 

at that 
time 



it its body found 



and 



wa'oie'na' 

it it seized 



ne 

the 



E'tho'ne' 



At that 
time 



nefi' 



now 



waVnitshota'ko' e""ska 4 , 

it its thigh took off one, 



nefi' 

now 



e"te 4 nhofi'ta'. Nefi' 

it it put into its Now 

mouth. 



ta'hno"" 

and 



t ^i t 

oni ne 

also the 

ta'hno"" 

and 

ir 



wa'tka'te"', e 

it flew, there 



niia'ka'tie' dji' non'we" ne' Tawi'skaro 

there it went where the place the Flint 

flying (Ice, Crystal] 

E" ia ; hefinitskwa're n, ak'ta' dji' 

There there it alighted near by where 



a5 



wa'hotaskofinio"ni 4 ha'tie'. 

he it bridge kept on building 
for himself. 



nefi' 



wa'tiiomefi're'te' 

it uttered a cry 



wa'kefi'ro"': "Kwe",« 

it (z.) it said: "Kwe", 



roio"te', 

he was now 

working, 

kwe 1 "', kwe", 

kwe", kwe", 



wa' 4 hr 

verily 

kwe", 

kwe", 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 



a This is approximately the death cry or halloo of the Iroquois. 

?>The bluebird is here mentioned as it is among the first of the migratory birds to return in the 
spring, which is a token that the spring of the year has come, and that the power of the Winter 
power is broken. 



312 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

his head and looked and saw a bird sitting there. He believed from 
what he saw that it held in its mouth the thigh of a man-being, and 
also that its mouth was wholly covered with blood. It was then that 
Tawi'skaro"'' sprang up at once and fled. As fast as he ran the bridge 
which he was making was dissipated. a 

Now then, verily, the father of Sapling had given him sweet corn, and 
now he roasted this corn. A great odor, a sweet odor, was diffused. 
So when the grandmother of Tawi'skaro 11 ' smelt it, she said: "What 
other thing again is Sapling roasting for himself?" She addressed 
Tawi'skaro 11 ' sa}ang: "Well, let us two go to see it, where he has 
his fire built." Now, of course, they two had at once uprisen, and they 

kwe"." E'tho'ne' nen' wa'henno n 'kets'ko' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

1 kwe"." At that now he his head raised the Flint 

time (Ice, Crystal) 

ta'hno 11 " wa 4 hatka"tho' wa'ha'ke 11 ' tci'ten"a> e" ke n tskwa"here\ 

2 and he looked he it saw bird there it sat. 

Wa"re're' dji' ni'io't dji' wa^hatkat-'ho- on'kwe i -ke n ' k ha > 

3 He thought where so it is where he it looked at man- it had 

t being been 

io'hnitsa'nhon'te' nen' ta'hno"" ne' dji' ka'saka'ronte' 



4 it thigh in its mouth now and the where its mouth 

held. 

onekwe n 'sos'ko n \ E'tho'ne' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' tonta'hate n sta'tcf 

5 it is wholly blood. At that the Flint thence he quickly 

time (Ice, Crystal) arose 

no'k' haia'takonta'tie' shote'kwe ,u . Dji' niio'sno're' ne' dji' 

6 and his body did not again he fled. Where so it is rapid the where 

stop 

ratak'he' e" nitcio'sno're' tcioteri'sion'ha'tie' ne' hotaskoiini- 

7 he ran thus so again it is again it disappeared the he it bridge had 

rapid (came to pieces) been making 

onni'hatie'ne'. 

8 for himself. 

Ne' ka'tf wa"hi' ne' Oterontonni"a i ro'ni' c ha' tho'wi' ne' 

9 The so then verily the It Sapling his father he him the 

gave 

tekonteron'weks o'ne ni ste' ne' ka'ti' wa'hatene ni ston'te n '. 

10 white ( shriveled) corn the so then he corn roasted. 

KaAserowa'ne 11 ' ka'sera'ko n ' o n te'se'rare n '. Ne' ka'tf ne/ 

11 It odor (is) great it odor (is) pleasant it odor took on. The so then the 

Tawi'skaro"' ro'sot'ha' wa'akos'ho' t^hno 11 " wa'i'ro 11 ': U Q" ha're' 

12 Flint his grand- she it smelled and she it said: "What again 
(Ice, Crystal) mother (is it) 

na'ho'te 11 ' ne' Oteroiitonni"a' rotes'konte'?" Wa^hoiiwe'^'ha'se' 

13 such kind of the It Sapling he it roasts for She said it to him 

thing himself?" 

ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' wa'i'ro 11 ': u To', tiatke n 'se'ra' ne' dji' 

14 the Flint she it said: "Well, let us two go to the where 

see it 

thoteka'to n '." Nen' se" o'k 1 wa"hf tontatite n sta'tci' no'k' 

lo there he has Now so it is just verily they two quickly and 

fire." arose 

'tThat is, so fast as winter recedes, so rapidly the ice on rivers and lakes disappears. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



313 



two ran. They two arrived where he had kindled his fire, and they 
two saw that it was true that he was roasting" for himself an ear of sweet 
corn. Verily, the fatness was issuing from it in streams on the grains, 
along the rows of grains until only the cob was left, so fat was the corn. 
The grandmother of Tawi'skaro 11 ' said: " Whence didst thou bring 
this?" He replied: "My father gave it to me." She answered, say- 
ing: "Thou dost even intend that the kinds of men who are to dwell 
here shall live as pleasantly as this, here on this earth." And just then 
she took up a handful of ashes, and she cast them on the ear of corn 
that was roasting. At once the fat of the corn ceased from issuing 
from the roasting ear. But Sapling very severely rebuked his grand- 
mother for doing this. Whereupon he again took up the ear of corn 
and wiped off the ashes that had fallen upon it. Then he again set it to 



te 4 honnara 4 ta'to n4 . 

they two ran. 



dji' 

where 



thoteka'to 11 ' 

there he has 
fire 



to'ke n ske' 

truly 

o'ne nt ste'. 

it corn. 



ka'ti' 

so then 

Nakwa" 

The very 



Ia <, ha'newe' 

There they two 
arrived 

rote'skoiite' 

he is roasting it 
for himself 

ken'ie' io 4 hnawe n 'ton'nio n ' 

it oil it streams flows down 



ska'hra/'ta' 

one it ear (of corn) 



wa'hiatkat'ho' 

they two looked 

tekonteroii'weks 

white (, shriveled) 



tiiotiiake n "o n; ne' 

they come forth the 



one nw sta'ke ; nakwa" nen' ne' ke nV 

it grain on the very now the here 



e" niione n \stare"se n ', 

there so it corn fat (is) . 



Wa'i'ro 11 ' 

She it said 



ne 

the 



niio'nhonwa'ta' ska'hra'ta'ie 11 ' 

so (many) it rows has just it ear of corn 

lies (is left) 

roWha': "K&" ni'sa"ha?" 



his grand- 
mother: 



Where 
is it 



Ta'hen'ro 11 ': 

He replied: 

"Akwa" 

"Just 



" Rake'ni"ha 4 rakwa'wi'." Tontaionta'tf 

" He my father 

(is) 

e" ne n iakoto'nha'reke' 

thus so well they will live 



he it gave to 
me." 



i 4 'se're' 



Again thence she 
spoke 
j 



thence thou it 
didst bring?" 

wa'i'ro 11 ': 

she it said: 



thou it in- 
tendest 



ne 

the 



e n ienakerenion K hake' 

they will dwell in places 
(as tribes) 

wa'tewa/tcia'na'kwe' 

she handful took up 

ono nk kwe n "ake c ne' 

it ear (of corn) on the 



ne' dji' io n4 hwen'djiate\ 

the where it earth present (is). 



on'kwe' 

man-being(s) 
( = humans) 

Nen' 



o 4 se' ; hara' e" 

it ashes there 

e" rotes' konte'. 

there he it is roasting 
for himself. 



wa'tio'ia'ke' ne' 

she it cast the 

against 

Ia'honteri"sia'te' 

It ceased at once 



ne 

the 

so'k 

at 
once 

oWhara 

it ashes 



Now 



ne 



dji' 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



the where 10 



ne 

the 



if 



e 

there 



ken'ie' iotiiake n 'o n4 ha'tie' 

it oil they (z.) oils keep com- 

ing forth 

Oterontonnfa' akwa" ione'hra'kwa't 

It Sapling very it is remarkable 



NoV 

and 



rotes'konte'. 

he it is roasting 
for himself. 

wa'shakori'hwas'te"' 

he her ehided 



ne 

the 11 

ne' 

the 12 



ro'sot'ha* 

his grand- 
mother 

o'ne ni, ste' 

it corn 



dji' 

where 



na'e'iere'. 

so she it did. 



E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



sa'hara'kewe' 

again he it wiped 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



tonsa'ra c kwe' 

again he it took up 



ne 

the 13 



io'se'ha'rare'. 

it it had ashes on. 



E'tho'iie' 

At that time 14 



3U 



IEOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



roast: but it was just possible for it to exude only a small amount of 
fatness again, as it is now when one roasts ears for himself. It is 
barely visible, so little does the fatness exude. 

Now the grandmother of Sapling fetched ripened corn that Sap- 
ling had planted, and she shelled it. Then she poured it into a 
mortar. And now she took the pestle and with it pounded the corn, 
and she made haste in her pounding, and she said: "Verity, thou 
wouldst have mankind exceedingly well provided. Verity, they shall 
customarily be much wearied in getting bread to eat. In this manner 
then shall they customarily do with the mortar and also the pestle." 
She herself had finished them. Whereupon Sapling rebuked her for 
what she had done. He, in regard to this matter, said: "That which 
thou hast done is not good." 

Then, verity, while Sapling was traveling, he was surprised to find 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 



sa^ate'skon'te^ a're' akwa" e" ho'k' thonsakakwe'ni' osthon"ha' 

again very thus just as much as it was it is small 



again he it roasted 
for himself 

o'k 4 thonsaweiiieno'te 111 (ne' 

only again it oil put forth (the 



as much as it was 
possible 



dji' 



ni'io't ne' 



aionte'skon'te 11 ' akwa 4 ' ne' o'k k ne' wa'he'ne'ne' taweniano'te 11 '). 

very the just the it is visible, thence it oil would 

exude). 

ne' ro'sot'ha' iaVko' ne' iotene nc stis"o n4 ne' 

the his grand- thence she it the it corn has ma- the 



one would roast it 
for one's self 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



his grand- 
mother 

Oterontonni"a* roient'he n \ 

It Sapling he it has planted, 



thence she it 
got 

wa'ene n "staroii'ko'. 

she it shelled. 



it corn has ma- 
tured 

E'tho'ne' 

At that time 



ka'ni- 

it mortar 



ka"tako n " ia'on'wero 11 '. 

in thither she it poured , 

wa'tiako 4 steri"he n1 ne' 

she made haste the 



Nen' wa"hi' iaVsisa/tota'ko' wa'et'he'te' 

Now verily there she got the she it pounded 

pestle 

dji' wa'e'the'te' ti^hno 11 " 

where she it pounded and 



wa'i'ro 11 ': 

she it said: 



"Akwa" r'se're' to'-ke 114 ' 

"Very 



Akwa' 

Very 

he n 's 



. thou de- 
sirest 

xn'. 



how is it 
much 



ne n tiakokwatsto n "hake' ne' 

so they will be living at ease the 



on'kwe 4 . 



custom 
arily 

Alvao 11 "!^ 

She herself 



aier o n ' hia' ke 11 ' tcf 

one should struggle 
utterly 

ne n ieier"hake' ne' 

the 



custom- 
arily 



ne 

the 



man-beings, 
(humans) 

dji' e n iena'tarake'. E" 

where one bread will eat. Thus 



so one it will habit- 
ually do 



ka'nika"ta' no'k" ho'nf ne' a'si'sa'." 

the it pestle." 



it mortar 



and 



ne 

the 



iakos"o n \ Ta\ e'tho'ne' 



she them fin- 
ished. 

wa'shakori'hwas'te 111 



he her matter it rebuked in 



ne 

the 



So, 

dji' 

where 



at that 
time 

na'e'iere', 

so she it did 



also 

ne' 

the 



Oterontonni"a 4 

It Sapling 



wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

he it said: 



"la" 

"Not 



wa"hr teioia'nere' ne' dji' na 4 'siere'. 

verily it is good • the where so thou it didst 

do." 

Ne' ka'tf wa"hf ne' Oterontonni"a/ 

The so then verily the It Sapling 



dji' te'hotawen'rie 4 

where he travels 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



315 



that it became dark. So then he mused, saying: "Why, this seems 
to be a marvelous matter, this thing that thus takes place." There- 
upon he returned homeward. Arrived there, he found the sun in no 
place whatsoever, nor did he find Tawi'skaro 11 ' and his grandmother. It 
was then that he looked about him. So then he looked and saw a light 
which was like the dawn. Therefrom he understood that the sun was 
in that place. He therefore sought servants who would accompany 
him to fetch the sun. Spider volunteered; so also did Beaver; so also 
did Hare; so also did Otter. So at this time they made themselves a 
canoe. When they had completed the canoe, they all then placed them- 
selves in the canoe, and they then of course began to paddle, directing 
their course toward the place where the dawn shone forth, toward the 



wa'hatie're 11 " o'k' nen' taiokara"hwe'. Ta\ e'tho'ne' wa're're' 

he was surprised only now thence it became So, at that time 



thence it became 
dark. 



"A'nio" 

"Well, 



iori'hwane'hra'kwa't 

it matter is wonderful 



na a we . 



sa'ha'ten'ti'. Ia'sa'rawe' ia" 

he went back There he arrived not 

(home). 

Tawi'skaro 11 ' no'k' ho'nf ne' 

Flint and also the 

(Ice = Crystal i 

E'tho'iie' ne' 

At that time the 



dji' 

where so it happened 

ka'tf kan'eka' 

so then anywhere 



he 
thought: 

E'tho'ne' nen' 

At that time now 

ne' kara ; 'kwa\ 

the it sun. 



ro'sot'ha' ia" ho" ne" kan'ekff. 

his grand- not too the anywhere, 

mother 



nen' 



wa'thatka'ton'mo 11 '. 

he looked about in dif- 
ferent wavs. 



Wa'hatkat'ho' 

He looked, 



tetio'shwat'he' dji' ni'io't 

there it is light where so it is 



ne' tetia weil' tote'. 

the there it dav dawns. 



Neil' 

Now 



wa'ho'niko^raien'ta'ne' 

he it understood 



e" 

there 



non'we* 

the place 



ieka'ie 111 

there it lies 



ne 

the 



TV, e'tho'ne 1 

So, at that time 



nen' 

now 



ne 

the 



wa^ha'nha'tseri'sake' 

he assistants sought for 



ka'tf 

so then 

e'tho'ne' 

at that time 

kara"kwa\ 

it sun. 

a'hoii'ne' 



a"honsa , hatiko' t ha' ne' 

they should go after it the 

again 

ria'ke', no'k' ha're' 

and again 



ne 

the they him should 
accompany 

kanVkwa'. Takwa'a"sa'r wa'hathoiika'- 

it sun. Spider he volunteered, 



Tsoni'to' 

Beaver, 



1 

2 

3 

4 



no'k' ha're' Ta'ho n 'tane'ke n ', 1Q 

and again Hare, 



no'k* ha're' 

and again 

Ne' ka'tf dji' 

The so then where 



Tawi'ne'. Ta\ 

Otter. So, 



neii' 



e'tho'ne* nen' wiVhonthonion'nf . 

at that time now they themselves it boat 

made for. 

wa'honthoiiwis'Yi' e'tho'ne' nen' akwe'ko"' 

they their boat finished at that time now it all 



ka'hon'wako" 4 wa'honti'ta', nen' ta'hno"" wa"hf wa'hati'kawe' 

it boat in they embarked, now and verily they paddled 

e" na'hatiie'ra'te' dji' non'we' tiiawen'tote'. Ne' ka'tf ne' 

there thither they them- where the place there it day dawns. The so then the 

selves directed 



11 

12 
13 
14 



316 



IKOQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



place where lay the sun. The trees stood together, and on their tops 
lay the sun. So then Sapling said: "Thou, Beaver, do thou cut down 
the tree; and thou, Spider, shalt climb the tree, and at the top of the 
tree thou shalt fasten thy cord. Then thou shalt descend, hanging by 
thy cord, until thou readiest the ground.'"' And he said to Hare: "As 
soon as the tree falls, thou must seize the sun. Thou art assuredly 
an adept at skulking through the underbrush. No matter how diffi- 
cult the ground be, thou art able of course to flee b}^ stealth, if at this 
time it so be that one pursue thee from place to place." He said: " But 
thou, Otter, shalt care for the canoe. If it be so that we all get aboard 
the canoe, thou shalt turn back the canoe at once." 



nen' ciia'hati'raVho' ne' dji' tkawe'note' dji' non'we 4 ieka'ie n> 

-1 time there they arrived the where there it island where the place there it 

stands lies 

ne' kara 4 'kwa\ E n ska"ne> ne' dji' keV'hi'to 11 ' 

■^ the it sun. One (place) in the where it tree stand 

plurally 



kareii'haken'iate' 

it tree top of 



e" ieka'^here' ne' 

O there it it lies upon the 



kara k 'kwa\ P]'tho'ne' ne' Oterontonni"a t 

it sun. , At that time the It Sapling 



wa'hen'ro 11 ': ' I'se' 

he it said: 

Takwa'a"sa'r 

Spider 

e n tesne'renke' 

thou shalt it tie 

taniien'to 11 ' 

to it 



ne' Tsoni'to' e n4 seron'tia'ke', no'k 4 ni'se' 

'Thou the Beaver thou it tree shalt cut but the 

down, 

e n4 serat'he n ' ne' karonta'ke' 

thou shalt climb it the it tree on it tree top of there 



thou 

karen'haken'iate' e" 



ne 

the 



sa'se'riie'. 

thy cord. 



ne 

the 



sa'se'riie'ke' 

thy cord on 



Ktho'ne' 

At that time 

dji' 

where 



te n tesats'ne nt te' e^esatia' 



thence thou shalt 
descend 



thou thy body 
shalt fasten 



n no re 

so it is far 



e n 'se 4 sera'ta'ne\" 

8 again thou it wilt reach" 



NoV 

And 



wa % hawe n "ha'se' ne' 

he him said to the 



o^hwendjia'ke' 

it ground on 

Ta 4 ho nt tane'ke n ' 

Hare 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



wa'hen'ro"': " Kawenni'io' nen' e n karontie'no n, ne' i'se' te n 'se"kwe' 

he it said: " So soon as now it tree shall fall thou thou it shalt 

it is pick up 



ne' kara 4 'kwa'. Seweien'te't wa' c hi' 

the it sun. Thou art skillful verily 

o'skawakoiV'sho 11 '. Iawero n4 ha'tie n ' 

it bushes among. It matters not 

ki" 



ne' e n "satkwaton"hwe' ne' 

the thou shalt flee in zigzag lines the 

to' na'teiao n 'hwendjianon- 

how so it land forbidding (is) 



wa"hi' 

verily 



nia'ni't sakwe'nion 

thou art able to I be- 
do it, lieve, 

non'wa'-ke n " aiesa'sere^'so"' 

this time is it one thee would 

pursue about. 

e n 'sate'niko n 'ra'ro n '. 

thou it wilt attend to. 



to'ka' 

if 



we'ia' 



ne 

the 

No'k 4 

And 



e ,u satkwaton"hwe' ne' 

thou shalt flee in zigzag lines the 



ne' Tawi'ne 4 

the Otter 



ka'hon- 

it boat 



ni'se' 

the 
thou 



To'ka' wa' 4 hf nen' akwe'ko nt 

If verily now it all 



e n tciakwati'ta' iokonta'tie' e n4 satta'kwa 4 te' ne' ka 4 honwe'ia'." 

thou it wilt turn the it boat." 



again we shall 
embark 



at once (it 
follows) 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



317 



All this, then, came to pass. Beaver, of course, worked there, 
biting out pieces from the tree; and Spider, for his part, climbed to 
the tree top, and having reached the top, he then, verily, fastened his 
cord about it. Thereupon he let himself down, and again alighted on 
the earth. So then, when there was, of course, little to cut, and the 
prospect was encouraging that it would be possible to fell the tree, then 
Spider pulled on the cord. Then, in fact, the tree toppled over. 
Thereupon Hare rushed forward and seized the sun, for, indeed, 
Tawi'skaro"' and his grandmother both came running up. It was then that 
Hare fled, taking the sun away with him. Now, of course, they pur- 
sued him in many places; he fleetly scurried through the shrubbery. 
After a time he directed his course straight for the canoe; for then, 



E'tho' ka'tf to'ke n ske' naYi'we"'. Tsoni'to 4 wa"hf nen' e< 



Thus 



so then 



truly 



wa 4 hoio"ta' 

he worked 

Takwa'a 4 'sa 4 r 

Spider 



so it hap- 
pened. 

wa 4 hatekhwanioii'ko' 

he it bit repeatedly 



Beaver 



verily 



now there 



ia 4 harat'he n ' 

there he climbed 



na , 

that 
one 



ne 

the 

ne" 

the 
that 



karonta'ke', no'k 4 ne' 

it tree on, and the 

ne' karen 4 haken'iate' 

the it tree top of 



ia 4 ha'rawe', nen' wa' 4 hf e 4 ' ta 4 ha 4 hwan'rake' ne' 



there he arrived. Now 



verily 



there 



he it wrapped 



the 



rao'seri'ie'. 

his cord. 



E'tho'ne' nen' toiita 4 hatia'ton'te', sa 4 hara'ta'ne' o n4 hwendjia'ke 4 . 

At that time now thence he his body again he reached it earth on. 



thence he his body 
suspended, 



again he reached 
it 



Ne" ka'tf wa"hf 

That so then verily 



ne 

the 



nen' 

now 



i/ 



e 

there 



ho'k 4 

only 



na'tetcioia'sa' ne' 

so it is narrow the 



ioVha'ratste' 

it is very hopeful 

Takwa'a 4 'sa 4 r 

Spider 



nen' 

now 



nen' 



e n karontieno n "ne' 

it tree will fall 



e n wa'to n ' 

it will be 
possible 

ta 4 ha 4 seriie'tati'ronto n '. 

he it cord pulled on. 



e'tho'ne' 



at that 
time 

To'ke n ske' 

Truly 



nen' 



ne 

the 

ka'tf 

so then 



wa'karontieno n "ne'. E'tho'ne' ne' Ta 4 ho n4 tane'ke n ' ta 4 haia'takonta- 



it tree fell. 



At that time the 



Hare 



tie 4 'te' wa'tra'kwe' ne' kara 4 'kwa'. 

he it took up the it sun. 



thence his body fol- 
lowed instantly 

Nen' se" wa' 4 hf o'k 4 e 4 ' 

Now indeed verily just there 10 



te 4 hnitak'he' ne' Tawi'skaro"' no'k 4 

they two ran the Flint but 

(Ice, Crystal) 



ho'nf ne' ro'sot'ba 4 . Nen' 

also the his grand- Now 11 



mother. 



wa' 4 hf Ta 4 ho n4 tane'ke n ' wa 4 hate'ko\ ionsa 4 ha' 4 hawe' ne' kara 4 '- 



verily 

kwa'. 



Nen' 

Now 



Hare 

wa' 4 hf 

verily 



ne' o 4 skawako n4 'sho n \ 

the it bush(es) among. 

ka'ti 4 tka 4 honwa'ie n ', 

of it there it boat lies, 



he fled, 



hence he it bore 



the 



sun. 



wa 4 honwa 4 sere 4 'so n '. Rotkwaton 4 hwe'tie'se' 

they him pursued from He fled in devious courses 

place to place. 

A'kare' nen' ia 4 hakontatie 4 'te' dji' non- 

now thither he went directly where 



After a 
time 



nen' 



' 4 hf ne' ronnatia"!^^ 



se wa 

indeed verily 



ne 

the 



they others 



the 
side 

ne' 

the 



12 

13 
14 
15 



318 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. anx. 21 

indeed, the others, his friends, were aboard the canoe. He came 
thither on the bound, and got aboard the canoe. At the same time with 
this, Otter pushed off the canoe, and they again began to paddle. 

So then, as they rowed back, Otter, it is said, did verily continue to 
talk. They forbade him, but he did not obey. Then a person struck 
him a blow with a paddle on his mouth. (It is for this reason that 
now the mouth of the Otter is such that one would think that it had 
been broken off long ago. His lower jaw is shorter than the upper. 
It is plain where one struck him with a paddle.) 

So when they had arrived at home, Sapling said: "It shall not con- 
tinue to be thus, that a single person rules over the sun." Then 
it was that he cast the sun up to the center of the sky, saving: 
"There where the sky is present, thereto must thou keep thyself 

ronten'ro' ieshatiia'ti' ka'hon'wako 11 '. O'k' cihatak'he' ionsa 4 - 

they his friends there again they it boat in. Just there he ran alcng again he 

are are embarked 

hati'ta'. E'tho'ne' iokonta'tie' ne' Tawi'ne' sa 4 hata'kwa c te' ne' 

embarked. At that time at once (it the Otter he it turned back the 

follows) i again 

3 ka'honwe'ia', nen' wa"hi' sa'hati'kawe'. 

it boat, now verily again they paddled. 

i Ne' ka'tf ne' dji' nen' shoti'honwakera'ne' Tawi'ne', 

The so then the where now again their boat floats along Otter, 

ia'ke n ', to'ke n ske' dji' ro'thara'tie'. Ronwana'hris'tha', no'k' ia" 

it is said, truly where he kept on They him forbade, and not 

talking. 

te'hothonta'to n \ Nen' e'tho'ne' shaia'ta 4 a'kawe' wa^ho'ie^te' 

he obeyed. Now at that time he one it paddle he him struck 

person 

,_ dji' ra 4 saka'ronte' wa/hano^hwar'ia'ke'. (Ne' tiiori"hwa' ne' 

where his mouth (is) he him it blow struck. (The it is reason the 

non'wa' ne' Tawi'ne' e" ni'io't dji' ra'saka'ronte' aien're' 

o present the Otter thus so it is where his mouth one would 

time think 

o'k' tetkaia'ktci"ho ni . Ni'ha'qhiots'hes'a' ne' e'ta'ke 4 nonka'ti', 

just one it had broken. So his jaw (is) short the lower side of it, 



1 



2 



9 
10 



we'ne 4 dji' e" kaie n "to nt a'kawe' wats'to"'.) 

it is plain where there one it struck it paddle one used it.) 

Ta', ne' ka'tf wa"hf ne' nen' ciionsa'hofi'newe' ne' Oteronton- 

So, the so then verily the now there again thty the It Sapling 

arrived 

ni"a 4 wa fc hen'ro n ': " la" e", the n io'to n "hake' ne' tcieia'ta' ho'k 6 

12 he it said : "Not thus, thus it will con- the one person only 

tinue to be 

aiewenniio'make' ne' kara"kwa\" Ta', E'tho'ne' nen' 



now 



13 one it should control the it sun." it so, at that 

time 

s&'tewa's$n'no n; ne' dji' karon'miate' e" ia'ho'tf ne' 

14 just its middle the where it sky is pres- there he it threw the 

ent 

kara"kwa' ta'hno n " wa'hen'ron': " E'tho 4 dji' karon"hiate' e" 

15 it sun and lie it said: "There where it sky is pres- there 

ent 



hewitt] MOHAWK VERSION 319 

attached, and, besides this, thou shalt continuously journey onward.'' 
He pointed thither, and said: " 'The place where it plunges itself into 
the deep [that is, the west]' people will habitually call the place 
whither thou shalt habituall}^ descend, the place wherein thou shalt 
habitually be immersed. At these times, verily, darkness will come 
upon the earth present here; and 'The place where the sun rises [that 
is, the east]' people will habitually call the place whence thou wilt 
habitually peer out, and people will say, 'Now the Sun has come out.' 
Then shalt thou raise thyself upward therefrom. Thus thou shalt 
continue to have this function to perform. Thou shalt continue to 
give light to this earth." Besides this he said: ''Whensoever man- 
kind mention thee, they will ever say customarily: 'He is the Great 
Warrior who supplies us with light.'' So then, in its turn, now 
came of course the luminary, the Moon, which was his mother's head, 



rfio""ha' ro'nisten''ha'-ke n 'ha' akonon'dji' ne' ro'sot'ha' dji' 

he himself his mother it was her head the his grand- where 

mother 



e n 'satia"tanen'takto n "hake' nen' ta'hno n " o'k e n tiotkonta"kwe n ' 

wilt thou thy body attach now and just it shall be contin- 

(as a fixture) uous 

e n 'sa'tentionha'tie'." la' ha' tea' te 11 ' wa'hen'ro 11 ': " Dji' ia'tewat- 

thou shalt move along." Thither he he it said: "Where there it 

pointed sets 

tchot'ho's e n konwaiats'heke' dji' e n 's non'we' ie n 'sats'no n 'te' 

(immerses will they call it where cus- the place there thou shalt 

itself) habitually tomarily go down 

ie n 'sanonwi're'te'. E'tho'ne' wa"hi' nen' e n tioka'ra'hwe' ne' dji' 

there thou shalt be At that verily now it shall become the where 

immersed. time dark 

io n 'hwendjia'te'. Dji' tkara'kwi'neke n 's e n konwaia'tsheke'," 

it earth is present. Where there it sun comes shall it they call 5 

out habitually," 

(ia'ha"tcate n ' dji' nonka'ti') " e" he n 's nonka'ti' te n sake'to'te' ne' 

(thither he where the side of "there cus- side of it there thou shalt the 6 

pointed it) tomarily peer over 

e n iai'ro n ' ne' on'kwe' nen' takara'kwi'neke n 'ne'. Ta', e'tho'ne' 

one it will the man-being now it sun has come up. So, at that ' 

say (human) time 

tontesathara'tate'. E" ni'se' ni'io't dji' e n 'sateri'hon'take\ te n ssh- 

thence thou shalt raise There the so it is where thou duty wilt have it, thou 8 

thyself. thou 

wathe"take' ne' dji' io n 'hwendjia'te'." Nen' ta'hno 11 " wa'hen'ro" 1 : 

it wilt make the where it earth is present." Now and he it said: 9 

light 

" Kat'ke' ne' on'kwe' i'se' e n iesana'to n ' e n ionto n "heke' e n 's: 

"Whenever the man-being thou one thee shall one shall continue custom- K) 

(human) designate to say arih : 

' Ro'ske n 'rake'te"kowa" ne' teshonkwa\shwathe"tenni's. " 

' He Great Warrior (is) the he us causes it to be light lor.'" 



11 



IV, e'tho'ne' nen' non'wa' ne'ne' < v '*hni'ta' ne' wa"hf ne' 

So, at that now the present the it moon the verily the 1^ 

time time that 



13 



320 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

and which his grandmother had also placed on the top of a standing 
tree. This, too, he threw up to the sky, saying: "The power of thy 
light at night shall be less." He added: " At times they will see thee 
in full. Every night thy size shall diminish until it is gone. Then 
again, thou shalt every night increase in size from a small beginning. 
Every night, then, thou shalt grow until the time comes when thou 
hast completed ttry growth. So now, thus it shall be as to thy mode 
of existence. 1 ' Moreover he said: "Whenever mankind who shall 
dwell here on earth mention thee, they will keep saying customarily: 
'Our Grandmother, the luminary pertaining to the night." 

Then Sapling now formed the body of a man a and also that of a 
woman [of the race of mankind]. His younger brother, Tawi'skaro 11 ', 

ke'rhi'te' o'nf na" ne" e" iako'ha're', e'tho 4 ho'nf na" 

1 it tree also the that there there she it fas- there also the 

stands that one tened at the top, that 

ne" ia'ho'ti' ne' dji' karon"hiate', wa'hen'ro n ': u E n tiioto'ktake' 

2i that there he it the where it sky is pres- he it said: "It will be lacking 

one threw ent, 

ne' ni'se 1 ne' dji' te n 'se'shwathe'te n ' ne' a 4 soiithen'ne'." 

3 the the the where thou shalt cause it to be the it night (time) in.' 

thou ■ light 

Wa'hen'ro"': " Sewatie're ni e n kana ; no n "hake' ne' dji' te n iesa- 

He it said: "Sometimes it shall be full the where one 

kan'ereke'. Niia'tewa'sonta'ke' e n tiiostho'o nc ha'tie' ne' dji' ni^'sa' 

thee look at shall. Every night (every night it shall continue to grow the where thou art 

in number) smaller large 

dji' niio're' ie^wa'ts'a'te'. E'tho'ne' nen' a're' niwa"a c dji' 

a wheve so it is it shall all dis- At that now again so it is where 

far appear. time small 

in size 

te n tesate c hia'ro n ' sewa'sontats'ho 11 ' o'nf na" ne" ne' dji' 

thence thou shalt one it night apiece also the that the where 

grow larger that one 

te n tesate'hia'ro n, dji' niio're' te n tkaie'ri'ne' e n sesate'hia'ro n \ Ta', 

thence thou shalt where so it is dis- it shall be cor- again thou shalt grow So, 

grow larger taut rect to maturity. 

e" ni'se' ne n io'to n "hake' ne' dji' e n sia'ta'tekeV Nen' ta 4 hno n " 

thus the so it shall continue the where thou shalt exist." Now and 

thou to be 

wa'hen'ro 11 ': " Ne' ka'tke' i'se' e n iesana'to n ' ne' onkwe- 

10 he it said: "The whenever thou one thee shall the man- 

designate (human) 

'ho'ko 11 ' ne' e n ienak'ereke' ne' dji' io ni hwendjia'te' e n iofito n "- 

11 being the they will be the where it earth is pres- one shall ha- 
plurally dwelling ent bitually 

heke' e n 's Iethi'sot'ha' ne' a'sonthe nw 'kha' kara"kwa'." 

say custom- she our grand- the nocturnal (it it luminary." 

arily mother night middle of the) 

Ne' ka'ti' ne' Oterontonni"a 4 nen' wa'hoia'ton'nia' ne' 

The so then the It Sapling now he his body made the 



12 
13 



ron'kwe- no'k 4 ho'nf ne' ion'kwe'. E" te'hakan'ere' ne' 

14 he man-being but also the sheman-being. There he it looked at the 

(a man) (a woman) 

a This incident is evidently taken from Genesis in the Christian Bible. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VEKSION" 



321 



watched him there. So then, when he had, of course, caused them to 
live, he placed them together. 

Then it was that Sapling started upon a journey to inspect the con- 
dition of the things he had finished on the earth then standing forth. 
Then, at that time, he came again to review those things and to see 
what things man [of the human race] was doing. 

Then he returned to the place in which he had given them liberty. 
So then he found the two doing nothing except sleeping habitually. 
He merely looked at them, and went away. But when he came 
again their condition was unchanged; they slept habitually. Thus 
then, in this manner matters stood the very few times he visited them; 
the condition was unchanged; they slept customarily. Thereupon he 
took a rib from each, and substituted the one for the other, and 
replaced each one in the other body Then, of course, he watched them, 



iatate'keif'a 

his younger 
brother 

wa ; shakao'n <, hete' 

he them caused to live 



Tawi'skaro n \ Ne' ka'tf 

Flint. The so then 



wa"hf 

verily 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



ska"ne' wa'shako"tero n '. 



in one 
(place) 



he them placed. 



Nen' 

Now 



nio 



n'. 



ha' 



to view 
them 



wa/'hi' 

verily 

dji' 

where 



ejia'te\ 

present. 

'othe'no n '-ke ni 

something is it 



Ne' 

The 



ne 

the 

ni'io't 

so it is 

ka'ti' 

so then 



Oterontonni"a i 

It Sapling 



wa'ha'ten'tf 



he started 
away 

ne' dji' ros'a"ho n ' ne' dji' 

the where he things has the where 



sa'hatke n 'se- 

again he went 

wato ni hweii- 

it earth is 



finished 



ne' 

the 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



tonta'shakontke^se'ro 11 ' 

again he them viewed in order 



ni'hatie^r'ma' 

so he is doing 



ne' 

the 



on'kwe c 

man-being, 
(human) 



Ne' ka'tf dji' 

The so then where 



nen' 

now 



sa rawe 

again he 
arrived 



dji' 

where 



noii'we' 



ia ' 

not 



o'k- 

only 

Ne' 

The 

E" 

Thus 



ka'tf othe'no 11 ' teiatie'r'ma' 

so then anything 



ne 

the 

ka'tf 

so then 

ka'tf 

so then 



they two were 
doing 

wa'shakotkat'ho' ak'te' 



ne 

the 



place 

O'k 4 

only 



ni'shakotka'we 11 ' 

just he them left 



ne 

the 



roti'ta's. 

they slept. 



Ne' 

The 



he them looked at 



else- 
where 



non we 

the place 



noiika'ti* 

side of it 



nuonsa re . 

just again he 
went. 



ne' nen' a're 1 



now 



ko'k'ta'se' 

them visited, 



the 

ni'io't 

so it is 

kato'ke n( 

unchanged 



again 

akwa" 

very 



sa rawe 

again he 
arrived 

to'ka"a' 

few 



kato'ke lU ni'io't roti'ta's. 

unchanged so it is they slept 

habituallv. 



nonterats'te' ne' 

it is repeated the 



waAsha- 

he 



ni'io't 
so it la 



roti'ta's. Ta\ e'tho'ne' 



they slept 
habituallv. 



So, 



at that 
time 



skat'sho n? wfrshakote'karota'ko', nen' tii'hno"" 

one each he them rib took out of, now and 



wa'thate'nf 



nen' 



where 



he them ex- 
changed 

sa*shakote c karo'te n, . Nen' wa"hf wa'shakote'niko ni ra're n ' wa're're': 

Now verily he them watched he it thought: 



again he it rib fixed 
into them. 

21 ETH — 



-21 



8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

13 

14 



322 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. axn. 21 

thinking' of what perhaps might now happen. It was therefore not 
long before the woman awoke. Then she sat up. At once she touched 
the breast of the man lying at her side, just where he had placed her 
rib, and, of course, that tickled him. Thereupon he awoke. Then, 
of course, that matter was started — that matter which concerns man- 
kind in their living; and they also started that matter for which in 
their kind their bodies are provided — that matter for which reason 
he is a male human being and she a female human being. 

Then Tawi'skaro 11 ' also formed a human being, but he was not able to 
imitate Sapling, as the form of the human being he poorly made showed. 
Tawi'skaro 11 ' addressed Sapling, saying: u Do thou look, I also am able, 
myself, to form a human being. " So when Sapling looked at that which 

•'O" ci' ke nc ' ne' ne n ia'we n 'P la" ka'tf tekari'mwes ne' 

1 "What this is it the so it will Not so then it is a long the 

is it happen?" matter 

iakon'kwe' nen' wa'e'ie'. E'tho'ne' wa'oiitkets'ko'. Nakwa" o'k' 

2 she man-being now she At that she sat up. The very just 

(woman) awoke. time 

ciieia'takonta'tie' ne' raia'tion'nf ne' ron'kwe' e" ke nV 

3 her body followed the his body lay the he man-being there where 

along extended (man) 

niia"eiere' dji' non'we' ni'hote'karota'kwe 11 ' rana'a'ta'ke 4 

4: just she it where place there he rib has removed his flank on 

touched 

wa'thonwanis'teka'te' wa'mf. E'tho'ne 1 nen' wa/ha'ie'. Nen' 



5 



she him tickled verily. At that now he awoke. Now 

time 



wa"hf e n teri'hwa'ten'tf dji' niiakoteri' c hwate , ne' on'kwe' 

D verily it matter started where just one it duty has the man- 

beings 

ne' iako'n'he' no'k' ho'nf nen' wa'hiaterimwa'ten'tia'te' dji' 

i the they live and also now they matter started where 

na^no'te^ niia'taieiita 4 'kwe ni dji' na'ho'te 11 ' kari'hon'nf ne' 

8 such kind of just their bodies it are Avhere such kind of it it causes the 

thing designed for thing 

ron'kwe' i'ke 114 no'k' ho'nf ne' dji' ion'kwe' i'ke n4 . 

<7 he man-being , it is and also the where she man-being it is. 

(man) (woman) 

Tawi'skaro" 1 ka'tf o'nf wa'ron'nf ne' onkwe*; no'k' ia" 

Flint so then also he it made the man-being; but " not 

(Ice, Crystal) 



10 



xir 



11 

12 



te'hokwe'nio 11 ' ne' a'hona'ke'ranf ne' Oterontonnf'a' dji' na 

he is able to do it the he him should the It Sapling where the 

imitate that 

ne" niionkweto'te 11 ' ne' wa'ha's'a', a'se'ke"" ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

that just kind of man- the he it finished, because the Flint 

one being (Ice, Crystal) 

wa 4 hawe n "ha 4 se' ne' Oterontonnf'a': "Satkat'ho 4 wakkwe'nio 114 

lo he him spoke to the It Sapling : "Do thou look I it am able to do 

at it 

se" o'nf ni" ne' on'kwe' e n kon'nf." Ne' ka'tf ne' 



14 



indeed also the the man-being I it will The so then the 

I (human) make." 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VEESION 



323 



made him say "I am able to form a human being," he saw that what 
he had formed were not human beings at all. The things he formed 
were possessed of human faces and the bodies of otkon [monsters], 
subtly made otkon. Sapling spoke to him, saying: "That assuredly is 
the reason that I forbade thee, for of course thou art not able to do as 
I myself am doing continually." Tawi'skaro"' answered, saying: "Thou 
wilt nevertheless see that I can after all do as thyself art doing con- 
tinually, because, indeed, I possess as much power as thou hast." 
Now, verily, at this time they two separated. And now, Sapling 
again traveled from place to place on the surface of the earth. He 
went to view things that he had completed. After a while, then, 
Sapling promenaded along the shore of the sea. There he saw Tawi's- 



Oterontonnr'a' 

It Sapling 



dji' 

where 



nen' 



wa'hatkat'ho' ne' ra'to"' ne' 

he it looked at the he it says the 



wakkwe'nio 11 ' 

I it am able to do 

ro'sa v o nt . 

he them has 
finished. 



ne 

the 



on'kwe 4 e n koii'nf ia" hon'kwe' te'ke" 4 ne' 



Ne'ne' 

The 
that 



man-being 
(human) 

o'k< 

just 



ne' 

the 



I it will 

make 

on'kwe c 

man-being 



not he man-being it is 

(man) 

kako n 'sonta"ko ni 

he is faced therewith 



the 



nen' 

now 



ta w hno nV ot'ko"' kaia'tonta''ko n , ka'rio\ 

and 



oni'tat'ko"' 

subtly otkon 



otkon it is bodied animal, 

(malefic) therewith, (it is) 

wa'*hf wa'haia'ti's'a'. Ta'hata'tf ne' Oterontonni"a' 



verily 

"Ne' 

"The 



he its body 
finished. 



He spoke 



the 



"hi' 



wa 

verilv 



kari'hon'nf ko n n'he'se' 

it it causes 



I thee 
caution 



It Sapling 



ne' dji' ia" 

the where not 



ka'rio', ne' 

animal, the 

(it is) 

wa c hefi'ro n ': 

he it said : 

wa' 4 hf 

verily 



se 

indeed 



tesakwe'nio 11 * ne'ne 4 nae"siere' 



thou art able to 
do it 



the 
that 



so thou it 
shouldst do 



ne 

the 



i" 



dji' niwakiere n4 ha'tie\" 

where so I it keep on doing." 



Nen' wa"hi' tont&'hata'tf ne' Tawi'skaro"' wamen'ro"': u E n; sa- 

Now verily thence he the Flint he it said: "Thou 

answered (Ice, Crystal ) 

tkat'ho' ki v dji' e n kkwe'ni' se" e" ne n kie're' 

it wilt see, I where I it shall be indeed thus so it I shall 

think, able to do do 

ni'saiere^ha'tie' ne' i'se', a'se'ke"" e" se" niwake'shatste n "sera' 

the thou, because thus indeed so my power is large 



dji' 

where 



so thou art carrying 
on work 



dji' ni'io't 

where so it is 



ne 

the 



i'se\" 



Nen' 

Now 

dji' 

where 



a re 

again 



thou 

wa' 4 hf ne' 

verily the 



Nen' wa"hf e'tho'ne' tonsamiatekha"sf. 

Now verily 



at that 
time 



OterontonnP'a/ 

It Sapling 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 



they two again 
separated. 

tonsa 4 hatawenrie''sa' ne' 

he went traveling about the 12 



io nfc hwendjia'te'. Sa 4 hatke n, senio n "ha 



it earth is present. 



a'n'ho n \ A'kar 



made 
severally. 

i're'. 

he is 
walking. 



ka'tf 

so then 



\gain he went to see the 
things plurally 

ne' Oterontonni"a' 

the It Sapling 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



ni'ho'sa'- 

he things 
has 



*e 

After a 
time 

E'tho' kii'ti 1 wa'ho'k^' ne 

There so then he him saw the 



kaniatarakta'tie' e* 



it lake along 



there 



13 



14 



Tawi'skaro"' e" rata'tie'se'. 

Flint there he stood about 15 

(Ice, Crystal) here and there. 



324 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [kth. ann. 21 

karo n ' standing about in different places. At the water's edge lay 
the body of a man-being who was as white as foam". When Sapling 
arrived there, he said: "What is this that thou art doing?" Tawi's- 
karo 11 ' replied, saying: u Assuredly, I have made the body of a male 
man -being. This person whose body lies here is better-looking than is 
the one whom thou hast made." Assuredly, I have told thee that I have 
as much power as thou hast; yea, that my power is greater than is th}^ 
power. Look thou, assuredly his body is as white as is the body of 
the one whom thou hast formed." Sapling answered, saying: " What 
thou say est is assuredly true. So then, if it be so, let me be looking 
while he makes movements of his body and arises. Well, let him stand, 
and also let him walk." Whereupon Flint said: "Come! Do thou 

Ne' dji' teio'hnekak'te' rofi'kwe' e" raia'tion'nf, e" ni'hara'ke 11 ' 

1 The where it water's edge at he man- there his body lay there so he is white 

being extended, 

dji' ni'io't ne' o'hwats'ta'. Wa'hen'ro 11 ' ne' OterontonnF'a' 

2 where so it is the it foam. He it said the It Sapling 

ne' dji' neii' e" ia'rawe': "O" ne' ni'satieV'ha'?" Ta'hata'tf 

3 the where now there there he "What the so thou art doing?" He answered 

arrived : is it 

ne' Tawi'skaro n ' wa'hen'ro"': " Wa'hiia'toii'nf wa"hi' ne' 

4: the Flint he it said : " I his body made verily the 

(Ice, Crystal) 

ron'kwe'. Ke n 'i'ke nk raia'tion'nf se n "ha 5 niiora'se' dji' ni'ha- 

5 he man-being. This it is he an extended more so it is fine- where so he his 

body lies, looking 

ia'to'te 11 ' dji' ni'se' ni'io't ne' sheia'tis'V 1 '. Ko n 'hro'ri' wa"hf 

6 kind of where the so it is the thou his body I thee told verily 

bod j thou hast made. 

dji' e" niwake'shatste n "sera' dji' ni'se' ni'io't. Nen' ta'hno 11 " 

7 where thus so my power is large where the so it is. Now and 

thou 

se n "ha' o'ni' i'sf non'we' niwake'shatste n "sera' dji' ni'se' 

8 more also beyond place so my power is large where the 

thou 

ni'io't. Satkat'ho' wa"hi' kara'ke 11 ' ne' ni'haia'to'te 11 ' dji' 

9 so it is. Do thou look verily it (is) white the such his body kind where 

of (is) 

ni'se' ni'io't sheia'tis'V." Ta'hata'tf ne' Oterontonni v a' 

1^ the so it is thou his body. He replied the It Sapling 

thou hast finished." 

wa'hen'ro 11 ': "To'ke n ske', wa"hi' ne' dji' na'ho'te 11 ' sa'to n '. 

11 he it said: "Truly, verily the where such kind of thou it 

thing sayest. 

To', ka'ti' tekkan'erak ratoria'neron'ko' neii' ta'hno 11 " a'hat- 

12 Well, so then let me look on let him make move- now and let 

ments 

kets'ko'. To', a^ha'ta'ne no'k' ho'ni' a'ha'ten'tf." Ta', 

13 him arise. Well, let him and also let him walk." So, 

stand up 

e'tho'ne' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' wa'hen'ro 11 ': "Hau", satkets'ko'." 

14 at that the Flint he it said': "Come, do thou arise." 

time (Ice, Crystal) 



a This man-being was Snow, Winter's handiwork. The life with which this man-being was endowed 
by Sapling is that which enables the snow to return every winter. Otherwise it could never have 
returned. 



HEWITTl 



MOHAWK VERSION 



325 



arise.'' But he that lay there did not make a single movement. 
Then, of course, Tawi'skaro 11 ' put forth all his skill to cause this being 
to live and then to arise. He did everything possible to do it but he 
could not effect his purpose and failed to cause him to come to life, for 
he did not come to life. Then Sapling said: "Is this not what I have 
been saying, that thou art not able to do as I can do?" He added: 
44 What purpose, in its turn, will be served by having his body lying 
here, having no life? Is it only this, that he shall always lie here? 
That is the reason that I habitually forbid thee to make also the 
things that thou seest me making; for, assuredly, thou art not able to 
do the things that I am doing." So then, of course, Tawi'skaro 11 ' said: 
"Well, then, do thou cause that one there to live." So, in truth, 
Sapling consented to this. He drew near to the place where the man 



la" othe'no 11 ' 

Not anything 



te 4 hotoria 4 'nero n ' ne' 

he himself moved the 



raia'tion'ni'. Nen' 

his body lies Now 

extended. 



wa' 4 hf 

verily 



ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' dji' 

the Flint where 

(Ice, Crystal) 

e'tho'ne' a 4 hatkets'ko'. Nakwa 4 ' 

he should arise. The very 



at that 
time 

no'k 4 wa 4 hono'ro n 'se' 



o'k 4 na'tethoie're 114 

just so he did everything 

dji' 

where 



ne' a'hato'n'hete', 

the he should come to 

life, 

o'k 4 na'tethori 4 hwaiera'to 114 

just he did all manner of things 



M' 



and 



he it failed to do, 



I 
think, 

Oterontonni"a' wa 4 heii'ro n ': 



ne 

the 



It Sapling 



wa hi 

verily 



e" 

thus 



he it said 



tesakwe'nio n> 



thou art able 
to do it 



"Na'ho'te"' 

"What kind of 
thing 

tero'n'he'. 

he lives. 

Ne' wa"hi' 

The verily 

wa'satkat'ho' 

thou didst see 



non'wa' 

this time 



e n wate s'te 



"Ne" 

"That 
one 

dji' 

as 



a 4 hoton 4 he'to n '. E'tho'ne' 

to 1 

cika'to 11 '. 



it would come to 
life for him. 

wa"hi' 



At that 
time 



verily 

v 



la" 

Not, 



ne 

the 

se" 



in- 
deed, 



Ne' 

The 



o'k 4 -ke n4 

only is it 



it will be of 
use 
t 



ni 

the 
I 

ne' 

the 



where I keep 
saying. 

ni'io't." Wa'hen'ro 11 ': 

so it is." He it said: 



ke 



nV 



ne 

the 



tiiot'ko 114 

always 



here 
it is 

e" 

there 



raia'tion'ni' 

he his body 
lies extended 



if 



ia 

not 



kari'hon'nf 

it it causes 

wa'kon'nf 

I it made 



konia'ris'tha' 

I thee chide 



w nf 



no'k 4 

and 



e~ r s 

custom 
arily 

ha' re' 

again thou 



e n4 haia'tioil'nike' ? 

his body will lie 
extended ever? 

ne' dji' na 4 ho'te n ' 

the where what kind 
of thing 

i'se' wa'son'ni'. la 4 ', 



thouitmadest. 



Not 



v 



se 



indeed, verily 



wa' w hi' tesakwe'nio" 4 



thou art able to 
do it 



ne 

the 



,U 4 's 



Ta', 

So, 



i'se' 

thou 



e'tho'ne' 



at that 
time 
it 



wa' 4 hf 

verily 



ne 

the 



naa'siere' dji' 

so thou it where 

shouldst do 

Tawi'skaro 11 ' wa'hen'ro 11 ' 

he it said : 



nikatieVha'." 

so I do things." 



e 

there 



tcoVhet." 

do thou eause 
it to live." 

E 4 ' 



Flint 

I Ice, Crystal) 

To'ke n ske' ka'ti' 

Tnilv so then 



44 To', 

"Well, 



ka'ti' 

so then 



ne' Oterontonni v :V 

the It Sapling 



wa'hathon'tate'. 

he it consented to. There 



ka'tf 

80 then 



niui 



ha'ro' 



so thither 
he went 



dji' 

where 



raia'tion'ni 1 

his body lay 
extended 



ta 4 hno nV 

and 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



326 IR0QU01AN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

lay, and bent over and breathed into his nostrils, and he at once 
began to breathe, and lived. He said to him: " Do thou arise and also 
do thou stand, also do thou keep traveling about on this earth/' The 
body of a woman had he also formed at that place. Sapling caused 
both of them to live. 

Tawi'skaro 11 ' spoiled and undid some of the things that Sapling had pre- 
pared. The rivers to-day in their different courses have been changed, 
for, in forming the rivers, Sapling provided them with two currents, 
each running in a contrary course, currents made for floating objects 
in opposite directions; or it may be that it is a better explanation to 
say that in the middle of the river there was a division, each side going 
in a direction contrary to that of the opposite side, because Sapling- 
had intended that mankind should not have, as a usual thing, any 
difficult labor while they should be traveling. If, for any reason, a 

ia'thatsa'kete' ra'nio Iu sa'ko n4 e" ia'haton'ri' ne' o'nf ne' 

1 there he bent his nose in there thither he the also the 

forward. breathed 

iokonta'tie' ta'haton'rf wa'hato'n^hete'. Wa'hen'ro*': "Satkets'- 

2 at once (it thence he he came to life. He it said : "Do thou 

follows) breathed 

ko', ne' o'nf tes'ta'ne' ne' o'nf ne' tesatawenrie' t hake' 

3 arise, the also do thou the also the do thou keep traveling 

stand a bout 

dji' io^hwendjia'te'.' 1 Ion'kwe 4 o'nf o'k 4 ska"ne' dji' shako- 

4 where it earth is present." She man- also just in one where he made 

being. place 

ia'toii'ni'. Ne' Oterontonnf'a 4 tetcia'ro lU shakaon 4 he'to n \ 

5 her body. the It Sapling both he them caused to 

live. 

Ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' o'tia'ke' shohetke n "to ,u , shori"sio n4 ne' dji' 

(3 The . Flint some he spoiled them he dis- the where 

(Ice, Crystal) (things) again, arranged 

na'ho'te 11 ' rokwata'kwe 11 ' ne' Oterontonnr'a*. Ne' non'wa'-ke"' 

7 such kind he has put in the It Sapling. The this time is it 

of things order 

ne' dji' kaqhio nC hate'nio n \ a'se'ke 11 " ne' Oterontonnr'a" dji' 

8 the where it river present in because the It Sapling where 

several places, 

roqhio n 'honnia'nio n ' teio c hneke n, to n4 'kwe ni , ne' te n "s ne' aete- 

9 he rivers made several it has two currents either flow- the or the we 

ing in an opposite direction 

wen'ro 11 ' teio 6 hneke n 'hawi"to n ', no'k ke 11 " ki v ka'ie n1 se n ' w ha' 

10 should either it has two currents bear- and here I be- it lies more 

say ing in an opposite direction, it is, lieve, 

io , niko n4 hraien'ta't ne' aetewen'ro 11 ' sa'tekaqhio ni hi t 'he Ii; tekia- 

1 1 it is comprehensible the we should say it river middle of it they 

tek'he 11 ', tetcia'ro 11 ' e're nt teio t hneke ni hawi"to lU , a'se'ke 11 " ne' 

12 two join, they two else- two it current flow, either because the 

both where in an opposite course, 

Oterontonni"a' rawe'ro 11 ' ia" the n iakoro nk hiaken"hake' ne' 

13 It Sapling he it intended not they will be greatly distressed the 

on'kwe' dji' te n iakotawenrie' t hake'. To'ka' othe'no 111 e n kari'- 

14 man-beings where they will keep on traveling If anything it it will 

(human) about. 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



327 



person would wish to descend the current, it would indeed not be 
a difficult matter simply to place himself in a canoe, and then, of 
course, to descend the current of the river; and then, if it should be 
necessary for him to return, he would, of course, paddle his canoe 
over to the other side of the river, and just as soon as he passed the 
division of the stream then, of course, his canoe would turn back, and 
he would then again be descending the current. So that is what Sap- 
ling had intended; that mankind should be thus fortunate while they 
were traveling about on rivers, but Tawi'skaro"' undid this. 

Now, moreover, Tawi'skaro 11 ' himself formed these uplifted moun- 
tains; these mountains that are great, and also these divers rocky 
cliffs — he himself made them, so that mankind who would dwell here 
would have cause to fear in their continual travelings. 



hofi'nf 

cause 



e n ie n 'hnawe n "te' 



othe' 



it anything 



no 



one stream will 
descend 

tewen'to'Te' 

it is difficult 



ka'hoiiweia'ke' 

it boat on 



wa"hi' 

verily 



ne 

the 



o'k' 

only 



aionti'ta' 

one himself 
should embark 



ia c ' ki" 

not, I be- 

lieve, 

ne' ka'hon'wako ' 

the it boat in 



neii' wa/'hf e n io n4 hnawe n(, 'te'. No'k 4 to'ka' te n iakoto nC hwen'djio 4 'se' 

now verily one it current And if it one will be necessary for 



one it current 
will descend. 



ne' aonsaio n "kete' ne' ki" o'k' wa"hf ne' e'r6 nC na'kaqhio nt ha'ti 

the one should return the I only verily the other such it river side of 

again think (side) 

niie n ie t hon'iontie , dji' o'k 4 niio'sno're' ne' nen' taionto'^hetste' 

thither one his boat where only so it is rapid the now one it will pass 
will steer 

dji' tekia'hnekak'he 11 ' nen', ki", o'k' wa"hi' e n sewa"kete' ne' 

they two waters join now, I only verily it will go back 



where 

ako'konwe'ia, 

one's boat, 



the 



believe, 

io 4 hnawe n4 to ni ha'tie , 

it is going down stream 



again 



a' re'. 



ne' Oterontonni"a' e" 

the It Sapling thus 



again. 

ne 11 ' watiese n ' 4 hake' 

some one will be con- 
tented 



Ta', ne' rawe'ro 114 

So, the he it in- 

tended 

ne' on'kwe' ne' 

the man-being (s) the 
(= humans) 



kaqhio n "hako nC dji' te n iakotawenrie"hake\ No'k c ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

it river in where one will be habitually And the Flint 

traveling. (Ice, Crystal) 

sho 4 hetke n "to n \ shori"sio n \ 

again he it spoiled, again he it dis- 

arranged. 

Nen' ta'hno 11 " ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' ke n 'i'ke nt iononte'nio" 1 iononto 

Now and the Flint this it is it mountain stands it moun- 

(Ice, Crystal) plurally tain 

teiotste nt 're'nio n ' 



wa'ne n 'se' 

large (are) 



o ni . 

also, 



it rock stands high 
plurally 

Ne' on'kwe 4 e n ienakerenion"hake' 

The man-being(s) they will be dwelling in 

(human ) d i verse places 

te n iakotawenrie"hake\ 

they will be traveling 
about. 



rao n "ha' 

he him- 
self 



it 



e 

thus 



ni'hoie're ni . 

so he has done 
it. 



e n iakots watani' meke' 

it them will keep 
troubling 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



dji' 

where 13 



14 



328 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

Now, moreover, Sapling and also Tawi'skaro 11 ' dwelt together in one 
lodge, each occupying one side of the fire opposite to that of the other. 
It was then, verily, usual when they two had returned to abide in the lodge, 
that Tawi'skaro 11 ' kept questioning Sapling, asking him what object he 
feared, and what would most quickly kill him. Sapling replied: "A 
weed that grows in the swampy places, a sedge called 4 it-cuts-a-person,' 
is one thing. I think, when I do think of it, that that weed struck 
against my body by someone would cut it. I do believe that it would 
cut through my body." Then Tawi'skaro 11 ' replied, saying: "Is there 
no other object which gives thee fear ? " Sapling, answering, said: "I 
usually think that the spike of a cattail flag would kill me if one should 
strike me on the body with it. " (These two things that Sapling spoke of, 
his father had told him to say, when he had been at his fathers lodge.) 



Nen' tahno 11 " ne' Oterontonni"a 4 no'k ho'ni' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

*- Now and the It Sapling and also the Flint 

(Ice, Crystal) 

skano n4 sa"ne 4 nl'tero"', te 4 hotitcie n ' 4 honte' (te 4 hotitcie n4 harets'to n4 ). 

■^ one it house in there they they are on opposite (they fire have between them.) 

two abide, sides of the fire 

Ne' ka'ti' wa' 4 hi' e n 's ne' nen' ieshoti'ie 114 kano ni 'sako n4 

o The so then verily custom- the now there again they it house in 

arily have entered 

sni'tero 11 ' . nen' e n 's wa"hf ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' rori'hwanontoii'ni' 

*r again they now custom- verily the Flint he him questions asks 

two abide arily (Ice, Crystal) 

ne' Oterontonni"a 4 , ra'to 11 ': 44 4 ' he n 's na'ho'te 11 ' ne' rao n "ha' 

O the It Sapling, he it says: "What custom- kind of the he him- 

(is it) arily thing self 

ratsa'ni'se' ne'ne 4 io'sno're' amo'rioV Wameii'ro 11 ' ne' 



6 



he it fears the that it is quick it him would He it said the 

kill." 



^ Oterontonni"a c : " O'sa'kenta'ke 4 ioton'ni' o"honte' iako'hre'na's 



8 



It Sapling: " It marsh land on it grows it weed it one cuts, 

(a sedge) 

i'ke're' konwa'iats e n 's. Thoi'ke nC o"hoiite' kia , ta'ke i aie'ie n4 te' 

I believe, they it call custom- That it is it weed my body on one it should 

usually arily. strike 

aoiik"hrene', ta'hno 11 " i'ke're' ia'taontiak'te' ne' kia'ta'ke 4 ." 

y it me would and I think it would break the my body on." 

cut, in two 

Tonta'hen'ro 11 ' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ': "Ia"-ke n4 othe'no 11 ' ne' o'ia' 



10 

11 
12 

18 

14 



He spoke in reply the Flint: "Not is it anything the other 

(Ice, Crystal) it is 

te'shetsha'ni'se'? " Tonta^hata'tF ne' OterontonnP'a 4 wamen'ro 11 ': 

thou it dost fear?" He spoke in the It Sapling heitsaid: 

reply 

44 0no'ta' otcawe n4 'sa' ne' e n 's i'ke 4 re' aoiikeri'io' ne'ne 4 

"It flag its spike the custom- I think it me would the 

(cattail) arily kill that 

aionkie n4 'te' kia'ta'ke 4 ." (Ke n 'i'ke nc teiori 4 'hwake' ne' dji' 

one me would my body on." (This it is two matter(s) in the where 
strike number 

na'ho'te 11 ' wa 4 hen'ro n ' ne' Oterontonni v a' ro'ni' 4 ha 4 ro"hro'ri 4 

such kind of he it said the It Sapling his father he it him 

thing has told 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



329 



At that time Sapling- said: " What thing then dost thou fear 1 " Tawi- 
skaro 11 ' said: ''Yellow flint, and also the horns of a deer. I suppose, 
when I do think of it, that I should perhaps die at once should one 
strike me with either." 

So after that when Sapling traveled, if he saw a stone of the yellow 
chert kind, he would customarily pick it up and place it high on some 
object, and also, if he saw a deer's horn, he would pick it up and 
would place it high on some object. 

Then, verily, it came to pass that they two had again returned home. 
The height of one side of their lodge was not great, but the height of 
the other side was greater. Sapling occupied the side which had the 
greater and Tawi'skaro 11 ' the side which had the lesser height. Then it 



ne'ne' 



the 
that 



ciia'hakwat'ho' 

he visited there 



dji' 

where 



a'heii'ro 11 ' e" ciia'hakwat'ho' dii thono n "sote' 

he should there 

say 

ro'ni"ha'.) E'tho'ne' ne' Oterontofini"a' wa'hen'ro 11 ': 



ne 

there his house the 

stands 

"O" ka'ti' 



his father. ) 



ni'se 



At that 
time 

na'ho'te 11 ' 

the kind of 

thou thing 

" Okarakeii'ra' 



the 



It Sapling 



he it said: 



setsha'ni'se'?" 

thou it fearest?" 



' ' It white-grained 
(yellow chert) 

i'ke're' 



onen'ia' 

it rock 



no'k' 

and 



Wa'hen'ro 11 ' 

He it said 

ha' re' 

again 



"What so then 
is it 

Tawi'skaro 11 ': 

Flint: 
(Ice, Crystal) 

o'ksennonto 11 " ona'kara' 

it deer 



ne 

the 



its horn 



I think 



ne 

the 



e*"s 

custom 
arily 

Ta', e'tho'ne' ne' dji' 

So, at that the where 



aion'kie n 'te' iaki'he'ia'te' o n "te'. 



one me 
would strike 



at that 
time 

wa'hatkat'ho' 



I would die at 
once 

te'hotawen'rie' 

he traveled 



perhaps." 



ne 

the 



Otero nni"a' to'ka' 

It Sapling if 



he it saw 

e'neke 11 ' 

up high 



kanen'iaie 11 ' 

it stone lies 



wa'ha're 11 ' 



he it placed 
up 

ne' wa'hatkat'ho' 

the he it saw 



no'k' 

and 



ne' okaraken'ra' 

the it white-grained 

(flint) 

ho'nf ne' 

also the 



e n 's 



wa"tra'kwe' 

he it picked 
up 

o'skennoiito 11 " ona'kara' 

it deer its horn 



cus- 
tomarily 



wa"tra'kwe' e'neke 11 ' 

he it picked up high 

up 



ia'ha're 11 '. 

he it placed 
up. 



Ta', 



So. 



ne 
the 



ka'ti' 

so then 



dji' rotino n "sote' 

where their lodge 
stands 

ho n "tes na" ne" 



is tall that 

(high) one 

e" nofika'tr 



the 
that. 



there 



the side 
of it 



ne 
the 



Tawi'skaro^ dji' 

Flint where 

(ice. Crystal) 



wa"hi' 

verily 



ne ne 

the 
that 



are 

again 



iesho'ti'. Ska'tf 



na'teio'nho n 'tes'a" 

its side is low 



Dji' 

Where 



ka'ti 5 

so then 



ne 

the 



Oterontonni"a' 

It Sapling 



ne 

the 



nonka'ti' 

the side 
of it 



there again 
they are together 

no'k' ne' 

and the one side 
of it 



One side 
of it 

ska'ti' 



ne 

the 



teio'n- 

its side 



nonka'ti' ne' teio'nho n "tcs 

the its side is tall 



the side 
of it 

w n / 

e s 



ren'tero"' 

he abides 



custom- 
arily 

na'teio'nho n 'tes'a" 

its side is low 



no'k' 

and 

na 

that 



ne 

the 

ne". 

the 
that. 



10 



11 



12 



13 



U 



330 IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY [eth. ann. 21 

w as that Sapling increased the intensity of the fire by putting hickory 
bark on it. Then, assuredly, it became a hot fire, and then, assuredly, 
the legs of Tawi'skaro 11 ' began to chip and ilake off from the intense heat 
of the fire. Then, of course, Tawi'skaro 11 '' said: c; Thou hast made too 
great a fire. Do thou not put another piece of bark on the fire.' 1 But 
Sapling nevertheless put on the fire another piece of bark, and then, of 
course, the fire became greater. Now the fire was indeed hot, and now, 
too, Tawi'skaro n \s whole body was now flaking off in chert chips. Now, 
too, he was angry, because Sapling kept putting more bark on the fire, 
and, besides that, his side of the lodge having only a slight height, he 
had only very little space in which to abide. Now he writhed in the 
heat; indeed, Tawi'skaro 11 ' became so angry that he ran out at once, and 

Neii' wa' 4 hf ne' Oterontonnr'a 4 wa'hatcie^howa'na'te'. Oneiino 4 '- 

1 Now verily the It Sapling he caused the fire to It hickory 

be great. 

kara' o'hwa'tciste' ne' wa'hrent'ho'. Neii' wa"hi' to'ke n ske' 

2 it bark the he put it on the Now verily truly 

fire. 

wa'otcie nc hatari'''he n, , neii' ta ; hno nv wa'mf tonta"sawe n ' ne' 

O it hot fire became it, now and verily there it began the 

Tawi'skaro 11 ' ranienta'ke 4 wa'taton'kwa's ne' dji' so'tcf 

*r Flint his leg on it flakes off iteratively the where too 

(Ice, Crystal) much 

wa'otcie n<, hatari"he n '. Neii' wa"hi' ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' ra'to 11 ': 

it hot fire it became. Now verily the Flint he it says: 

(Ice, Crystal) 

"So'tcf na'satcie nt howa'na'to n \ To"sa' o'ia' sase'hwatcistont'ho'. 

"Too thou it fire hast caused Do not other again thou bark put on 

much to be great. do it it is fire. 

^ No'k' ne' OterontonnP'a 4 se n "ha' o'k c e n 's sa'hahwa'tciston'tho'. 

* And the It Sapling more only cus- again he bark put on 

, tomarily fire. 

Neii' e n 's wa' c hf se n "ha' wa'katcie Iu howa t 'nha'. Nen' wa"hf 

8 Now cus- verily more it fire became great. Now verily 

tomarily 

to'ke n ske' iotcie n4 hata'ri 4 he n ' neii' ta'hno nV ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' nen' 

" truly it hot fire is it now and the Flint now 

(Ice, Crystal) 

o'k' dji' ni'haia'ta' wa'tatoii'kwa's ne' tawi'skara'. Neii' o'nf 

10 only where just his body itfiakesoffin the chert (crystal). Now also 

large (is) chips 

rona'khweii"o nt . Ne' ka'tf ne' Oterontoiini'Ti 4 ne' dii' o'ia' 

he has become The so then the It Sapling the where other 

angry. it is 

o'k' e n 's sa'hate'ka'te' neii' ta'hno n ' ne' dji' na'teio < nho Ilt tes'a" 

J--^ just cus- again he it now and the where its side is low 

tomarily kindled 

ne' kari'hon'nf niionakta"^ 4 na" ne" ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' dji' 

lo the it it causes it room is small that the the Flint where 

one that (Ice, Crystal) 

nonka'ti 4 reii'tero 11 '. Nen' ki" te'hot'he n 'taken'rie'. Neii', ki", 

14 side of it he abides. Now, I he is rolling about in Now, I 

believe, the heat. think, 

wa' ; hi' e" na'hona'khwe n 'ne' ne' Tawi'skaro"' ne' ia'haiak^'ta'tci' 

1^ verily there so he became angry the Flint the he went out of doors 

(Ice, Crystal) at once 



HEWITT] 



MOHAWK VERSION 



331 



running into the marsh, he there broke stalks of the sedge called u *it- 
cuts-a-person.* , Then he came thence on a run to the lodge, and then 
said: "Sapling, I now kill thee," and then struck him blows with the 
stalks he had brought back. So then they two now began to fight, the 
one using the stalk striking the other blows. But after a while Tawis- 
karo 11 ' became aware that his blows against Sapling did not cut him. 
Whereupon he then darted out again, and then went to get this time the 
spike of the cattail flag. So then, as soon as he returned, he rushed 
at Sapling and struck him blows. Again his blows failed to cut him. 
Then it was that Tawiskaro"' fled, and then Sapling pursued him. Now, 
of course, they two ran. In ever}^ direction over the entire earth the} r 
two ran. So whenever Sapling saw a yellow flint stone or a deer horn 
on a high place he would customarily seize it suddenly, and would hit 



o'sa'kenta'ke' niia^hatak'he', e" ia'ha'ia'ke' ne' iakomre'na's 



it marsh on 



it here 



At that 
time 



it 
so there he ran, there 

ir 
there 



there he it 
cut off 



the 



it one cuts 



o'monte'. E'tho'ne' neii' e" tonta'hatak'he' dji' rotino ni 'sote'. 



now 



again hither 
he ran 



where 



their lodge 
stands. 



Kawenni'io' e'tho* sa'rawe' e'tho'ne' wa'hen'ro 11 ': * c Oterontonni"a' 



So soon as 



there 



again he 
arrived 



at that 
time 



he it said: 



neii' wa'kon'rio'. ,, 

now I thee kill." 



sha'ha'wf. 



Ta', 

So, 



again he it 
brought. 

ne' sha'ha'wf 

the again he it 

brought 

Tawi'skaro 11 ' 



Ne' 

The 



now 

ne' 

the 



ka'tf wamoie n< ta'nio n ' 

so then he him struck 

repeatedly 

wa"hi' wa'hiateri'io', 

verily they two fought 



"It Sapling 

ne o'monte' ne' 

the it herb the 



ne'ne' 

the 
that 



o"honte' 

it herb 



wa 4 hoie n 'ta'nio n '. 



he, him struck re- 
peatedly. 



No'k' 

And 



wa'hat'toke' 

he noticed it 



ia' 

not 



■ke ni 



nen' 



ne 

the 



again he went 
after it. 



Flint 
(Ice, Crystal) 

roie n "tha'. E'tho'ne' 

he strikes him At that 

repeatedly. time 

ono'ta' otcawe nt 'sa' 

it flag its spike 

(reed), 

sa'rawe' o'k' cimaia'takonta'tie' ne' 

just there his body did not the 

stop 

ne' a 4 ho k hrena'nio n 'ke\ 

the he him could cut re- 

peatedly. 

Nen' ne' 

Now the 



ne 

the is it 
that 



a'kare' 

after a 
time 

teka'hre'na's 

it it cuts 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



again he went out 
suddenly 



sa <, haiake I1 'ta'tcf 

again hew 
sudder 

sa/hako'ma'. 

wa < hoie nt ta'nio 11 '. 



Ne' 

The 



ne 

the 

ka'tf 

so then 



noii'wa' 

this time 



nen 

now 



ne 

the 



dji' 

where 



again he 
returned 

teiotori"o nt 

it succeeded 

wa 4 hate'ko\ 

he fled. 



he him struck re- 
peatedly. 



la" ha' re' 

Not again 



E'tho'ne' 

At that 

time 



Oterontonni"a' 

It Sapling 



wa 

verily 



"hi' wa'tiara 4 'tate'. 



thev two ran. 



O n "hwendjiakwe'ko n< 

It earth (is) whole 



ne' Tawi'skaro 11 ' 

the Flint 

(Ice, Crystal) 

wfi'my'sere'. Nen' 

he him pursued. Now 



na'tonta w hnitakhe"te'. 

again thence they two it 
overran. 



Ne' ka'tf ne' kat'ke w 

The so then the when- 

ever 



ne' Oterofitonni"a i 

the It Sapling 



wtVhatkat'ho' ne' 

he it saw the 



9 
10 
11 
12 

13 

14 



332 



IROQUOIAN COSMOLOGY 



[ETH. ANN. 21 



Tawi'skaro 11 ' therew